Treaty of Waitangi
The Treaty of Waitangi (Māori: Te Tiriti o Waitangi) is a treaty first signed on 6 February 1840 by representatives of the British Crown and Māori chiefs (rangatira) from the North Island of New Zealand. It has become a document of central importance to the history, to the political constitution of the state, and to the national mythos of New Zealand, and has played a major role in framing the political relations between New Zealand's government and the Māori population, especially from the late-20th century.
|Context||Treaty to establish a British Governor of New Zealand, consider Māori ownership of their lands and other properties, and give Māori the rights of British subjects.|
|Drafted||4–5 February 1840 by William Hobson with the help of his secretary, James Freeman, and British Resident James Busby|
|Signed||6 February 1840|
|Location||Waitangi in the Bay of Islands, and various other locations in New Zealand. Currently held at National Library of New Zealand, Wellington.|
|Signatories||Representatives of the British Crown, various Māori chiefs from the northern North Island, and later a further 500 signatories|
|Treaty of Waitangi at Wikisource|
The treaty was written at a time when the New Zealand Company, acting on behalf of large numbers of settlers and would-be settlers, were establishing a colony in New Zealand, and when some Māori leaders had petitioned the British for protection against French incursions. It was drafted with the intention of establishing a British Governor of New Zealand, recognising Māori ownership of their lands, forests and other possessions, and giving Māori the rights of British subjects. It was intended by the British Crown to ensure that when Lieutenant Governor William Hobson subsequently made the declaration of British sovereignty over New Zealand in May 1840, the Māori people would not feel that their rights had been ignored. Once it had been written and translated, it was first signed by Northern Māori leaders at Waitangi. Copies were subsequently taken around New Zealand and over the following months many other chiefs signed. Around 530 to 540 Māori, at least 13 of them women, signed the Māori language version of the Treaty of Waitangi, despite some Māori leaders cautioning against it. Only 39 signed the English version. An immediate result of the treaty was that Queen Victoria's government gained the sole right to purchase land. In total there are nine signed copies of the Treaty of Waitangi, including the sheet signed on 6 February 1840 at Waitangi.
The text of the treaty includes a preamble and three articles. It is bilingual, with the Māori text translated in the context of the time from the English.
- Article one of the Māori text grants governance rights to the Crown while the English text cedes "all rights and powers of sovereignty" to the Crown.
- Article two of the Māori text establishes that Māori will retain full chieftainship over their lands, villages and all their treasures while the English text establishes the continued ownership of the Māori over their lands and establishes the exclusive right of pre-emption of the Crown.
- Article three gives Māori people full rights and protections as British subjects.
As some words in the English treaty did not translate directly into the written Te Reo Māori of the time, the Māori text is not a literal translation of the English text, particularly in relation to the meaning of having and ceding sovereignty. These differences created disagreements in the decades following the signing, eventually contributing to the New Zealand Wars of 1845 to 1872.
During the second half of the 19th century Māori generally lost control of much of the land they had owned, sometimes through legitimate sale, but often due to unfair land-deals, settlers occupying land that had not been sold, or through outright confiscations in the aftermath of the New Zealand Wars. In the period following the New Zealand Wars, the New Zealand government mostly ignored the treaty, and a court-case judgement in 1877 declared it to be "a simple nullity". Beginning in the 1950s, Māori increasingly sought to use the treaty as a platform for claiming additional rights to sovereignty and to reclaim lost land, and governments in the 1960s and 1970s responded to these arguments, giving the treaty an increasingly central role in the interpretation of land rights and relations between Māori people and the state. In 1975 the New Zealand Parliament passed the Treaty of Waitangi Act, establishing the Waitangi Tribunal as a permanent commission of inquiry tasked with interpreting the treaty, researching breaches of the treaty by the Crown or its agents, and suggesting means of redress. In most cases, recommendations of the Tribunal are not binding on the Crown, but settlements totalling almost $1 billion have been awarded to various Māori groups. Various legislation passed in the latter part of the 20th century has made reference to the treaty, which has led to ad hoc incorporation of the treaty in law. The treaty has become widely regarded as the founding document of New Zealand.
The first contact between the Māori and Europeans was in 1642, when Dutch explorer Abel Tasman arrived and was fought off, and again in 1769 when the English navigator Captain James Cook claimed New Zealand for Britain at the Mercury Islands. Nevertheless, the British government showed little interest in following up this claim for over half a century. The first mention of New Zealand in British statutes is in the Murders Abroad Act of 1817, which clarified that New Zealand was not a British colony (despite being claimed by Captain Cook) and "not within His Majesty's dominions". Between 1795 and 1830 a steady flow of sealing and then whaling ships visited New Zealand, mainly stopping at the Bay of Islands for food supplies and recreation. Many of the ships came from Sydney. Trade between Sydney and New Zealand increased as traders sought kauri timber and flax and missionaries purchased large areas of land in the Bay of Islands. This trade was seen as mutually advantageous, and Māori tribes competed for access to the services of Europeans that had chosen to live on the islands because they brought goods and knowledge that were essential to the local iwi (the Māori word for the social unit often called "tribe" or "people"). At the same time, Europeans living in New Zealand needed the protection that Māori chiefs could provide. As a result of trade, Māori society changed drastically up to the 1840s. They changed their society from one of subsistence farming and gathering to cultivating useful trade crops.
While heading the parliamentary campaign against the British slave trade for twenty years until the passage of the Slave Trade Act of 1807, William Wilberforce championed the foundation of the Church Missionary Society (CMS) in 1799, with other members of the Clapham Sect including John Venn, determined to improve the treatment of indigenous people by the British. This led to the establishment of their Christian mission in New Zealand, which saw laymen arriving from 1814 to teach building, farming and Christianity to Māori, as well as training 'native' ministers. The Māori language (Te Reo Māori) did not then have an indigenous writing system. Missionaries learned to speak Māori, and introduced the Latin alphabet. The CMS, including Thomas Kendall; Māori, including Tītore and Hongi Hika; and Cambridge University's Samuel Lee, developed the written language between 1817 and 1830. In 1833, while living in the Paihia mission house of Anglican priest and the now head of the New Zealand CMS mission (later to become the New Zealand Church Missionary Society) Rev Henry Williams, missioner William Colenso published the Te Reo translations of books of the Bible, the first books printed in New Zealand. His 1837 Māori New Testament was the first indigenous language translation of the Bible published in the southern hemisphere. Demand for the Te Reo New Testament, and the Prayer Book that followed, grew exponentially, as did Christian Māori leadership and public Christian services, with 33,000 Māori soon attending regularly. Literacy and understanding the Bible increased mana and social and economic benefits, decreased slavery and intertribal violence, and increased peace and respect for all people in Māori society, including women.
Māori generally respected the British, partially due to their relationships with missionaries and also due to British status as a major maritime power, which had been made apparent to Māori travelling outside New Zealand. The other major powers in the area around the 1830s included American whalers, whom the Māori accepted as cousins of the British, and French Catholics who came for trade and as missionaries. The Māori were still deeply distrustful of the French, due to a massacre of 250 people that had occurred in 1772, when they retaliated for the killing of Marion du Fresne and some of his crew. While the threat of the French never materialised, in 1831 it prompted thirteen rangatira (major chiefs) from the far north of the country to meet at Kerikeri to compose a letter to King William IV asking for Britain to be a "friend and guardian" of New Zealand. It is the first known plea for British intervention written by Māori. In response, the British government sent James Busby in 1832 to be the British Resident in New Zealand. In 1834 Busby drafted a document known as the Declaration of the Independence of New Zealand, He Whakaputanga which he and 35 northern Māori chiefs signed at Waitangi on 28 October 1835, establishing those chiefs as representatives of a proto-state under the title of the "United Tribes of New Zealand". This document was not well received by the Colonial Office in Britain, and it was decided that a new policy for New Zealand was needed. From a Māori perspective, The Declaration of Independence, was twofold, one for the British to establish control of its lawless subjects in New Zealand, and two, to establish internationally the mana and sovereignty of Māori leaders, rangatira.
From May to July 1836, Royal Navy officer Captain William Hobson, under instruction from Governor of New South Wales Sir Richard Bourke, visited New Zealand to investigate claims of lawlessness in its settlements. Hobson recommended in his report that British sovereignty be established over New Zealand, in small pockets similar to the Hudson's Bay Company in Canada. Hobson's report was forwarded to the Colonial Office. From April to May 1838, the House of Lords held a select committee into the "State of the Islands of New Zealand". The New Zealand Association (later the New Zealand Company), missionaries, Joel Samuel Polack, and the Royal Navy made submissions to the committee.
On 15 June 1839 new Letters Patent were issued to expand the territory of New South Wales to include the entire territory of New Zealand, from latitude 34° South to 47° 10' South, and from longitude 166° 5' East to 179° East. Governor of New South Wales George Gipps was appointed Governor over New Zealand. This was the first clear expression of British intent to annex New Zealand.
Hobson was called to the Colonial Office on the evening of 14 August 1839 and given instructions to take the constitutional steps needed to establish a British colony. He was appointed Consul to New Zealand and was instructed to negotiate a voluntary transfer of sovereignty from the Māori to the British Crown as the House of Lords select committee had recommended in 1837. Normanby gave Hobson three instructions – to seek a cession of sovereignty, to assume complete control over land matters, and to establish a form of civil government, but he did not provide a draft of the treaty. Normanby wrote at length about the need for British intervention as essential to protect Māori interests, but this was somewhat deceptive. Hobson's instructions gave no provision for Māori government of any kind nor any Māori involvement in the administrative structure of the new colony. His instructions required him to:
treat with the Aborigines of New Zealand for the recognition of Her Majesty's Sovereign authority over the whole or any part of those islands which they may be willing to place under Her Majesty's dominion.
