Turkish State Railways

The State Railways of the Republic of Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Devlet Demiryolları), abbreviated as TCDD, is a government-owned national railway company responsible with the ownership and maintenance of railway infrastructure in Turkey, as well as the planning and construction of new lines. TCDD was formed on 4 June 1929 as part of the nationalisation of railways in Turkey.[2]

State Railways of the Republic of Turkey
Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Devlet Demiryolları
Map of the TCDD railway network. TCDD owns and maintains all railway infrastructure in Turkey, while TCDD Taşımacılık operates train service.
YHT high-speed rail service is the railway's premier train service. Here, HT80004 waits to depart the new ATG terminal in Ankara, bound for Konya.
HeadquartersAnkara, Turkey
Reporting markTCDD
Dates of operation1929present
PredecessorState Railways and Seaports Administration
SuccessorTCDD Taşımacılık (Railway operations only)
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) standard gauge
Previous gauge1,520 mm (4 ft 11+2732 in) Broad gauge (Sarıkamış-Gyumri)
750 mm (2 ft 5+12 in) Narrow gauge (Sarıkamış-Erzurum)
Electrification25 kV, 50 Hz AC Overhead line
Length12,532 kilometres (7,787 mi)[1]

The Turkish State Railways own and maintain all public railways in Turkey. This includes railway stations, ports, bridges and tunnels, yards and maintenance facilities. In 2016, TCDD controlled an active network of 12,532 km (7,787 mi) of railways, making it the 23rd-largest railway system in the world. Apart from railway infrastructure, TCDD also owns several rail transport companies within Turkey as well as a 50% share of the İzmir-area commuter rail system, İZBAN.

Prior to 2017, TCDD also operated all railways in Turkey. However, with the government taking steps to privatise some of the Turkish railway network, TCDD Taşımacılık was formed on 14 June 2016 to take over all railway operations. Handover of rolling stock was signed on 28 December of the same year and TCDD formally ceased all railway operations on 31 December 2016.[3]


After World War I and the Turkish Independence War, the Republic of Turkey was a new-formed country. Even though Turkey had a railway network, most of it was operated by foreign companies. The State Railways of the Republic of Turkey (TCDD) was formed on 31 May 1927. TCDD took over the Chemin de fer d'Anatolie-Baghdad, a holding company formed in 1924 by Turkey to take over some rail lines in Turkey, on 1 June 1927 and had control over the tracks of the former Anatolian Railway (CFOA) and the Transcaucasus Railway line in Turkish borders. TCDD now had rail lines to the cities İstanbul, İzmit, Ankara, Afyon, Adapazarı and Konya. On 1 January 1929, TCDD took over the rail line from Mersin to Adana (formerly the Mersin-Tarsus-Adana Railway). Apart from taking over already built lines, TCDD needed to build more line because many important cities were still not serviced by rail. In 1926, TCDD started to build a rail line east to Sivas, reaching Kayseri in 1927 and Sivas in 1930. TCDD continued to acquire from the other rail companies; taking over the Mudanya-Bursa Railway in 1931, the Smyrna Cassaba Railway in 1934, the Ottoman Railway Company in 1935 and the Oriental Railway in 1937. With most of the railways in Turkey under TCDD control, TCDD connected lines such as Kütahya with Balıkesir in 1932 and the former SCP line in Afyon with the former CFOA line. In 1932 TCDD completed the railway to Samsun heading north at Sivas. TCDD continued to build lines, reaching Zonguldak, Erzurum, Erzincan, Diyarbakır and Elazığ in the following years. World War II broke out in 1938, slowing down the building. Between 1938 and 1996 TCDD building decreased. The railway only extended to Gaziantep (1955) and Van (1962).

Formerly planned railways

In 1948 the State Railways released a plan of railway lines that were to be constructed to "ensure national progression and safety".[4] The plan included 5,538 km (3,441 mi) of new railway lines that only 96 km (60 mi) were actually completed; the Gaziantep-Karkamış section of the Narlı-Nusaybin railway was completed in 1960.


Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Devlet Demiryolları
TypeGovernment-owned (100%)
IndustryRailway company
FoundedAnkara (1927)
HeadquartersAnkara, Turkey
Key people
İsa Apaydın
Revenue 2 billion ₺ (2015)[5]
1.26 billion ₺ (2014)[5]
−1.5 billion ₺ (2015)[5]
OwnerRepublic of Turkey
Number of employees
29,829 (2014)[6]
WebsiteTCDD Official Website – Homepage (English/Turkish)

The Turkish State Railways operate most trains in the country. Intercity, regional, suburban, freight and most industrial lines are owned and operated by the State Railways. The only other railways in Turkey include İZBAN (TCDD holds 50% of the company's shares) which operates commuter rail service around İzmir and a few other industrial railways. In addition to rail services, TCDD has been responsible since 1927 for operating several major ports which handle 30% of Turkish port activities.[7]

Passenger operations

The Turkish State Railways operate passenger services on 90% of their system. These are intercity, regional, commuter and international services. In the railways first year 52% of passenger travel in Turkey was by rail, despite the system lacking connections to many parts of the country. Rail transport was the main mode of transport for passengers in the following two decades, reaching an all-time high of 57% of passenger transport in 1947, but then started to decline after 1950, due to the mass construction of roads.[8] Today, the passenger ratio is slowly increasing with the opening of high-speed rail lines in Turkey.

In 2019, almost 150 million people traveled by train in Turkey. 17.5 million on main lines, 8.3 million on high speed lines (2% increase compared to 2018) and 124 million used the Marmaray commuter railway.[9] The share of railway in domestic travels in 2013 is about 2.2%.[10]

The types of passenger service are:

  • High-speed (Hızlı Tren): High-speed rail services and TCDD's premier service.
  • Mainline (Anahat): Intercity trains operating between major cities.
  • International (Uluslararası): Trains operating on international routes, toward Europe or the Middle East.
  • Regional (Bölgesel): Trains operating within their respective districts.
  • Commuter (Banliyö): Commuter trains, currently operating in Ankara and İstanbul.
High-speed services
A TCDD HT80000 (Siemens Velaro TR) high-speed train (YHT) in Ankara

High-speed rail in Turkey began service in 2009. TCDD has branded its high-speed service as Yüksek Hızlı Tren or YHT. YHT currently operates on two lines: the Ankara–Istanbul high-speed railway and the Ankara–Konya high-speed railway. They had previously tried accelerated train, i.e. higher speed rail without the necessary upgrades on the railroad tracks.

On 13 March 2009, the first phase of the Ankara–Istanbul high-speed railway entered service between Ankara and Eskişehir. On 25 July 2014, the Ankara-Istanbul high-speed line services began to reach the Pendik railway station on the Asian side of Istanbul,[11] and on 13 March 2019 the services began to reach the Halkalı railway station on the European side of Istanbul, passing through the Marmaray railway tunnel under the Bosphorus strait. There were initially 6 daily departures in both directions.[12] The high-speed line between Ankara and Istanbul has reduced the overland travel time to 3 and a half hours, compared to 5 hours by car.

On 23 August 2011, the YHT service on the Ankara–Konya high-speed railway was inaugurated.

High-speed rail in Turkey is still developing, with new lines currently under construction or in the planning phase. By 2023, the Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure expects Turkey's high-speed rail system to increase to 10,000 kilometers.[13]

Mainline services
A DE22000 series locomotive pulls the Karesi Express into Menemen

Mainline service (Turkish: Anahat) is the railway's main service. In 2010 mainline services made up for 24% of the railways passenger traffic.[14] Mainline service includes 3 types of trains: Express, Blue Train and Passenger.

Express service is between major cities and are fast, comfortable and equipped with modern air conditioned TVS2000 railcars and only stop at important stations. Express trains have an average operating speed of 100 km/h (62 mph) to 120 km/h (75 mph). The most express service is between İstanbul and Eskişehir with 8 trains daily in each direction. Express service also has overnight trains between major cities far apart (e.g. İstanbul-Kars). These trains have coaches, a dining car and a sleeping car or a couchette car or sometimes both.

The TVS2000 railcars used on mainline service are the most comfortable cars in TCDD's entire fleet. TVS2000 railcars may also be used on International service because international services are considered mainline services within Turkey.

