Ukraine (Ukrainian: Україна, romanized: Ukraïna, pronounced [ʊkrɐˈjinɐ] (listen)) is a country in Eastern Europe. It is the second largest country in Europe after Russia,[12] which borders it to the east and north-east.[lower-alpha 1] Ukraine also shares borders with Belarus to the north; Poland, Slovakia, and Hungary to the west; Romania and Moldova[lower-alpha 2] to the south; and has a coastline along the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea. It covers about 600,000 km2 (230,000 sq mi),[lower-alpha 3] with a population of about 40 million.[13][14][lower-alpha 4] The nation's capital and largest city is Kyiv. The official and national language is Ukrainian, and most people are also fluent in Russian.[15]

Україна (Ukrainian)
Anthem: Державний Гімн України
Derzhavnyi Himn Ukrainy
"State Anthem of Ukraine"
and largest city
49°N 32°E
Official language
and national language
Ethnic groups
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential republic
Volodymyr Zelenskyy
Denys Shmyhal
Ruslan Stefanchuk
LegislatureVerkhovna Rada
18 August 1649
10 June 1917
22 January 1918
1 November 1918
22 January 1919
24 August 1991
1 December 1991
28 June 1996
18–23 February 2014
603,628[5] km2 (233,062 sq mi) (45th)
 Water (%)
 January 2022 estimate
(excluding Crimea) (36th)
 2001 census
73.8/km2 (191.1/sq mi) (115th)
GDP (PPP)2021 estimate
$584 billion[8] (48th)
 Per capita
$14,150[8] (108th)
GDP (nominal)2021 estimate
$181 billion[8] (56th)
 Per capita
$4,380[8] (119th)
Gini (2019) 26.6[9]
HDI (2019) 0.779[10]
high · 74th
CurrencyHryvnia (₴) (UAH)
Time zoneUTC+2[11] (EET)
 Summer (DST)
Driving sideright
Calling code+380
ISO 3166 codeUA
Internet TLD

During the Middle Ages, the area was a key centre of East Slavic culture under Kievan Rus', which was ultimately destroyed by the Mongol invasion in the 13th century. Over the next 600 years, the area was contested, divided, and ruled by external powers, including the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Austrian Empire, the Ottoman Empire, and the Tsardom of Russia. The Cossack Hetmanate emerged in Central Ukraine in the 17th century but was partitioned between Russia and Poland, and ultimately completely absorbed by the Russian Empire. The 19th century saw the growth of Ukrainian nationalism, particularly in Galicia, then part of Austria-Hungary. In the aftermath of the Russian Revolution a Ukrainian national movement re-emerged, and the Ukrainian People's Republic was formed in 1917. This short-lived state was forcibly reconstituted into the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, which became a founding member of the Soviet Union (USSR) in 1922. From 1932 to 1933 the Holodomor killed millions of Ukrainians. In 1939, Western Ukraine was annexed from Poland by the USSR. Ukraine was the most populous and industrialised republic after the Russian SFSR.

Ukraine regained its independence in 1991 with the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Since its independence, Ukraine has been governed as a unitary republic under a semi-presidential system. It declared itself a neutral state,[16] forming a limited military partnership with Russia and other CIS countries while also establishing a partnership with NATO in 1994. In 2013, mass protests and demonstrations known as the Euromaidan erupted, escalating into the Revolution of Dignity that led to the establishment of a new government. These events led to Russia annexing Crimea and a war in Donbas against Russian-backed separatists, culminating in a Russian invasion in February 2022. Ukraine has continued seeking closer economic, political, and military ties with the West (particularly NATO) amid ongoing war with Russia.[17]

Ukraine is among the poorest countries in Europe and suffers from widespread corruption according to various international monitors.[18][19] However, due to its extensive fertile land, pre-war Ukraine was one of the largest grain exporters in the world.[20][21] It is a member of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the OSCE, the GUAM organization, the Association Trio, and the Lublin Triangle.

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