Historian Claudia Orange argues that prior to 1839 the Colonial Office had initially planned a "Māori New Zealand" in which European settlers would be accommodated without a full colony where Māori might retain ownership and authority over much of the land and cede some land to settlers as part of a colony governed by the Crown. Normanby's instructions in 1839 show that the Colonial Office had shifted their stance toward colonisation and "a settler New Zealand in which a place had to be kept for Māori", primarily due to pressure from increasing numbers of British colonists, and the prospect of a private enterprise in the form of the New Zealand Company colonising New Zealand outside of the British Crown's jurisdiction. The Colonial Office was forced to accelerate its plans because of both the New Zealand Company's hurried dispatch of the Tory to New Zealand on 12 May 1839 to purchase land, and plans by French Captain Jean François L'Anglois to establish a French colony in Akaroa. After examining Colonial office documents and correspondence (both private and public) of those who developed the policies that led to the development of the treaty, historian Paul Moon similarly argues that Treaty was not envisioned with deliberate intent to assert sovereignty over Māori, but that the Crown originally only intended to apply rule over British subjects living in the fledgling colony, and these rights were later expanded by subsequent governors through perceived necessity.
Hobson left London on 15 August 1839 and was sworn in as Lieutenant-Governor in Sydney on 14 January, finally arriving in the Bay of Islands on 29 January 1840. Meanwhile, a second New Zealand Company ship, the Cuba, had arrived in Port Nicholson on 3 January 1840 with a survey party to prepare for settlement. The Aurora, the first ship carrying immigrants, arrived on 22 January.
On 30 January 1840 Hobson attended the Christ Church at Kororareka (Russell) where he publicly read a number of proclamations. The first was the Letters Patent 1839, in relation to the extension of the boundaries of New South Wales to include the islands of New Zealand. The second was in relation to Hobson's own appointment as Lieutenant-Governor of New Zealand. The third was in relation to land transactions (notably on the issue of pre-emption).
Drafting and translating the treaty
Without a draft document prepared by lawyers or Colonial Office officials, Hobson was forced to write his own treaty with the help of his secretary, James Freeman, and British Resident James Busby, neither of whom was a lawyer. Historian Paul Moon believes certain articles of the treaty resemble the Treaty of Utrecht (1713), the British Sherbro Agreement (1825) and the treaty between Britain and Soombia Soosoos (1826).
The entire Treaty was prepared in three days, in which it underwent many revisions. There were doubts even during the drafting process that the Māori chiefs would be able to understand the concept of relinquishing "sovereignty".
Assuming that a treaty in English could not be understood, debated or agreed to by Māori, Hobson asked CMS head missioner Henry Williams, and his son Edward Marsh Williams, who was a scholar in Māori language and custom, to translate the document overnight on 4 February. Henry Williams was concerned with the actions of the New Zealand Company in Wellington and felt he had to agree with Hobson's request to ensure the treaty would be as favourable as possible to Māori. Williams avoided using any English words that had no expression in Māori "thereby preserving entire the spirit and tenor" of the treaty. He added a note to the copy Hobson sent to Gibbs stating, "I certify that the above is as literal a translation of the Treaty of Waitangi as the idiom of the language will allow." The gospel-based literacy of Māori meant some of the concepts communicated in the translation were from the Te Reo Bible, including kawanatanga (governorship) and rangatiratanga (chiefly rule), and the idea of the treaty as a "covenant" was biblical.
The translation of the treaty was reviewed by James Busby, and he proposed the substitution of the word whakaminenga for huihuinga, to describe the "Confederation" or gathering of the chiefs. This no doubt was a reference to the northern confederation of chiefs with whom Hobson preferred to negotiate, who eventually made up the vast majority of signatories to the treaty. Hobson believed that elsewhere in the country the Crown could exercise greater freedom over the rights of "first discoverers", which proved unwise as it led to future difficulties with other tribes in the South Island.
Debate and signing
Overnight on the 4–5 February the original English version of the treaty was translated into Māori. On the morning of 5 February the Māori and English versions of the treaty were put before a gathering (hui) of northern chiefs inside a large marquee on the lawn in front of Busby's house at Waitangi. Hobson read the treaty aloud in English and Williams read the Te Reo translation and explained each section and warned the chiefs not to rush to decide whether to sign. Building on Biblical understanding, he said:
This is Queen Victoria's act of love to you. She wants to ensure you that you keep what is yours – your property, your rights and privileges, and those things you value. Who knows when a foreign power, perhaps the French, might try to take this country? The treaty is really like a fortress to you.
Māori chiefs (rangatira) then debated the treaty for five hours, much of which was recorded and translated by the Paihia missionary station printer, William Colenso. Rewa, a Catholic chief, who had been influenced by the French Catholic Bishop Pompallier, said "The Māori people don't want a governor! We aren't European. It's true that we've sold some of our lands. But this country is still ours! We chiefs govern this land of our ancestors". Moka 'Kainga-mataa' argued that all land unjustly purchased by Europeans should be returned. Whai asked: "Yesterday I was cursed by a white man. Is that the way things are going to be?". Protestant Chiefs such as Hōne Heke, Pumuka, Te Wharerahi, Tāmati Wāka Nene and his brother Eruera Maihi Patuone were accepting of the Governor. Hōne Heke said:
Governor, you should stay with us and be like a father. If you go away then the French or the rum sellers will take us Maori over. How can we know what the future will bring? If you stay, we can be 'all as one' with you and the missionaries.
Tamaki Waka Nene said to the chiefs:
Some of you tell Hobson to go. But that's not going to solve our difficulties. We have already sold so much land here in the north. We have no way of controlling the Europeans who have settled on it. I'm amazed to hear you telling him to go! Why didn't you tell the traders and grog-sellers to go years ago? There are too many Europeans here now and there are children that unite our races.
For Māori chiefs, the signing at Waitangi would have needed a great deal of trust. Nonetheless, the expected benefits of British protection must have outweighed their fears. In particular, the French were also interested in New Zealand, and there were fears that if they did not side with the British that the French would put pressure on them in a similar manner to that of other Pacific Islanders farther north in what would become French Polynesia. Most importantly, Māori leaders trusted CMS missionary advice and their explanation of the treaty. The missionaries had explained the treaty as a covenant between Māori and Queen Victoria, the head of state and Church of England. With nearly half the Māori population following Christianity many looked at the treaty as a Biblical covenant – a sacred bond.
Afterwards, the chiefs then moved to a river flat below Busby's house and lawn and continued deliberations late into the night. Busby's house would later become known as the Treaty House and is today New Zealand's most visited historic building.
Hobson had planned for the signing to occur on 7 February however on the morning of 6 February 45 chiefs were waiting ready to sign. Around noon a ship carrying two officers from HMS Herald arrived and were surprised to hear they were waiting for the Governor so a boat was quickly despatched back to let him know. Although the official painting of the signing shows Hobson wearing full naval regalia, he was in fact not expecting the chiefs that day and was wearing his dressing gown or "in plain clothes, except his hat". Several hundred Māori were waiting and only Busby, Williams, Colenso and a few other Europeans.
French Catholic Bishop Jean-Baptiste Pompallier soon joined the gathering and after Anglican English priest and CMS mission head Rev Henry Williams read the Te Reo translation aloud from a final parchment version. Pompallier spoke to Hobson who then addressed Williams:
The bishop wishes it to be publicly stated to the Natives that his religion will not be interfered with, and that free toleration will be allowed in matters of faith. I should therefore thank you to say to them that the bishop will be protected and supported in his religion – that I shall protect all creeds alike.
Williams attempted to do so vocally, but as this was technically another clause in the treaty, Colenso asked for it to be added in writing, which Williams did, also adding Māori custom. The statement says:
E mea ana te Kawana, ko nga whakapono katoa, o Ingarani, o nga Weteriana, o Roma, me te ritenga Maori hoki, e tiakina ngatahitia e ia. (The Governor says that the several faiths [beliefs] of England, of the Wesleyans, of Rome, and also Māori custom shall alike be protected by him).
The treaty signing began in the afternoon. Hobson headed the British signatories. Hōne Heke was the first of the Māori chiefs who signed that day. As each chief signed Hobson said "He iwi tahi tātou", meaning "We are [now] one people". This was probably at the request of Williams, knowing the significance, especially to Christian chiefs, 'Māori and British would be linked, as subjects of the Queen and followers of Christ'. Two chiefs, Marupō and Ruhe, protested strongly against the treaty as the signing took place but they eventually signed and after Marupō shook the Governor's hand, seized hold of his hat which was on the table and gestured to put it on. Over 40 chiefs signed the treaty that afternoon, which concluded with a chief leading three thundering cheers, and Colenso distributing gifts of two blankets and tobacco to each signatory.
