Treaty of Nanking

The Treaty of Nanking was a peace treaty which ended the First Opium War (1839–1842) between the United Kingdom and Qing Dynasty in China on 29 August 1842.

Treaty of Nanking
Treaty of Peace, Friendship, and Commerce Between Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain and Ireland and the Emperor of China[1]
Signing of the treaty on board HMS Cornwallis
Signed29 August 1842 (1842-08-29)
LocationNanking(a.k.a. Nanjing), Qing China
(treaty now located in Taipei, Taiwan Province, Republic of China)
Effective26 June 1843 (1843-06-26)
ConditionExchange of ratifications
LanguagesEnglish and Chinese
Treaty of Nanking at Wikisource
Treaty of Nanking
Traditional Chinese南京條約
Simplified Chinese南京条约

In the wake of China's military defeat, with British warships poised to attack Nanking, British and Chinese officials negotiated on board HMS Cornwallis anchored at the city. On 29 August, British representative Sir Henry Pottinger and Qing representatives Qiying, Yilibu, and Niu Jian signed the treaty, which consisted of thirteen articles. The treaty was ratified by the Daoguang Emperor on 27 October and Queen Victoria on 28 December. Ratification was exchanged in Hong Kong on 26 June 1843. A copy of the treaty is kept by the British government while another copy is kept by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Republic of China at the National Palace Museum in Taipei, Taiwan.