International services
International services to Europe
Sirkeci Terminal on the European side of Istanbul was inaugurated in 1890 as the terminus of the Rumelia Railway and the Orient Express.
International services to Asia
Haydarpaşa Terminal on the Anatolian side of Istanbul was opened in 1908 as the terminus of the Istanbul-Konya-Baghdad and Istanbul-Damascus-Medina lines.

The Haydarpaşa Terminal is the terminus for a weekly train to Tehran in Iran, another train to Iran travels between Van, Turkey and Tebriz in Iran.[15]

Additionally, trains from Iran to Syria (and vice versa) pass through Turkey.[15]

Former international services
Regional services
Commuter services
İZBAN commuter trains

As of 2011, the Turkish State Railways operate commuter rail in İstanbul and Ankara, with previous commuter service in İzmir from up to 2006, which is now operated by İZBAN. The railways use the E14000 and the E23000 EMUs on their commuter services. Previously, the newly retired E8000 EMUs and the E4000 electric locomotives were used as well. The first commuter rail service in Turkey was the İstanbul-Halkalı Line on the European side of İstanbul, operating from Sirkeci Terminal to Halkalı in 1955.[20][21][22]

Freight operations

Rail freight transport

From 1980 onwards, rail freight tonne-kilometers transported by the TCDD rose slightly from ≈5000million tonne-km in 1980 to ≈7000million tonne-km in 1990 and to ≈9000million tonne-km in 2000.[23] Approximately 50% of freight moved is minerals or ores, with construction materials increasing to ≈10% in 2000 from less than 5% in 1980, food/agricultural products, chemicals/petroleum, and metal sectors each account for between 5 and 10%. International freight accounted for approximately 5% of totals in 2000.[23]

As of 2012, 25.7 million ton is transported by rail in Turkey. Two steel companies, Erdemir and Kardemir, top 2 customers of TCDD, had transported 4.5 million ton in 2012, mainly iron ore and coal.[24] 2.1 million tons of rail freight belong to international traffic. Most of international traffic is between Turkey and Europe, done via Kapikule. Several container trains are running in this route as well as conventional wagons.[25]

As of 2014, 26.6 million ton is transported on rail in Turkey. 7.1 million of it is done by private wagons. International transport went down to 1.7 million.[26]

Containers are widely used both in international and domestic transportation. 7.6 million ton is carried in containers. TCDD is supporting transportation by containers. Thus almost all of the private railway companies invested in container wagons, and carrying 20% of all rail freight by their own wagons.[27]

TCDD has plans to strengthen freight traffic by adding 4000 km conventional lines until 2023. That includes new international rail connections to Georgia, Iraq and Iran.[28] TCDD is also constructing 18 logistic centers to enable transportation of more loads by rail.[29]

TCDD is planning to increase its transit traffic (11000 to in 2011) by constructing "iron silk road" to connect Europe to Asia. Marmaray is the most important part of this project which was completed in 2015 and now in service.[30] Another project is Kars–Tbilisi–Baku railway which is planned to be completed in 2016 and start functioning in 2017.[31] Also, plans for another supplying project to Kars-Tbilisi-Baku railway, the Kars-Igdir-Nakhcivan high speed railway has been completed.[32] TCDD wants to have share from the freight traffic between Europe and China through this line.[33]

Port of Haydarpaşa

The State Railways own and operate seven ports throughout the country and has connections to two more ports. The ports TCDD owns are the Port of Haydarpaşa[34] in Istanbul on the southern mouth of the Bosphorus, the Port of Izmir[35] on the Aegean Sea, the Port of Mersin[36] and the Port of İskenderun[37] on the Mediterranean Sea, the Port of Bandırma[38] on the Sea of Marmara, the Port of Derince[39] on the Gulf of İzmit, and the Port of Samsun on the Black Sea. The railways have connections to the Port of Zonguldak,[40] owned by Türkiye Taşkömürü Kurumu (Turkish Coal Company), the Port of Tekkeköy and the Port of Tekirdağ,[41] owned by AKPORT AŞ. In 2004, the privatization of all ports except Haydarpaşa began.[42]

By 2014 Mersin, Iskenderun, Bandirma, Samsun ports are privatized.[43] Tender for privatization of Derince Port has also completed and waiting for takeover.[44]

The state railways are planning on building rail connections to the Port of Güllük[45] (via Çine) and to the Port of Ereğli, which TCDD serviced until 2004.