Hobson considered the signing at Waitangi to be highly significant, he noted that twenty-six of the forty-six "head chiefs" had signed. Hobson had no intention of requiring the unanimous assent of Māori to the treaty, but was willing to accept a majority, as he reported that the signings at Waitangi represented "Clear recognition of the sovereign rights of Her Majesty over the northern parts of this island". Those that signed at Waitangi did not even represent the north as a whole; an analysis of the signatures shows that most were from the Bay of Islands only and that not many of the chiefs of the highest rank had signed on that day. Hobson considered the initial signing at Waitangi to be the "de facto" treaty, while later signings merely "ratified and confirmed it".
- the Manukau-Kawhia copy (13 signatures),
- the Waikato-Manukau copy (39 signatures),
- the Tauranga copy (21 signatures),
- the Bay of Plenty copy (26 signatures),
- the Herald-Bunbury copy (27 signatures),
- the Henry Williams copy (132 signatures),
- the Tūranga (East Coast) copy (41 signatures), and
- the Printed copy (5 signatures).
About 50 meetings were held from February to September 1840 to discuss and sign the copies, and a further 500 signatures were added to the treaty. While most did eventually sign, especially in the far north where most Māori lived, a number of chiefs and some tribal groups ultimately refused, including Pōtatau Te Wherowhero (Waikato iwi), Tuhoe, Te Arawa and Ngāti Tuwharetoa and possibly Moka 'Kainga-mataa'. A number of non-signatory Waikato and Central North Island chiefs would later form a kind of confederacy with an elected monarch called the Kīngitanga. (The Kīngitanga Movement would later form a primary anti-government force in the New Zealand Wars.) While copies were moved around the country to give as many tribal leaders as possible the opportunity to sign, some missed out, especially in the South Island, where inclement weather prevented copies from reaching Otago or Stewart Island. Assent to the treaty was large in Kaitaia, as well as the Wellington to Whanganui region, but there were at least some holdouts in every other part of New Zealand.
Māori were the first indigenous race to sign a document giving them British citizenship and promising their protection. Hobson was grateful to Williams and stated a British colony would not have been established in New Zealand without the CMS missionaries.
On 21 May 1840, Lieutenant-Governor Hobson proclaimed sovereignty over the whole country, (the North Island by Treaty and the South Island and Stewart Island by discovery) and New Zealand was constituted the Colony of New Zealand, separate from New South Wales by a Royal Charter issued 16 November 1840, with effect from 3 May 1841.
In Hobson's first dispatch to the British government, he stated that the North Island had been ceded with "unanimous adherence" (which was not accurate) and while Hobson claimed the South Island by discovery based on the "uncivilised state of the natives", in actuality he had no basis to make such a claim. Hobson issued the proclamation because he felt it was forced on him by settlers from the New Zealand Company at Port Nicholson who had formed an independent settlement government and claimed legality from local chiefs, two days after the proclamation on 23 May 1840, Hobson declared the settlement's government as illegal. Hobson also failed to report to the British government that the Māori text of the treaty was substantially different from the English one (which he might not have known at the time) and also reported that both texts had received 512 signatures, where in truth the majority of signatures had been on the Māori copies that had been sent around the country, rather than on the single English copy. Basing their decision on this information, on 2 October 1840, the Colonial Office approved Hobson's proclamation. They did not have second thoughts when later reports revealed more detail about the inadequacies of the treaty negotiations, and they did not take issue with the fact that large areas of the North Island had not signed. The government had never asked for Hobson to obtain unanimous agreement from the indigenous people.
In 1841, Treaty documents, housed in an iron box, narrowly escaped damage when the government offices at Official Bay in Auckland were destroyed by fire. They disappeared from sight until 1865 when a Native Department officer worked on them in Wellington at the request of parliament and produced an erroneous list of signatories. The papers were fastened together and then deposited in a safe in the Colonial Secretary's office.
In 1877, the English-language rough draft of the treaty was published along with photolithographic facsimiles, and the originals were returned to storage. In 1908, historian and bibliographer Thomas Hocken, searching for historical documents, found the treaty papers in the basement of a government building[vague] in poor condition, damaged at the edges by water and partly eaten by rodents. The papers were restored by the Dominion Museum in 1913 and kept in special boxes from then on. In February 1940, the treaty documents were taken to Waitangi for display in the Treaty House during the Centenary celebrations. It was possibly the first time the treaty document had been on public display since it was signed. After the outbreak of war with Japan, they were placed with other state documents in an outsize luggage trunk and deposited for secure custody with the Public Trustee at Palmerston North by the local member of parliament, who did not tell staff what was in the case. However, as the case was too large to fit in the safe, the treaty documents spent the war at the side of a back corridor in the Public Trust office.
In 1956, the Department of Internal Affairs placed the treaty documents in the care of the Alexander Turnbull Library and they were displayed in 1961. Further preservation steps were taken in 1966, with improvements to the display conditions. From 1977 to 1980, the library extensively restored the documents before the treaty was deposited in the Reserve Bank.
In anticipation of a decision to exhibit the document in 1990 (the sesquicentennial of the signing), full documentation and reproduction photography was carried out. Several years of planning culminated with the opening of the climate-controlled Constitution Room at the National Archives by Mike Moore, Prime Minister of New Zealand, in November 1990. It was announced in 2012 that the nine Treaty of Waitangi sheets would be relocated to the National Library of New Zealand in 2013. In 2017, the He Tohu permanent exhibition at the National Library opened, displaying the treaty documents along with the Declaration of Independence and the 1893 Women's Suffrage Petition.
Treaty text, meaning and interpretation
HER MAJESTY VICTORIA Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland regarding with Her Royal Favor the Native Chiefs and Tribes of New Zealand and anxious to protect their just Rights and Property and to secure to them the enjoyment of Peace and Good Order has deemed it necessary in consequence of the great number of Her Majesty's Subjects who have already settled in New Zealand and the rapid extension of Emigration both from Europe and Australia which is still in progress to constitute and appoint a functionary properly authorised to treat with the Aborigines of New Zealand for the recognition of Her Majesty's Sovereign authority over the whole or any part of those islands – Her Majesty therefore being desirous to establish a settled form of Civil Government with a view to avert the evil consequences which must result from the absence of the necessary Laws and Institutions alike to the native population and to Her subjects has been graciously pleased to empower and to authorise me William Hobson a Captain in Her Majesty's Royal Navy Consul and Lieutenant-Governor of such parts of New Zealand as may be or hereafter shall be ceded to her Majesty to invite the confederated and independent Chiefs of New Zealand to concur in the following Articles and Conditions.
Article the first:
The Chiefs of the Confederation of the United Tribes of New Zealand and the separate and independent Chiefs who have not become members of the Confederation cede to Her Majesty the Queen of England [sic] absolutely and without reservation all the rights and powers of Sovereignty which the said Confederation or Individual Chiefs respectively exercise or possess, or may be supposed to exercise or to possess over their respective Territories as the sole sovereigns thereof.
Article the second:
Her Majesty the Queen of England [sic] confirms and guarantees to the Chiefs and Tribes of New Zealand and to the respective families and individuals thereof the full exclusive and undisturbed possession of their Lands and Estates Forests Fisheries and other properties which they may collectively or individually possess so long as it is their wish and desire to retain the same in their possession; but the Chiefs of the United Tribes and the individual Chiefs yield to Her Majesty the exclusive right of Preemption over such lands as the proprietors thereof may be disposed to alienate at such prices as may be agreed upon between the respective Proprietors and persons appointed by Her Majesty to treat with them in that behalf.
Article the third:
In consideration thereof Her Majesty the Queen of England [sic] extends to the Natives of New Zealand Her royal protection and imparts to them all the Rights and Privileges of British Subjects.
(signed) William Hobson, Lieutenant-Governor.Now therefore We the Chiefs of the Confederation of the United Tribes of New Zealand being assembled in Congress at Victoria in Waitangi and We the Separate and Independent Chiefs of New Zealand claiming authority over the Tribes and Territories which are specified after our respective names, having been made fully to understand the Provisions of the foregoing Treaty, accept and enter into the same in the full spirit and meaning thereof in witness of which we have attached our signatures or marks at the places and the dates respectively specified. Done at Waitangi this Sixth day of February in the year of Our Lord one thousand eight hundred and forty.
The English text (from which the Māori text is translated) starts with the preamble and presents Queen Victoria "being desirous to establish a settled form of Civil Government", and invites Māori chiefs to concur in the following articles. The first article of the English text grants the Queen of England "absolutely and without reservation all the rights and powers of Sovereignty" over New Zealand. The second article guarantees to the chiefs full "exclusive and undisturbed possession of their Lands and Estates Forests Fisheries and other properties". It also specifies that Māori will sell land only to the Crown (Crown pre-emption). The third article guarantees to all Māori the same rights as all other British subjects.
KO WIKITORIA te Kuini o Ingarani i tana mahara atawai ki nga Rangatira me nga Hapu o Nu Tirani i tana hiahia hoki kia tohungia ki a ratou o ratou rangatiratanga me to ratou wenua, a kia mau tonu hoki te Rongo ki a ratou me te Atanoho hoki kua wakaaro ia he mea tika kia tukua mai tetahi Rangatira – hei kai wakarite ki nga Tangata maori o Nu Tirani – kia wakaaetia e nga Rangatira Maori te Kawanatanga o te Kuini ki nga wahikatoa o te wenua nei me nga motu – na te mea hoki he tokomaha ke nga tangata o tona Iwi Kua noho ki tenei wenua, a e haere mai nei.
Na ko te Kuini e hiahia ana kia wakaritea te Kawanatanga kia kaua ai nga kino e puta mai ki te tangata Maori ki te Pakeha e noho ture kore ana.
