Turkish language

Turkish (Türkçe (listen), Türk dili), also referred to as Istanbul Turkish[15][16][17] (İstanbul Türkçesi) or Turkey Turkish (Türkiye Türkçesi), is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 70 to 80 million speakers. It is the national language of Turkey and Northern Cyprus. Significant smaller groups of Turkish speakers exist in Iraq, Syria, Germany, Austria, Bulgaria, North Macedonia,[18] Greece,[19] the Caucasus, and other parts of Europe and Central Asia. Cyprus has requested that the European Union add Turkish as an official language, even though Turkey is not a member state.[20]. Turkish is the 13th most spoken language in the world.

Turkish
Türkçe (noun, adverb)
Türk dili (noun)
PronunciationTürkçe: [ˈtyɾctʃe] (listen)
Türk dili: Turkish pronunciation: [ˈtyɾc 'dili]
Native toTurkey (official), Northern Cyprus (official), Cyprus (official), Azerbaijan, Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Kosovo, North Macedonia, Bosnia and Herzegovina
RegionAnatolia, Balkans, Cyprus, Mesopotamia, Levant, Transcaucasia
EthnicityTurkish people
Native speakers
Over 80 million (2021 estimate)[1]
88 million (L1 + L2)[2]
Turkic
Early forms
Standard forms
  • Istanbul Turkish
Dialects
Latin (Turkish alphabet)
Turkish Braille
Official status
Official language in
Cyprus
Northern Cyprus
Turkey
Recognised minority
language in
Regulated byTurkish Language Association
Language codes
ISO 639-1tr
ISO 639-2tur
ISO 639-3tur
Glottolognucl1301
Linguaspherepart of 44-AAB-a
Native distribution of Turkish
  Countries where Turkish is an official language
  Countries where it is recognised as a minority language
  Countries where it is recognised as a minority language and co-official in at least one municipality
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A Turkish speaker from Kosovo.

To the west, the influence of Ottoman Turkish—the variety of the Turkish language that was used as the administrative and literary language of the Ottoman Empire—spread as the Ottoman Empire expanded. In 1928, as one of Atatürk's Reforms in the early years of the Republic of Turkey, the Ottoman Turkish alphabet was replaced with a Latin alphabet.

The distinctive characteristics of the Turkish language are vowel harmony and extensive agglutination. The basic word order of Turkish is subject–object–verb. Turkish has no noun classes or grammatical gender. The language makes usage of honorifics and has a strong T–V distinction which distinguishes varying levels of politeness, social distance, age, courtesy or familiarity toward the addressee. The plural second-person pronoun and verb forms are used referring to a single person out of respect.


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This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Turkish language, and is written by contributors. Text is available under a CC BY-SA 4.0 International License; additional terms may apply. Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.