The ports TCDD owns are the most important in Turkey. The country's five largest ports are owned by the state railways. The Port of Haydarpaşa will soon be decommissioned, when the Marmaray project is complete.[citation needed]

Performance, market share, assets and financial results

The ATG terminal in Ankara is a hub for the high-speed rail (YHT) services of the Turkish State Railways

Since 1950, the railway system's market share of freight transportation dropped from 70% to ≈55% (1960), ≈25% (1970), ≈10% (1980, 1990) and to less than 10% in 2000. A similar trend was observed in the percentage of passenger transport performed by rail – dropping from a share of greater than 40% in 1950 to ≈25% in 1960; less than 10% in 1970; ≈5% by 1980; and reaching an all-time low of 2% by 2000.[46] This was partly due to major investment and expansion in the road network.

The TCDD receives subsidies from the government for socially necessary operations, but has registered increasing losses in all its areas of business except for port operations; which have high port tariffs (higher than 36%).[46] By 2000, the cost to the Turkish government had exceeded $500 million per year in addition to a subsidy of over $100 million.[46] In addition to the problems caused by the lack of investment from 1950 onwards, the TCDD organisation has been characterised as suffering from the common problems associated with state-owned enterprises; i.e. emphasis on production rather than customer needs; subject to government reliance and interference; and an inward-looking corporate culture.[46]

As of 2008, the amount of freight transported was the highest ever (18.343 million tonne-kilometers); though actual growth was small over the previous 10 years, and passenger figures had risen slightly overall over the past decade.[42]

As of 2008, the TCDD administers the Ankara Railway Factory, Sivas Concrete Sleeper factory, Afyon Concrete Sleeper factory, Behiçbey rail welding and track machinery repair factory and Çankırı Switch factory. Additionally, the state owned companies TÜLOMSAŞ, TÜDEMSAŞ and TÜVASAŞ are affiliates. The TCDD has a 50% share in the İzmir Banliyö Taşımacılığı Sistemi A.Ş. (İZBAN A.Ş.) which operates the metro in İzmir, and a 15% share in EUROTEM.[42]

Rolling stock


ModelPictureNumbersBuiltNumber builtTypePowerBuilder (Designer)Notes
Main Line
DE2400024001-244181970–84418[47]Diesel Electric2360 hp (1760 kW)TÜLOMSAŞ (MTE)Ordered for TCDD's complete dieselization of its fleet
DE1810018101-18120197820[48]Diesel Electric1800 hp (1320 kW)Matériel de Traction Electrique (MTE)Ordered for use in District 3
DE2200022001-220861985–8986[49]Diesel Electric2200 hp (1620 kW)TÜLOMSAŞ (Electro-Motive Division)
E4300043001-43045198745Electric4260 hp (3180 kW)TÜLOMSAŞ (Toshiba)
DE3300033001-330892003–0489[50]Diesel Electric3300 hp (2463 kW)TÜLOMSAŞ (Electro-Motive Diesel)Based on the DE22000
E6800068001-680802013–80Electric6800 hp (5000 kW)Hyundai Rotem, TÜLOMSAŞFirst 8 built by Hyundai Rotem, later 72 are being built by TÜLOMSAŞ
DE3600036001-360202013–20[51]Diesel Electric3600 hp (2680 kW)TÜLOMSAŞ (General Electric)GE PowerHaul type
DE1100011001-11085198585[52]Diesel Electric1065 hp (780 kW)Krauss-Maffei, TÜLOMSAŞFirst 20 built by Krauss-Maffei later 60 built by TÜLOMSAŞ
DH70007001–7020199420[53]Diesel Hydraulic710 hp (522 kW)TÜLOMSAŞ
DH95009501–9526199926[54]Diesel Hydraulic950 hp (700 kW)TÜLOMSAŞDiesel-hydraulic redesign of TCDD DE11000 to work around short of spare parts for the traction motors of TCDD DE11000
E100010002015–1Electric1360 hp (1000 kW)TÜBİTAK MAM, TÜLOMSAŞPrototype, mainly used for shunting operations (electric-only adaptation of TCDD DE11000)