Na kua pai te Kuini kia tukua a hau a Wiremu Hopihona he Kapitana i te Roiara Nawi hei Kawana mo nga wahi katoa o Nu Tirani e tukua aianei amua atu ki te Kuini, e mea atu ana ia ki nga Rangatira o te wakaminenga o nga hapu o Nu Tirani me era Rangatira atu enei ture ka korerotia nei.
Ko te tuatahi (Article 1):
Ko nga Rangatira o te wakaminenga me nga Rangatira katoa hoki ki hai i uru ki taua wakaminenga ka tuku rawa atu ki te Kuini o Ingarani ake tonu atu – te Kawanatanga katoa o o ratou wenua.
Ko te tuarua (Article 2):
Ko te Kuini o Ingarani ka wakarite ka wakaae ki nga Rangitira ki nga hapu – ki nga tangata katoa o Nu Tirani te tino rangatiratanga o o ratou wenua o ratou kainga me o ratou taonga katoa. Otiia ko nga Rangatira o te wakaminenga me nga Rangatira katoa atu ka tuku ki te Kuini te hokonga o era wahi wenua e pai ai te tangata nona te Wenua – ki te ritenga o te utu e wakaritea ai e ratou ko te kai hoko e meatia nei e te Kuini hei kai hoko mona.
Ko te tuatoru (Article 3):
Hei wakaritenga mai hoki tenei mo te wakaaetanga ki te Kawanatanga o te Kuini – Ka tiakina e te Kuini o Ingarani nga tangata maori katoa o Nu Tirani ka tukua ki a ratou nga tikanga katoa rite tahi ki ana mea ki nga tangata o Ingarani.
(signed) William Hobson, Consul and Lieutenant-Governor.
Na ko matou ko nga Rangatira o te Wakaminenga o nga hapu o Nu Tirani ka huihui nei ki Waitangi ko matou hoki ko nga Rangatira o Nu Tirani ka kite nei i te ritenga o enei kupu, ka tangohia ka wakaaetia katoatia e matou, koia ka tohungia ai o matou ingoa o matou tohu.Ka meatia tenei ki Waitangi i te ono o nga ra o Pepueri i te tau kotahi mano, e waru rau e wa te kau o to tatou Ariki.
The Māori text has the same overall structure, with a preamble and three articles. The first article indicates that the Māori chiefs "give absolutely to the Queen of England for ever the complete government over their land" (according to a modern translation by Hugh Kāwharu). With no adequate word available to substitute for 'sovereignty', as it was not a concept in Māori society at the time, the translators instead used kāwanatanga (governorship or government). The second article guarantees all Māori "chieftainship over their lands, villages and all their treasures" (translated), with 'treasures' here translating from taonga to mean more than just physical possessions (as in the English text), but also other elements of cultural heritage. The second article also says: "Chiefs will sell land to the Queen at a price agreed to by the person owning it and by the person buying it (the latter being) appointed by the Queen as her purchase agent" (translated), which does not accurately convey the pre-emption clause of the English text. The third article gives Māori the "same rights and duties of citizenship as the people of England" (translated); roughly the same as the English text.
The English and Māori texts differ. As some words in the English treaty did not translate directly into the written Te Reo Māori of the time, the Māori text is not a literal translation of the English text
The differences between the two texts have made it difficult to interpret the treaty and continues to undermine its effect. The most critical difference between the texts revolves around the interpretation of three Māori words: kāwanatanga (governorship), which is ceded to the Queen in the first article; rangatiratanga (chieftainship) not mana (leadership) (which was stated in the Declaration of Independence just five years before the treaty was signed), which is retained by the chiefs in the second; and taonga (property or valued possessions), which the chiefs are guaranteed ownership and control of, also in the second article. Few Māori involved with the treaty negotiations understood the concepts of sovereignty or "governorship", as they were used by 19th-century Europeans, and lawyer Moana Jackson has stated that "ceding mana or sovereignty in a treaty was legally and culturally incomprehensible in Māori terms".
Furthermore, kāwanatanga is a loan translation from "governorship" and was not part of the Māori language. The term had been used by Henry Williams in his translation of the Declaration of the Independence of New Zealand which was signed by 35 northern Māori chiefs at Waitangi on 28 October 1835. The Declaration of Independence of New Zealand had stated "Ko te Kīngitanga ko te mana i te w[h]enua" to describe "all sovereign power and authority in the land". There is considerable debate about what would have been a more appropriate term. Some scholars, notably Ruth Ross, argue that mana (prestige, authority) would have more accurately conveyed the transfer of sovereignty. However, it has more recently been argued by others, including Judith Binney, that mana would not have been appropriate. This is because mana is not the same thing as sovereignty, and also because no-one can give up their mana.
The English-language text recognises Māori rights to "properties", which seems to imply physical and perhaps intellectual property. The Māori text, on the other hand, mentions "taonga", meaning "treasures" or "precious things". In Māori usage the term applies much more broadly than the English concept of legal property, and since the 1980s courts have found that the term can encompass intangible things such as language and culture. Even where physical property such as land is concerned, differing cultural understandings as to what types of land are able to be privately owned have caused problems, as for example in the foreshore and seabed controversy of 2003–04.
The pre-emption clause is generally not well translated. While pre-emption was present in the treaty from the very first draft, it was translated to hokonga, a word which simply meant "to buy, sell, or trade". Many Māori apparently believed that they were simply giving the British Queen first offer on land, after which they could sell it to anyone. Another, less important, difference is that Ingarani, meaning England alone, is used throughout in the Māori text, whereas "the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland" is used in the first paragraph of the English.
Based on these differences, there are many academics argue that the two versions of the treaty are distinctly different documents they refer to as "Te Tiriti o Waitangi" and "The Treaty of Waitangi", and that the Māori text should take precedence, because it was the one that was signed at Waitangi and by the most signatories. The Waitangi Tribunal, tasked with deciding issues raised by the differences between the two texts, also gives additional weight to the Māori text in its interpretations of the treaty.
The entire issue is further complicated by the fact that, at the time, writing was a novel introduction to Māori society. As members of a predominately oral society, Māori present at the signing of the treaty would have placed more value and reliance on what Hobson and the missionaries said, rather than the written words of the treaty document. Although there is still a great deal of scholarly debate surrounding the extent to which literacy had permeated Māori society at the time of the signing, what can be stated with clarity is that of the 600 plus rangatira who signed the written document only 12 signed their names in the Latin alphabet. Many others conveyed their identity by drawing parts of their moko (personal facial tattoo), while still others marked the document with an X.
Māori beliefs and attitudes towards ownership and use of land were different from those prevailing in Britain and Europe. The chiefs would traditionally grant permission for the land to be used for a time for a particular purpose. A northern chief, Nōpera Panakareao, also early on summarised his understanding of the treaty as "Ko te atarau o te whenua i riro i a te kuini, ko te tinana o te whenua i waiho ki ngā Māori" (The shadow of the land will go to the Queen [of England], but the substance of the land will remain with us). Nopera later reversed his earlier statement – feeling that the substance of the land had indeed gone to the Queen; only the shadow remained for the Māori.
Role in New Zealand society
Effects on Māori land and rights (1840–1960)
Colony of New Zealand
In November 1840 a royal charter was signed by Queen Victoria, establishing New Zealand as a Crown colony separate from New South Wales from 3 May 1841. In 1846 the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed the New Zealand Constitution Act 1846 which granted self-government to the colony, requiring Māori to pass an English-language test to be able to participate in the new colonial government. In the same year, Lord Stanley, the British Colonial Secretary, who was a devout Anglican, three times British Prime Minister and oversaw the passage of the Slavery Abolition Act 1833, was asked by Governor George Grey how far he was expected to abide by the treaty. The direct response in the Queen's name was:
At Governor Grey's request, this Act was suspended in 1848, as Grey argued it would place the majority Māori under the control of the minority British settlers. Instead, Grey drafted what would later become the New Zealand Constitution Act 1852, which determined the right to vote based on land-ownership franchise. Since most Māori land was communally owned, very few Māori had the right to vote for the institutions of the colonial government. Following the election of the first parliament in 1853, responsible government was instituted in 1856. The direction of "native affairs" was kept at the sole discretion of the Governor, meaning control of Māori affairs and land remained outside of the elected ministry. This quickly became a point of contention between the colonial government and Governor, who retained their own "Native Secretary" to advise then on "native affairs". In 1861, Governor Grey agreed to consult the ministers in relation to native affairs, but this position only lasted until his recall from office in 1867. Grey's successor as Governor, George Bowen, took direct control of native affairs until his term ended in 1870. From then on, the elected ministry, lead by the Premier, controlled the colonial government's policy on Māori land.
Right of pre-emption
The short-term effect of the treaty was to prevent the sale of Māori land to anyone other than the Crown. This was intended to protect Māori from the kinds of shady land purchases which had alienated indigenous peoples in other parts of the world from their land with minimal compensation. Before the treaty had been finalised the New Zealand Company had made several hasty land deals and shipped settlers from Great Britain to New Zealand, hoping the British would be forced to accept its land claims as a fait accompli, in which it was largely successful.
In part, the treaty was an attempt to establish a system of property rights for land with the Crown controlling and overseeing land sale to prevent abuse. Initially, this worked well with the Governor and his representatives having the sole right to buy and sell land from the Māori. Māori were eager to sell land, and settlers eager to buy.
