Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic

The Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic (Turkmen: Түркменистан Совет Социалистик Республикасы, Türkmenistan Sowet Sotsialistik Respublikasy; Russian: Туркменская Советская Социалистическая Республика, Turkmenskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika), also commonly known as Turkmenistan or Turkmenia, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union located in Central Asia existed as a republic from 1925 to 1991. Initially, on 7 August 1921, it was established as the Turkmen Oblast of the Turkestan ASSR before being made, on 13 May 1925, a separate republic of the USSR as the Turkmen SSR.

Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic
Түркменистан Совет Социалистик
Туркменская Советская Социалистическая Республика (Russian)
Motto: Әхли юртларың пролетарлары, бирлешиң! (Turkmen)
Ähli ýurtlaryň proletarlary, birleşiň! (transliteration)
"Proletarians of all nations, unite!"
Anthem: Түркменистан Совет Социалистик Республикасы Дөвлет Гимни
Türkmenistan Sowet Sosialistik Respublikasy Döwlet Gimni
"State Anthem of the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic"

Location of Turkmenia (red) within the Soviet Union
StatusSoviet Socialist Republic
Common languagesTurkmen · Russian
State atheism
GovernmentUnitary Marxist-Leninist single-party Soviet socialist republic (1925–1990)
Unitary presidential republic (1990–1991)
 19241926 (first)
Ivan Mezhlauk
 19851991 (last)
Saparmurat Niyazov
 19251937 (first)
Kaikhaziz Atabayev
 19891991 (last)
Khan Akhmedov
LegislatureSupreme Soviet
 Turkmen Oblast of the Turkestan ASSR
7 August 1921
 Republic proclaimed
13 May 1925
 Sovereignty declared
22 August 1990
 Independence declared
27 October 1991
 Independence recognized
26 December 1991
1989488,100 km2 (188,500 sq mi)
GDP (PPP)1990 estimate
$ 26.554 billion[1]
CurrencySoviet ruble (руб) (SUR)
Calling code7 360/363/370/378/432
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Turkestan ASSR
Khorezm SSR
Bukharan SSR
Today part ofTurkmenistan

Since then the borders of the Turkmenia were unchanged. On 22 August 1990, Turkmenia declared its sovereignty over Soviet laws. On 27 October 1991, it became independent as Turkmenistan.

Geographically, Turkmenia was bordered between Iran, Afghanistan to the south, Caspian Sea to the west, Kazakhstan to the north and Uzbekistan to the east.