ModelPictureNumbersBuiltNumber BuiltTypePowerBuilder (Designer)Notes
MT1500015001-15012200812DMU650 kWHyundai RotemUsed for regional services
HT6500065001-650122007-1012EMU4800 kWCAFTCDD high-speed train sets
E2300023001-230332009–????33EMUEUROTEMBaşkentray commuter rail
MT3000015401-154522011–14DMU650 kWTÜVASAŞUsed for regional services
E3200032001-320542011–????88EMUEUROTEMMarmaray commuter rail
HT8000080001 & 80101-801062013–201616EMU8000 kWSiemensTCDD high-speed train sets


ModelPictureNumbersBuiltNumber BuiltTypePowerBuilder (Designer)Notes
MT57005701-5730199330RailcarFiatUsed for regional services

Passenger cars

ModelPictureBuiltTypeBuilder (Designer)
Regional Fleet1972CoachTÜVASAŞ
Pullman Fleet1980–90Coach, Couchette, Diner, GeneratorTÜVASAŞ
TVS20001992Coach, Diner, Couchette, Sleeper, GeneratorTÜVASAŞ

Retired fleet

ModelPictureNumbersBuiltAcquiredTypePowerBuilder (Designer)Notes
Road power
E40004001–400319551955Electric2170 hp (1620 kW)AlsthomOrdered for use on TCDD's first electrified line.
DE2000020001-200051957–581957–58Diesel Electric1800 hp (1320 kW)General Electric
E2000200019551961Electric2346 hp (1750 kW)MTEEx-SNCF BBB 20003
DH2700027001-2700319611961Diesel Hydraulic ????Krauss-Maffei
DE2150021501-215401964–651965Diesel Electric1580 hp (2150 kW)General Electric
E4000040001-4001519691971–1973Electric ???? hp (2945 kW)Alsthom and TÜVASAŞ (Groupement 50 Hz)
E5250052501-5252019671998–2005Electric5180 hp (3860 kW)Končar (ASEA)Originally built in 1967 as class 441, acquired and overhauled by TCDD in 1998. Returned after loan contract end.
DH3310033101-3310519531953Diesel Hydraulic350 hp (260 kW)MaKTCDD's first diesel locomotive.
DH4410044101-4410619551955Diesel Hydraulic800 hp (590 kW)MaK
DH6000600119591959Diesel Hydraulic610 hp (445 kW)JenbacherType DH600C
DH4100410119601960Diesel Hydraulic410 hp (300 kW)JenbacherType DH400C
DH65006501–654019601960Diesel Hydraulic650 hp (480 kW)Krupp
DH36003601–362419681968Diesel Hydraulic350 hp (260 kW)MaKBased on the DE22000.
DH1150011501-1151119601982Diesel Hydraulic1100 hp (810 kW)MaKAcquired from Deutsche Bahn in 1982.
ModelPictureNumbersBuiltTypePowerBuilder (Designer)Notes
MT52005201–52021944DMU840 hpMAN
MT53005301–55161951DMU1100 hpMAN
E80008001–80301955EMU1020 kWAlsthom
MT55005501–55111968DMU580 hpFiat
E1400014001-140751979EMU1040 kWTÜVASAŞ (Groupement 50 Hz)
ModelPictureNumbersBuiltTypePowerBuilder (Designer)Notes
1-65401–54201934Railcar85 hpŠkoda
21-255401–54201935Railcar130 hpMAN
MV51005401–54201942Railcar210 hpUerdingen
MT54005401–54201954Railcar300 hpSCCF
RM30005401–54201960Railcar340 hpSCF Verney
MT56001990Railcar550 hpTÜVASAŞUsed for regional services


The TCDD network in 2016.