The Crown was supposed to mediate the process to ensure that the true owners were properly identified (difficult for tribally owned land) and fairly compensated, by the standards of the time. In particular, the Governor had the responsibility to protect Māori interests. Still, Hobson, as Governor of New Zealand, and his successor Robert FitzRoy both took seriously their duty as protectors of Māori from unscrupulous settlers, working actively to prevent shady land deals. Hobson created a group of "Protectors of the Aborigines"; officials specifically appointed to verify owners, land boundaries, and sales. Lack of funds often prevented land deals at this time, which created discontent among those who were willing but unable to sell. Combined with a growing awareness of the profit margins that the government was receiving by reselling the land at a profit, there was growing discontent among Māori with the pre-emption clause. At this time Māori and others argued that the government's abuse of the pre-emption clause was incompatible with article three of the treaty which guaranteed Māori equal rights to those of British subjects. FitzRoy was sympathetic to their pleas and decided to waive the pre-emption clause in 1844, allowing land sales directly to individuals.
New Zealand Wars and land sales
The growing disagreement over British sovereignty of the country led to several armed conflicts and disputes beginning in the 1840s, including the Flagstaff War, a dispute over the flying of the British Union Flag at the then colonial capital, Kororareka in the Bay of Islands. The Māori King Movement (Kīngitanga) began in the 1850s partly as a means of focusing Māori power in a manner which would allow them to negotiate with the Governor and Queen on equal footing. The chiefs justified the King's role by the treaty's guarantee of rangatiratanga (chieftainship).
Conflict continued to escalate in the early 1860s, when the government used the Māori King Movement as an excuse to invade lands in the eastern parts of the North Island, culminating in the Crown's confiscation of large parts of the Waikato and Taranaki from Māori. The treaty was used to justify the idea that the chiefs of Waikato and Taranaki were rebels against the Crown.
FitzRoy's successor George Grey was appointed Governor in 1845. He viewed the Protectors as an impediment to land acquisition and replaced them with new officials whose goals were not to protect Māori interests, but rather to purchase as much land as possible. Grey restored the Crown's right to pre-emption bypassing the Native Land Purchase Act in 1846, which contemporary writers viewed as a "first step towards a negation of the Treaty of Waitangi". This ordinance also tightened government control of Māori lands, prohibiting Māori from leasing their land and restricting the felling of timber and harvesting of flax. A high court case in 1847 (R v Symonds) upheld the Crown's right to pre-emption and allowed Grey to renegotiate deals made under Fitzroy's waiving of the pre-emption clause. Governor Grey set out to buy large tracts of Māori land in advance of settlement at low prices, later selling it to settlers at higher prices and using the difference to develop land access (roads and bridges). Donald McLean acted as Grey's intermediary and negotiator, and as early as 1840 was aware that Māori had no concept of the sale of land in British sense. Soon Māori became disillusioned and less willing to sell, while the Crown came under increasing pressure from settlers wishing to buy. Consequently, government land agents were involved in a number of dubious land purchases, agreements were sometimes negotiated with only one owner of tribally owned land and in some cases land was purchased from the wrong people altogether. The whole of the South Island was purchased by 1860 in several large deals, and while many of the sales included provisions of 10 per cent of the land set aside for native inhabitants, these land area amounts were not honoured or were later transmuted to much smaller numbers. In some cases Grey or his associates bullied the owners into selling by threatening to drive them out with troops or employ rival chiefs to do so.
In July 1860, during the conflicts, Governor Thomas Gore Browne convened a group of some 200 Māori (including over 100 pro-Crown chiefs handpicked by officials) to discuss the treaty and land for a month at Mission Bay, Kohimarama, Auckland. This became known as the Kohimarama Conference, and was an attempt to prevent the spread of fighting to other regions of New Zealand. But many of the chiefs present were critical of the Crown's handling of the Taranaki conflict. Those at the conference reaffirmed the treaty and the Queen's sovereignty and suggested that a native council be established, but this did not occur.
Native Land Court
The Native Land Court (later renamed the Māori Land Court) was established under the Native Land Court Act of 1862, which also finally abolished the Crown right to pre-emption. It was through this court that much Māori land was alienated, and the way in which it functioned is much criticised today. A single member of a tribal group could claim ownership of communal tribal land, which would trigger a court battle in which other tribal members were forced to participate in, or else lose out. The accumulation of court fees, lawyers fees, survey costs, and the cost of travelling to attend court proceedings resulted in mounting debts that could only be paid by the eventual sale of the land. In effect, Māori were safe from the court only until a single tribal member broke ranks and triggered a case, which would invariably result in the sale of the land. By the end of the century, nearly all of the highest quality Māori land had been sold, with only two million hectares remaining in Māori possession.
Although the treaty had never been incorporated into New Zealand municipal law, its provisions were first incorporated into legislation as early as the Land Claims Ordinance 1841 and the Native Rights Act 1865. However, in the 1877 Wi Parata v Bishop of Wellington judgement, Judge Prendergast argued that the treaty was a "simple nullity" in terms of transferring sovereignty from Māori to the United Kingdom. This remained the legal orthodoxy until at least the 1970s. Māori have since argued that Prendergast's decision, as well as laws later based on it were a politically convenient and deliberate ploy to legitimise the seizure of Māori land and other resources.
Despite this, Māori frequently used the treaty to argue for a range of demands, including greater independence and return of confiscated and unfairly purchased land. This was especially the case from the mid-19th century, when they lost numerical superiority and generally lost control of most of the country and had little representation in government or the councils where decisions that impacted their affairs were made. Simultaneously, Māori rights over fisheries (guaranteed in article 2 of the treaty) were similarly degraded by laws passed in the late 19th century.
Over the longer term, the land purchase aspect of the treaty declined in importance, while the clauses of the treaty which deal with sovereignty and Māori rights took on greater importance. In 1938, the judgement of the case Te Heuheu Tukino v Aotea District Maori Land Board considered the treaty as valid in terms of the transfer of sovereignty, but the judge ruled that as it was not part of New Zealand law it was not binding on the Crown.
Treaty House and revival
The treaty returned to the public eye after the Treaty House and grounds were purchased by the Governor-General, Viscount Bledisloe, in the early 1930s and donated to the nation. The dedication of the site as a national reserve in 1934 was probably the first major event held there since the 1840s. The profile of the treaty was further raised by the New Zealand centenary of 1940. For most of the twentieth century, textbooks, government publicity and many historians touted the treaty as the moral foundation of colonisation and argued that it set race relations in New Zealand above those of colonies in North America, Africa and Australia. There was some popular acceptance of the idea that the treaty transferred sovereignty since the early twentieth century. Popular histories of New Zealand and the treaty often claimed that the treaty was an example of British benevolence and therefore an honourable contract. Even though Māori continued to challenge this narrative, the treaty's lack of legal significance in 1840 and subsequent breaches tended to be overlooked until the 1970s when these issues were raised by the Māori protest movement.
Resurgence and place in New Zealand Law (1960–present)
The Waitangi Day Act of 1960 was a token gesture towards acknowledging the Treaty of Waitangi and somewhat preceded the Māori protest movement as a whole. It established Waitangi Day, although it did not make it a public holiday, and the English text of the treaty appeared as a schedule of the Waitangi Day Act but this did not make it a part of statute law. Subsequent amendments to the Act, as well as other legislation, eventually acquiesced to campaigns to make Waitangi Day a national holiday in 1976.
During the late 1960s and 1970s, the Treaty of Waitangi became the focus of a strong Māori protest movement which rallied around calls for the government to "honour the treaty" and to "redress treaty grievances". Māori boycotted Waitangi Day in 1968 over the Māori Affairs Amendment Act (which was perceived as a further land grab) and Māori expressed their frustration about continuing violations of the treaty and subsequent legislation by government officials, as well as inequitable legislation and unsympathetic decisions by the Māori Land Court continuing alienation of Māori land from its owners. The protest movement can be seen as part of the worldwide civil rights movements, which emerged in the 1960s.
As a response to the protest movement, the treaty finally received limited recognition in 1975 with the passage of the Treaty of Waitangi Act 1975, which established the Waitangi Tribunal, but this initially had very limited powers to make findings of facts and recommendations only. The Act was amended in 1985 to enable it to investigate Treaty breaches back to 1840, and also to increase the Tribunal membership. The membership was further increased in another amendment in 1988.
Principles of the Treaty of Waitangi
The treaty was incorporated in a limited way into New Zealand law by the State Owned Enterprises Act 1986. Section 9 of the act said "Nothing in this Act shall permit the Crown to act in a manner that is inconsistent with the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi". The government had proposed a transfer of assets from former Government departments to state-owned enterprises, but because the state-owned enterprises were essentially private firms owned by the government, there was an argument that they would prevent assets which had been given by Māori for use by the state from being returned to Māori by the Waitangi Tribunal and through Treaty settlements. The Act was challenged in court in 1987, and the judgement of New Zealand Maori Council v Attorney-General defined the "Principles of the Treaty" and the proposed sale of government assets was found to be in breach of this proviso. This allowed the courts to consider the Crown's actions in terms of compliance with the treaty and established the principle that if the treaty is mentioned in strong terms in a piece of legislation, it takes precedence over other parts of that legislation should they come into conflict. The "Principles of the Treaty" became a common topic in contemporary New Zealand politics, and in 1989, the Fourth Labour Government responded by adopting the "Principles for Crown Action on the Treaty of Waitangi" a similar list of principles to that established in the 1987 court case.
