Turkish (Türkçe (listen), Türk dili), also referred to as Istanbul Turkish (İstanbul Türkçesi) or Turkey Turkish (Türkiye Türkçesi), is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 70 to 80 million speakers. It is the national language of Turkey and Northern Cyprus. Significant smaller groups of Turkish speakers exist in Iraq, Syria, Germany, Austria, Bulgaria, North Macedonia, Greece, the Caucasus, and other parts of Europe and Central Asia. Cyprus has requested that the European Union add Turkish as an official language, even though Turkey is not a member state.. Turkish is the 13th most spoken language in the world.
|Türkçe (noun, adverb) |
Türk dili (noun)
|Pronunciation||Türkçe: [ˈtyɾctʃe] (listen) |
Türk dili: Turkish pronunciation: [ˈtyɾc 'dili]
|Native to||Turkey (official), Northern Cyprus (official), Cyprus (official), Azerbaijan, Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Kosovo, North Macedonia, Bosnia and Herzegovina|
|Region||Anatolia, Balkans, Cyprus, Mesopotamia, Levant, Transcaucasia|
|Over 80 million (2021 estimate)|
88 million (L1 + L2)
|Latin (Turkish alphabet)|
Official language in
|Regulated by||Turkish Language Association|
Native distribution of Turkish
Countries where Turkish is an official language
Countries where it is recognised as a minority language
Countries where it is recognised as a minority language and co-official in at least one municipality
To the west, the influence of Ottoman Turkish—the variety of the Turkish language that was used as the administrative and literary language of the Ottoman Empire—spread as the Ottoman Empire expanded. In 1928, as one of Atatürk's Reforms in the early years of the Republic of Turkey, the Ottoman Turkish alphabet was replaced with a Latin alphabet.
The distinctive characteristics of the Turkish language are vowel harmony and extensive agglutination. The basic word order of Turkish is subject–object–verb. Turkish has no noun classes or grammatical gender. The language makes usage of honorifics and has a strong T–V distinction which distinguishes varying levels of politeness, social distance, age, courtesy or familiarity toward the addressee. The plural second-person pronoun and verb forms are used referring to a single person out of respect.