TCDD directly owns and operates 8,697 km (5,404 mi) of common carrier lines, of which 1,920 km (1,190 mi) are electrified, throughout 57 provinces.[55] Along with this, the railways own and operate over 240 km (150 mi) of industrial lines and 206 km (128 mi) of high-speed lines, with 574 km (357 mi) of lines under construction.[56] As of 2010, the railways consist of 763 tunnels, 25,441 bridges, 17 wyes and 7 loops.[57] The railway's fleet consists of 467 main line Diesel locomotives, 67 Electric locomotives, 860 passenger coaches, 135 MUs, 33 High-speed rail sets and 15,384 freight cars.[58] TCDD also owns 3 rail ferries.



A TCDD HT65000 high-speed train on the Ankara–Konya YHT line

Turkey has chosen to electrify at the conventional 25 kV 50 Hz AC. The first electrified lines were the Istanbul suburban lines on the European side, from Sirkeci to Soğuksu, on 4 December 1955, and in the same period the E8000 electrical multiple units were taken into use. The suburban lines on the Asian side of Istanbul, from Haydarpaşa to Gebze, were electrified in 1969; while the Ankara suburban trains were electrified in 1972, on the line from Sincan to Kayaş.

On 6 February 1977 the tracks from Gebze to Adapazarı were made double track and electrified, allowing the first main line operation of electric trains in Turkey. The line from Arifiye outside Adapazarı to Eskişehir were further electrified in 1989 and in 1993 to Sincan, allowing electric train passages from Istanbul to Ankara. In 1994 the European lines from Istanbul to Edirne, Kapıkule and the Bulgarian border were also electrified. The same year the line from Divriği to İskenderun in eastern Turkey was also electrified, though this line is not connected to the rest of the electrified network. In 2006 the İzmir suburban system was also electrified.

Railway links with adjacent countries

West neighboring countries
  • Bulgariaopen 1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) – 25 kV, 50 Hz AC
  • Greeceopen 1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) – 25 kV, 50 Hz AC (but no train runs since February 2011 due to the economic crisis in Greece)
East neighboring countries

Logistic centers

TCDD is constructing 18 logistic centers to be completed till 2023 to increase the portion of railway in freight transportation.[29] These centers (also called as freight villages) will have railway connected container yards, cranes, warehouses, customs service and other facilities. These 18 logistic centers are: Halkali, Samsun-Gelemen, Usak (completed) Kosekoy-Izmit, Hasanbey-Eskisehir, Kaklik-Denizli, Bogazkopru-Kayseri (partially completed) Yesilbayır-Istanbul, Gökköy-Balikesir, Bozüyük-Bilecik, Kayacık-Konya, Yenice-Mersin, Sivas, Türkoğlu-Kahramanmaraş, Kars, Palandöken-Erzurum, Mardin (under construction)

Yards and depots

TCDD owns and operates many facilities throughout Turkey. These facilities are; yards for storing freight and passenger cars, depots and locomotive shops for repair and maintenance and freight facilities for transferring or storing freight.

Güvercinlik Yard in central Ankara is the largest railway facility in Turkey. This multi-use facility includes a marshaling yard, passenger yard, 3 repair shops, for passenger cars, freight cars and locomotives, freight transfer terminal and a grain silo siding. The Haydarpaşa Yard is the second largest yard in Turkey, consisting of a freight yard, passenger yard, 3 maintenance shops for locomotives, passenger cars and freight cars, and a loop for trains.

  • Güvercinlik Yard in Ankara is the largest rail yard in Turkey.
  • Haydarpaşa Yard in İstanbul is the largest passenger yard in Turkey.
  • Etimesgut Yard in Ankara is the largest high-speed rail yard in Turkey (under construction).
  • Ispartakule Yard in İstanbul is a high-speed rail yard in Turkey (under planning).
  • Tüpraş loading facility is the largest freight yard in Turkey.
  • Halkalı logistics center is the largest multipurpose freight yard in Turkey (under re-construction).
  • Güvercinlik Maintenance Facility is the largest electrified maintenance facility in Turkey.
  • Halkapınar Maintenance Facility is the largest non-electrified maintenance facility in Turkey.
  • Eskişehir Railway Shops are the largest railway construction facility in Turkey.


Van Lake Train Ferry and Van terminal
A TCDD Train Ferry in Istanbul.