Legislation after the State Owned Enterprises case has followed suit in giving the treaty an increased legal importance. In New Zealand Maori Council v Attorney General (1990) the case concerned FM radio frequencies and found that the treaty could be relevant even concerning legislation which did not mention it and that even if references to the treaty were removed from legislation, the treaty may still be legally relevant. Examples include the ownership of the radio spectrum and the protection of the Māori language.
Bill of Rights
Some have argued that the treaty should be further incorporated as a part of the New Zealand constitution, to help improve relations between the Crown, Māori and other New Zealanders. The Fourth Labour Government's Bill of Rights White Paper proposed that the treaty be entrenched in the New Zealand Bill of Rights Act 1990. This proposal was never carried through to the legislation, with the attitude of many Māori towards it "suspicious, uneasy, doubtful or undecided". Many Māori were concerned that the proposal would relegate the treaty to a lesser position, and enable the electorate (who under the original Bill of Rights would be able to repeal certain sections by referendum) to remove the treaty from the Bill of Rights altogether. Geoffrey Palmer commented in 2013 that:
We were obliged, due to Māori opposition, to drop the Treaty from the Bill of Rights. That was a great pity and it is a step that I advocate be taken still in the context of having a superior law Bill of Rights.
During the 1990s there was broad agreement between major political parties that the settlement of historical claims was appropriate. Some disagreed however, and claims of a "Treaty of Waitangi Grievance Industry", which profits from making frivolous claims of violations of the Treaty of Waitangi, were made by a number of political figures in the late 1990s and early 2000s, including former National Party leader Don Brash in his 2004 "Orewa Speech". The "Principles of the Treaty of Waitangi Deletion Bill" was introduced in the New Zealand Parliament in 2005 as a private member's bill by New Zealand First MP Doug Woolerton. Winston Peters, the 13th Deputy Prime Minister of New Zealand, and others supported the bill, which was designed to remove references to the treaty from New Zealand law. The bill failed to pass its second reading in November 2007.
In terms of public opinion, a study in 2008 found that among the 2,700 voting age New Zealanders surveyed, 37.4% wanted the treaty removed from New Zealand law, 19.7% were neutral, and 36.8% wanted the treaty kept in law; additionally, 39.7% agreed Māori deserved compensation, 15.7% were neutral, and 41.2% disagreed. In 2017, the same study found that among the 3,336 voting age New Zealanders surveyed, 32.99% wanted the treaty removed from New Zealand law, 14.45% were neutral and 42.58% disagreed, and 9.98% didn't know.
While the treaty is still today not specifically part of New Zealand domestic law, but has been adopted into various acts of parliament ad hoc. It is nevertheless regarded as the founding document of New Zealand.
Waitangi Tribunal claims
During the early 1990s, the government began to negotiate settlements of historical (pre-1992) claims. As of September 2008[update], there were 23 such settlements of various sizes, totalling approximately $950 million. Settlements generally include financial redress, a formal Crown apology for breaches of the treaty, and recognition of the group's cultural associations with various sites. The tribunal has, in some cases, established that the claimants had not given up sovereignty, and there are ongoing discussions with regards to the applicability of land seized in conflicts and obtained through Crown pre-emption. However, the Tribunal's findings do not establish that the Crown does not have sovereignty today, since the Crown has de facto sovereignty in New Zealand regardless and the Tribunal has no authority to rule otherwise. Treaty Settlements minister Chris Finlayson emphasised that: "The Tribunal doesn't reach any conclusion regarding the sovereignty the Crown exercises in New Zealand. Nor does it address the other events considered part of the Crown's acquisition of sovereignty or how the Treaty relationship should operate today". Recommendations of the Tribunal are not binding on the Crown, but have often been followed.
The anniversary of the signing of the treaty – 6 February – is the New Zealand national day, Waitangi Day. The day was first commemorated in 1934, when the site of the original signing, Treaty House, was made a public reserve (along with its grounds). However, it was not until 1974 that the date was made a public holiday. Waitangi Day has been the focus of protest by Māori (as was particularly the case from the 1970s through to the 1990s), but today the day is often used as an opportunity to discuss the history and lasting effects of the treaty. The anniversary is officially commemorated at the Treaty House at Waitangi, where it was first signed.
- Constitution of New Zealand
- Te Ture Whenua Māori Act 1993 / Māori Land Act 1993
- Declaration of the Independence of New Zealand / He Whakaputanga
- "Additional Instructions from Lord Normanby to Captain Hobson 1839 – New Zealand Constitutional Law Resources". New Zealand Legal Information Institute. 15 August 1839. Retrieved 5 October 2019.
- "Treaty of Waitangi signings in the South Island" Archived 18 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Christchurch City Libraries
- "Treaty of Waitangi". Waitangi Tribunal. Archived from the original on 6 July 2016. Retrieved 28 May 2015.
- Orange 1987, p. 260.
- Newman, Keith (2010) . Bible & Treaty, Missionaries among the Māori – a new perspective. Penguin. ISBN 978-0143204084. pp 159
- Burns, Patricia (1989). Fatal Success: A History of the New Zealand Company. Heinemann Reed. ISBN 0-7900-0011-3.
- "Treaty of Waitangi – Te Tiriti o Waitangi". Archives New Zealand. Archived from the original on 11 August 2011. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
- "Meaning of the Treaty". Waitangi Tribunal. 2011. Archived from the original on 8 July 2016. Retrieved 12 July 2011.
- Newman, Keith (2010) . Bible & Treaty, Missionaries among the Māori – a new perspective. Penguin. ISBN 978-0143204084. pp 20-116
- Wheen, Nicola; Hayward, Janine, eds. (2012). Treaty of Waitangi Settlements. Wellington: Bridget Williams Books. ISBN 9781927131381. Archived from the original on 22 December 2017.
- Palmer 2008, p. 292.
- "New Zealand's Constitution". Government House. Archived from the original on 10 December 2017. Retrieved 17 August 2017.
- "New Zealand's constitution – past, present and future" (PDF). Cabinet Office. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 April 2017. Retrieved 17 August 2017.
- Palmer 2008, p. 25.
- Hallam, Elizabeth; Prescott, Andrew, eds. (1999). The British Inheritance: A Treasury of Historic Documents. University of California Press. p. 90.
- Wilson, James Oakley (1985) [First published in 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984 (4th ed.). Wellington: V.R. Ward, Govt. Printer. pp. 15f. OCLC 154283103.
- McLintock, A. H., ed. (22 April 2009) [First published in 1966]. "The Establishment of Sovereignty". An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. Ministry for Culture and Heritage / Te Manatū Taonga. Archived from the original on 22 December 2017. Retrieved 24 June 2017.
- Simpson, Tony (2015). Before Hobson. Wellington: Blythswood Press. ISBN 9780473312848.
- Orange 1987, p. 2.
- Orange 1987, p. 5.
- Orange 1987, p. 4.
- Moon 2010, p. 24.
- Binney, Judith (2007). Te Kerikeri 1770–1850, The Meeting Pool, Bridget Williams Books (Wellington) in association with Craig Potton Publishing (Nelson). ISBN 1-877242-38-1. Chapter 13, "The Māori Leaders' Assembly, Kororipo Pā, 1831", by Manuka Henare, pp 114–116.
- "Taming the frontier Page 4 – Declaration of Independence". NZ History. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. 23 September 2016. Archived from the original on 11 July 2017. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
- Mutu, Margaret (2012). "Custom Law and the Advent of New Pākehā Settlers". In Keenan, Danny (ed.). Huia histories of Māori : ngā tāhuhu kōrero. Wellington, N.Z.: Huia. ISBN 978-1-77550-009-4. OCLC 779490407.
- Keenan, Danny (2012). "Separating Them from that Common Influence". In Keenan, Danny (ed.). Huia histories of Māori : ngā tāhuhu kōrero. Wellington, N.Z.: Huia. ISBN 978-1-77550-009-4. OCLC 779490407.
- Moon 2010, p. 34.
- "Chapter VI – A select committee on the islands of New Zealand". Victoria University of Wellington – victoria.ac.nz. Archived from the original on 28 August 2017. Retrieved 22 June 2017.
- McDowell & Webb 2002.
- McLean 2006, p. 24.
- "Hobson, William. Biography". An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. Archived from the original on 20 August 2017.
- McDowell & Webb 2002, p. 174.
- Scholefield, G. (1930). Captain William Hobson. pp. 202–203. (Instructions from Lord Normanby to Captain Hobson – dated 14 August 1839)
- Orange 1987, p. 22.
- Orange 1987, p. 23.
- Quentin-Baxter & McLean 2017, p. 7.
- Orange 1990, p. 22.
- King 2003, p. 157.
- "Ships, Famous. Tory". An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. Archived from the original on 19 August 2017.
- King 2003, p. 170–171.
- Moon, Paul (2002). Path to the Treaty of Waitangi. David Ling Pub. pp. 10, 11. ISBN 9780908990832.
- Arundell, Richard; Sherrin, Augur; Wallace, J. H. (1890). Leys, Thompson W. (ed.). Early History of New Zealand: From Earliest Times to 1840. Auckland: H. Brett. p. 477.
- Wise's The New Zealand Guide (7th ed.). Wise & Co Ltd. 1979. p. 499.
