Treaty on the Creation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

The Declaration and Treaty on the Formation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Декларация и договор об образовании Союза Советских Социалистических Республик) officially created the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), commonly known as the Soviet Union. It de jure legalised a political union of several Soviet republics that had existed since 1919 and created a new federal government whose key functions were centralised in Moscow. Its legislative branch consisted of the Congress of Soviets of the Soviet Union and the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Union (TsIK), while the Council of People's Commissars composed the executive.

Declaration and Treaty on the Creation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Russian: Договор об образовании СССР
Ukrainian: Договір про утворення СРСР
Belarusian: Дагавор аб утварэнні СССР
Armenian: ԽՍՀՄ ձեւավորման մասին պայմանագիր
Azerbaijani: SSRİ-nin formalaşması haqqında müqavilə
Georgian: ხელშეკრულება სსრკ-ს ფორმირების შესახებ
TypeUnion treaty
Signed29 December 1922
LocationMoscow, Soviet Russia
Effective30 December 1922
Expiration8 December 1991
(Belovezha Accords signed by Russian,
Ukrainian and Belarusian Soviet Republics)

21 December 1991
(The rest of the Union joined the accords, signing the Alma-Ata Protocol)
26 December 1991
(Union dissolved at ultimate session of the Supreme Soviet)
Signatories
Parties
LanguagesRussian

The Treaty, along with the Declaration of the Creation of the USSR was approved on 30 December 1922 by a conference of delegations from the Russian SFSR, the Transcaucasian SFSR, the Ukrainian SSR and the Byelorussian SSR. The Treaty and the Declaration were confirmed by the 1st Congress of Soviets of the USSR and signed by heads of delegations[1]  Mikhail Kalinin, Mikhail Tskhakaya, Mikhail Frunze and Grigory Petrovsky, Aleksandr Chervyakov[2] respectively on December 30, 1922. The treaty provided flexibility to admit new members. Therefore, by 1940 the Soviet Union grew from the founding four (or six, depending on whether 1922 or 1940 definitions are applied) republics to 15 republics.

On 8 December 1991, Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian presidents signed the Belovezha Accords. The agreement declared dissolution of the USSR by its founder states (denunciation of the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR) and established the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). On 10 December, the accord was ratified by the Ukrainian and Belarusian parliaments. On 12 December, the agreement was ratified by the Russian Parliament, therefore the Russian SFSR renounced the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR and de facto declared Russia's independence from the USSR.

On 26 December 1991, the USSR was self-dissolved by the Council of the Republics of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union, the first house of Soviet legislature (the second house, the Council of the Union, was without a quorum).