The Turkish State Railways own and operate two rail train ferries and connects to three others.

The most famous of these would be the Bosphorus train ferry in İstanbul. This ferry connects Haydarpaşa, on the Asian side, with Sirkeci, on the European side. [citation needed] Demiryolu and Demiryolu II are the two ferries that operate on the route and are owned by TCDD.

By starting the project of Marmaray, TCDD ended the Bosphorus train ferry and announced an alternative ferry for the freight trains passing from Europe to Asia or vice versa: Tekirdağ-Derince Ferry. It's a private ferry named Erdemir working as a subcontractor of TCDD. Ferry did trials in 2012, and had started regular transportation at the end of 2013.[60] Ferry has 5 lines with 800-meter total length.

The other train ferry owned by TCDD would be the Lake Van ferry, connecting Tatvan and Van via Lake Van, Turkey's largest lake. This ferry is a part of the only railway connection between Turkey and Iran, and thereby between Europe and India. Van is the name of the ferry that operates on the route and is also fully owned by TCDD.[61]

Other train ferries:

Network extensions and modernizations

The Turkish State Railways currently has many network extension and modernization projects planned. TCDD is seeing the largest investment since the 1930s and with these investments is constructing new lines, primarily high-speed lines.

In addition to 5000 km high-speed line, Turkish Ministry of Transportation announced the construction of 4000 km new conventional rail lines as a part of 2023 strategy.[28]

TCDD has also been renewing the existing lines, some to be electrified, signalized and/or made double tracked. The budget for renewals and infrastructure of existing lines is more than 1 billion TL in 2014.[63]

There are also commuter rail projects (renewal or new lines) like Marmaray, Egeray, Başkentray or Gaziray that are complete, under construction or planning phase.

See also

References and notes


  1. Discontinued as of 2009[17]


  1. Invest in Turkey: Transportation and logistics
  2. TCDD History – Trains and Railways of Turkey
  3. "Hakkında". tcddtasimacilik.gov.tr (in Turkish). Retrieved 29 November 2017.
  4. Tanıl Bora (2012). Tren Bir Hayattır. Istanbul: Iletişim yayınları. p. 114. ISBN 978-975-05-1064-9.
  5. Annual Statistics of the Turkish State Railways, T.C.D.D., available at http://www.tcdd.gov.tr/files/istatistik/20102014yillik.pdf
  6. Annual Sector Report of the Turkish State Railways, T.C.D.D., available at http://www.tcdd.gov.tr/files/istatistik/2014sektorrapor.pdf
  7. Land transport/Rail – Republic of Turkey 2006 www.abgs.gov.tr
  8. TCDD ratios 1922–2005
  9. Anadolu Agency. "Turkish railways posts record figures for 2019", 12 June 2020
  10. Uysal, Onur. "Turkish Railway Industry Report 2013 – Passenger", Rail Turkey, 24 July 2014
  11. Uysal, Onur. "First High Speed Train Set on Ankara Istanbul Line Arrived Istanbul", Rail Turkey, 26 July 2014
  12. Uysal, Onur. "New Schedule for Istanbul-Ankara High Speed Train", Rail Turkey, 9 August 2014
  13. Turkey's high-speed rail system will be complete by 2023rayturk.net
  14. 2010 TCDD Statisticstcdd.gov.tr
  15. "TCDD: Destinations in the Middle East". tcdd.gov.tr. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
  16. "Turkey Closes Syria Border Crossings". The Wall Street Journal. 25 July 2012. Retrieved 2 April 2016.
  17. Brosnahan, Tom. "Toros Ekspresi Adana – Konya". Turkey Travel Planner.
  18. "Vagonları yenilenen "Toros Ekspresi" 16 Ağustos'da seferlerine başlıyor". www.rayhaber.com. Retrieved 2 April 2016.
  19. "Toros Ekspresi seferleri iptal edildi". www.rayhaber.com. Retrieved 2 April 2016.
  20. İstanbul Ulaşım: Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality Transportation Services
  21. "EGO Genel Müdürlüğü: Ankara Metropolitan Municipality Transportation Services". ego.gov.tr. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
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