- King, Marie. (1949). A Port in the North: A Short History of Russell. p 38.
- Orange 1987, p. 24.
- "Paul Moon: Hope for watershed in new Treaty era". The New Zealand Herald. 13 January 2010. Retrieved 15 January 2010.
- King 2003, p. 158.
- Orange 1987, p. 30.
- Orange 1987, p. 93.
- McDowell & Webb 2002, p. 174-176.
- David, Moxon. "The Treaty and the Bible in Aotearoa New Zealand". Vaughan Park. Vaughan Park / David Moxon. Retrieved 26 April 2021.
- Carleton, Hugh (1874). "Vol. II". The Life of Henry Williams: "Early Recollections" written by Henry Williams. Early New Zealand Books (ENZB), University of Auckland Library. p. 12.
- Orange 1987, p. 34.
- Orange 1987, p. 71.
- King 2003, p. 163.
- Orange 1987, Chapter 3.
- King 2003, p. 159.
- Orange 2013, p. 22-23. sfn error: no target: CITEREFOrange2013 (help)
- Colenso, William (1890). The Authentic and Genuine History of the Signing of the Treaty of Waitangi. Wellington: By Authority of George Didsbury, Government Printer. Archived from the original on 16 August 2011. Retrieved 31 August 2011.
- Orange 1990.
- Orange 2013, p. 23. sfn error: no target: CITEREFOrange2013 (help)
- Orange 2013, p. 24. sfn error: no target: CITEREFOrange2013 (help)
- Carleton, Hugh (1874). "Vol. II". The Life of Henry Williams: "Early Recollections" written by Henry Williams. Early New Zealand Books (ENZB), University of Auckland Library. pp. 11–15.
- Orange 1987, p. 73.
- Orange 2013, p. 40-41. sfn error: no target: CITEREFOrange2013 (help)
- Museum Display, Waitangi: Te Kōngahu Museum of Waitangi, 2016
- "The Treaty House". NZ History. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. 5 February 2013. Archived from the original on 15 April 2017. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- Orange 2013, p. 28. sfn error: no target: CITEREFOrange2013 (help)
- Newman, Keith (2010) . Bible & Treaty, Missionaries among the Māori – a new perspective. Penguin. p. 155. ISBN 978-0143204084.
- "The content of the Treaty of Waitangi". Museum of New Zealand, Te Papa Tongarewa. Museum of New Zealand, Te Papa Tongarewa. Retrieved 26 April 2021.
- "Human Rights and the Treaty of Waitangi, Te Mana i Waitangi" (PDF). NZ Human Rights. Human Rights Commission, NZ Government. Retrieved 26 April 2021.
- "Ruhe". NZ History. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. 17 June 2016. Archived from the original on 18 May 2017. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
- Orange 2013, p. 30. sfn error: no target: CITEREFOrange2013 (help)
- Orange 1987, p. 44.
- Orange 1987, p. 45.
- Orange 1987, p. 48.
- The Journey of the Treaty (PDF). State Services Commission. 2005. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 April 2017.
- Orange 2013, p. 27. sfn error: no target: CITEREFOrange2013 (help)
- Orange 1987, p. 126.
- Orange 1987, p. 65.
- "Proclamation of Sovereignty over the North Island 1840  NZConLRes 9". New Zealand Legal Information Institute. 21 May 1840. Retrieved 6 April 2019.
- "Proclamation of Sovereignty over the South and Stewart Islands 1840  NZConLRes 10". New Zealand Legal Information Institute. 21 May 1840. Retrieved 6 April 2019.
- "Hobson proclaims British sovereignty over New Zealand". NZ History. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. 20 December 2016. Archived from the original on 18 May 2017. Retrieved 23 July 2017.
- Moon 2010, p. 66.
- McLean 2006, p. 28.
- Orange 1987, p. 70.
- Orange 1987, p. 60.
- "Proclamation on the Illegal Assumption of Authority in the Port Nicholson District 1840  NZConLRes 11". New Zealand Legal Information Institute. 23 May 1840. Retrieved 6 April 2019.
- Orange 1987, p. 57.
- Orange 1987, p. 236.
- "Treaty of Waitangi to be moved from Archives to National Library". Wellington.scoop.co.nz. Archived from the original on 6 March 2014. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
- "Signatures that shape New Zealand". Retrieved 29 January 2019.
- "English Text – Read the Treaty". nzhistory.govt.nz. Archived from the original on 13 January 2018. Retrieved 13 January 2018.
- "Māori text – Read the Treaty". nzhistory.govt.nz. Archived from the original on 17 January 2018. Retrieved 17 January 2018.
- "Translation of the te reo Māori text". www.waitangitribunal.govt.nz. Archived from the original on 23 January 2018. Retrieved 25 January 2018.
- Belgrave, Michael; Kawharu, Merata; Williams, David Vernon (2005). Waitangi Revisited: Perspectives on the Treaty of Waitangi. Oxford University Press. pp. 390–393. ISBN 9780195584004.
- Orange 1987, p. 31.
- "Facing the truth about the Maori Wars". The Mana Trust. 2016. Archived from the original on 3 October 2016.
- "The Declaration of Independence". Translation from Archives New Zealand, New Zealand History online. Archived from the original on 7 July 2015. Retrieved 18 August 2010.
- Ross, R. M. (1972). "Te Tiriti o Waitangi: Texts and Translations". New Zealand Journal of History. 6 (2): 139–141.
- Binney, Judith (1989). "The Maori and the Signing of the Treaty of Waitangi". Towards 1990: Seven Leading Historians Examine Significant Aspects of New Zealand History. pp. 20–31.
- The Maori Broadcasting Claim: A Pakeha Economist's Perspective. Brian Easton. 1990. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 1 September 2011.
- Report of the Waitangi Tribunal on Claims Concerning the Allocation of Radio Frequencies (Wai 26). Waitangi Tribunal. 1990. Archived from the original on 22 June 2015. Retrieved 1 September 2011.
- Radio Spectrum Management and Development Final Report (Wai 776). Waitangi Tribunal. 1999. Archived from the original on 19 August 2017. Retrieved 1 September 2011.
- Orange 1987, p. 86.
- Orange 1987, p. 84.
- "Signing the Treaty". NZ History. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. 1 July 2016. Archived from the original on 8 July 2017. Retrieved 23 July 2017.
- Orange 1987, p. 33.
- Mikaere, Ani (2011). Colonising Myths: Maori Realities-He Rukuruku Whakaaro. Wellington: Huia.
- "View of Te Arewhana Kei Roto i Te Rūma: An Indigenous Neo-Disputatio on Settler Society, Nullifying Te Tiriti, 'Natural Resources' and Our Collective Future in Aotearoa New Zealand". www.tekaharoa.com. Retrieved 9 October 2018.
- Margaret, Mutu (February 2010). "Constitutional Intentions: The Treaty Texts". Retrieved 15 October 2018.
- "Meaning of the Treaty". waitangitribunal.govt.nz. Retrieved 15 October 2018 – via Waitangi Tribunal.
- Belich, James (1996), Making Peoples: A History of the New Zealanders from Polynesian Settlement to the End of the Nineteenth Century, pp.195–6.
- "Story: Muriwhenua tribes, Page 4 – European contact". The Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
- "New Zealand officially becomes British colony". NZ History. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. 23 December 2016. Archived from the original on 18 May 2017. Retrieved 25 July 2017.
- Panton, Kenneth (2015). Historical Dictionary of the British Empire. London: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 355. ISBN 9780810878013.
- McLean 2006, p. 42.
- William Flavelle Monypenny and George Earl Buckle, The Life of Benjamin Disraeli Earl of Beaconsfield, vol. 2 (1912), p, 451.
- Hawkins, Angus (2007). The Forgotten Prime Minister – The 14th Earl of Derby Volume I Ascent: 1799–1851 (1st ed.). New York: Oxford University Press Inc. p. 125-134. ISBN 9780199204403.
- McLean 2006, p. 43.
- McLean 2006, p. 46.
- Quentin-Baxter & McLean 2017, p. 15.
- Quentin-Baxter & McLean 2017, p. 18.
- Quentin-Baxter & McLean 2017, p. 20.
- Quentin-Baxter & McLean 2017, p. 22.
- McLean 2006, p. 64.
- Orange 1987, p. 20.
- Fargher, Ray (2007). The Best Man who Ever Served the Crown?: A Life of Donald McLean. Wellington: Victoria University Press. pp. 54–58. ISBN 9780864735607.
- Walker 2004, p. 105.
- Walker 2004, p. 106.
- Orange 1987, p. 87.
- Orange 1987, p. 502.
- Walker 2004, p. 135.
- Orange 1987, p. 120.
- "New Zealand's 19th-century wars". NZ History. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. 15 August 2015. Archived from the original on 6 July 2017. Retrieved 25 July 2017.
- Orange, Claudia (20 June 2012). "Treaty of Waitangi – The first decades after the treaty – 1840 to 1860". Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Archived from the original on 22 May 2017. Retrieved 25 July 2017.
- Walker 2004, p. 136.
- Orange 1987, p. 88.
- R v Symonds (1847) NZPCC 388
- Orange 1987, p. 58.
- Walker 2004, p. 137.
- Walker 2004, p. 139.
- Walker 2004, p. 142.
- O'Malley 2019, p. 88.
- Paterson, Lachy (2011). "The Kohimärama Conference of 1860: A Contextual Reading". Journal of New Zealand Studies.
