Types of volcanic eruptions
Several types of volcanic eruptions—during which lava, tephra (ash, lapilli, volcanic bombs and volcanic blocks), and assorted gases are expelled from a volcanic vent or fissure—have been distinguished by volcanologists. These are often named after famous volcanoes where that type of behavior has been observed. Some volcanoes may exhibit only one characteristic type of eruption during a period of activity, while others may display an entire sequence of types all in one eruptive series.
There are three different types of eruptions:
- Magmatic eruptions are the most well-observed type of eruption. They involve the decompression of gas within magma that propels it forward.
- Phreatic eruptions are driven by the superheating of steam via contact with magma. This type often exhibits no magmatic release, instead causing the granulation of existing rock.
- Phreatomagmatic eruptions are driven by the compression of gas within magma, the direct opposite of the process powering magmatic activity.
Within these wide-defining eruptive types are several subtypes. The weakest are Hawaiian and submarine, then Strombolian, followed by Vulcanian and Surtseyan. The stronger eruptive types are Pelean eruptions, followed by Plinian eruptions; the strongest eruptions are called Ultra-Plinian. Subglacial and phreatic eruptions are defined by their eruptive mechanism, and vary in strength. An important measure of eruptive strength is the Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI), an order-of-magnitude scale, ranging from 0 to 8, that often correlates to eruptive types.