- O'Malley 2019, p. 89.
- "Treaty events 1850–99 – Treaty timeline". nzhistory.govt.nz. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. 17 May 2017. Retrieved 30 July 2018.
- Orange, Claudia (20 June 2012). "Treaty of Waitangi – Dishonouring the Treaty – 1860 to 1880 – Kohimarama Conference, 1860". teara.govt.nz. Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 30 July 2018.
- Walker 2004, p. 143.
- Walker 2004.
- Palmer 2008, p. 19.
- "Native Rights Act 1865". New Zealand Legal Information Institute. 1865. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
- Jamieson, Nigel J. (2004). Talking Through the Treaty – Truly a Case of Pokarekare Ana or Troubled Waters. New Zealand Association for Comparative Law Yearbook 10.
- Wi Parata v Bishop of Wellington (1877) 3 NZ Jurist Reports (NS) Supreme Court, p72.
- Robinson 2010, p. 262.
- Tauroa, Hiwi (1989). Healing the Breach: One Maori's Perspective on the Treaty of Waitangi. Collins New Zealand. pp. 26, 27, 28. ISBN 9781869500078. Archived from the original on 23 January 2018.
- Orange 1987, p. 220.
- Orange 1987, p. 202.
- Cooke, Robin (1994). "The Harkness Henry lecture: the challenge of Treaty of Waitangi jurisprudence". Waikato Law Review. 2. Archived from the original on 20 July 2017.
- Orange 1987, p. 200.
- Orange 1987, p. 203.
- "The Treaty debated". NZ History. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. 7 July 2015. Archived from the original on 19 August 2017. Retrieved 25 July 2017.
- Robinson 2010, p. 264.
- Orange 1987, p. 213.
- Orange 1987, p. 229.
- Keane, Basil (20 June 2012). "Ngā rōpū tautohetohe – Māori protest movements". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Archived from the original on 14 August 2017. Retrieved 23 July 2017.
- Orange 1987, p. 209.
- "The Treaty in practice: Page 6 – The Treaty Debated". NZHistory.net.nz. 7 July 2014. Archived from the original on 10 February 2015. Retrieved 16 February 2015.
- Palmer, Geoffrey (June 2013). "Māori, the Treaty and the Constitution – Rt. Hon. Sir Geoffrey Palmer QC". Māori Law Review. Archived from the original on 16 February 2015.
- Laking, Rob (17 February 2017). "State-owned enterprises". Te Ara. Archived from the original on 18 June 2017. Retrieved 25 July 2017.
- "State-Owned Enterprises Act 1986". Parliamentary Counsel Office. Archived from the original on 20 December 2012. Retrieved 12 August 2012.
- He Tirohanga ō Kawa ki te Tiriti o Waitangi: a guide to the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi as expressed by the Courts and the Waitangi Tribunal. Te Puni Kokiri. 2001. ISBN 0-478-09193-1. Archived from the original on 23 January 2015. Retrieved 12 August 2012.
- Principles for Crown Action on the Treaty of Waitangi, 1989. Wellington: Treaty of Waitangi Research Unit, Victoria University of Wellington. 2011.
- Durie, Mason (1998). Te mana te kāwanatanga = the Politics of Māori Self-Determination. Auckland: Oxford University Press. pp. 179, 84. ISBN 9780195583670.
- "Waitangi Tribunal claim". NZ History. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. 8 December 2016. Archived from the original on 7 July 2017. Retrieved 26 July 2017.
- Palmer 2008, p. 317.
- Renwick, William (1990). The Treaty Now. Wellington: GP Books. p. 95. ISBN 9780477014601.
- O'Malley, Vincent (2010). The Treaty of Waitangi Companion: Maori and Pakeha from Tasman to Today. Auckland University Press. pp. 391–398. ISBN 9781869406813. Archived from the original on 24 January 2018.
- Dr Donald Brash (27 January 2004). "NATIONHOOD – Don Brash Speech Orewa Rotary Club". Archived from the original on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 20 March 2011.
- Cumming, Geoff (4 February 2004). "Non-Maori say they've had enough". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- "Peters unveils NZ First treaty policy". The New Zealand Herald. 22 June 2005. Retrieved 25 July 2017.
- "Doug Woolerton's Principles of the Treaty of Waitangi Deletion Bill". New Zealand First. Archived from the original on 1 July 2007. Retrieved 13 June 2007.
- "Principles of the Treaty of Waitangi Deletion Bill – First Reading". New Zealand Parliament. Archived from the original on 6 February 2015. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
- "New Zealand Parliament – Principles of the Treaty of Waitangi Deletion Bill". Parliament.nz. 7 November 2007. Archived from the original on 21 January 2012. Retrieved 1 November 2011.
- "Part D – What are Your Opinions?". New Zealand Election Study. 2008. Archived from the original on 24 August 2010.
- "Part C – Your Opinions C10b". New Zealand Election Study. Retrieved 23 March 2019.
- Palmer 2008, p. 23.
- Waitangi Crown, 1935 Archived 22 July 2016 at the Wayback Machine.
- Office of Treaty Settlements (June 2008). "Four Monthly Report" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 October 2008. Retrieved 25 September 2008.
- "Report on Stage 1 of the Te Paparahi o Te Raki Inquiry Released". Waitangi Tribunal. 2014. Archived from the original on 6 April 2017. Retrieved 25 July 2015.
- "Te Paparahi o Te Raki (Northland)". www.waitangitribunal.govt.nz. 5 December 2017. Archived from the original on 23 January 2018. Retrieved 13 January 2018.
- "Ngapuhi 'never gave up sovereignty'". The Northland Age. 18 November 2014. Retrieved 16 February 2015.
- "Waitangi Day – Introduction". New Zealand History – nzhistory.govt.nz. Retrieved 9 February 2017.
- "Waitangi Day – Introduction". New Zealand History – nzhistory.govt.nz. Archived from the original on 10 February 2017. Retrieved 9 February 2017.
- "Waitangi Day 1940s–1950s". New Zealand History – nzhistory.govt.nz. Archived from the original on 8 February 2017. Retrieved 8 February 2017.
- "Waitangi Day 1970s". NZ History. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. 5 July 2014. Archived from the original on 8 October 2017. Retrieved 26 July 2017.
- "Waitangi Day in the 21st century". NZ History. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. 5 July 2014. Archived from the original on 14 October 2017. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
- "Treaty of Waitangi". Colnect. Retrieved 22 October 2018.
- "Treaty of Waitangi". New Zealand Post. Retrieved 22 October 2018.
- "New stamp for 175th anniversary of the Treaty of Waitangi". Scoop Independent News. Retrieved 22 October 2018.
- Adams, Peter (1977). Fatal Necessity: British Intervention in New Zealand 1830–1847. Auckland: Auckland University Press. ISBN 0-19-647950-9.
- Buick, T. Lindsay (2011). The Treaty of Waitangi: or How New Zealand Became a British Colony. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1108039963.
- Durie, Mason (1998). Te Mana, Te Kāwanatanga; The Politics of Māori Self-Determination. Auckland: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-558367-1.
- King, Michael (2003). The Penguin History of New Zealand. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-301867-1.
- O'Malley, Vincent (2019). The New Zealand Wars Ngā Pakanga O Aotearoa. Wellington: Bridget Williams Books. ISBN 9781988545998.
- McLean, Gavin (2006). The Governors: New Zealand's Governors and Governors-General. Dunedin: Otago University Press. ISBN 1-877372-25-0.
- McDowell, Morag; Webb, Duncan (2002). The New Zealand Legal System (3rd ed.). LexisNexis Butterworths. ISBN 0408716266.
- Moon, Paul (2002). Te ara kī te Tiriti (The Path to the Treaty of Waitangi). Auckland: David Ling. ISBN 0-908990-83-9.
- Moon, Paul, ed. (2010). New Zealand Birth Certificates – 50 of New Zealand's Founding Documents. AUT Media. ISBN 978-0-9582997-1-8.
- Orange, Claudia (1987). The Treaty of Waitangi (Second ed.). Wellington: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 9781877242489.
- Orange, Claudia (1989). The Story of a Treaty. Wellington: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 0-04-641053-8.
- Orange, Claudia (1990). An Illustrated History of the Treaty of Waitangi (2003 ed.). Wellington: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 0-04-442169-9.
- Palmer, Matthew (2008). The Treaty of Waitangi in New Zealand's Law and Constitution. Victoria University of Wellington Press. ISBN 978-0-86473-579-9.
- Quentin-Baxter, Alison; McLean, Janet (2017). This Realm of New Zealand: The Sovereign, the Governor-General, the Crown. Auckland University Press. ISBN 978-1-869-40875-6.
- Robinson, Helen (December 2010). "Simple Nullity or Birth of Law and Order? The Treaty of Waitangi in Legal and Historiographical Discourse from 1877 to 1970". New Zealand Universities Law Review. 24 (2).
- Scott, Dick (1975). Ask That Mountain: The Story of Parihaka. Auckland: Heinemann. ISBN 0-7900-0190-X.
- Simpson, Miria (1990). Nga Tohu O Te Tiriti/Making a Mark: The signatories to the Treaty of Waitangi. Wellington: National Library of New Zealand.
- Walker, Ranginui (2004). Ka whawhai tonu matou (Struggle without End) (rev. ed.). Auckland: Penguin. ISBN 0-14-301945-7.