Ukrainian People's Republic

The Ukrainian People's Republic (UPR), or Ukrainian National Republic (UNR),[lower-alpha 3] was declared in Ukraine following the February Revolution in Russia. In March 1917 the National Congress in Kyiv elected the Central Council composed of socialist parties on the same principles as throughout the rest of the Russian Republic. The republic's autonomy was recognized by the Provisional government of Russian Republic. Following the October Revolution in Russia and aggression of the newly formed Bolshevik Russia against Ukraine, it proclaimed its independence from the Russian Republic on 25 January 1918.[1]

Ukrainian People's Republic
  • Українська Народна Республіка (Ukrainian)
1917–1920[lower-alpha 1]
Coat of arms
(1918–1920)
Anthem: "Ще не вмерла України"
  "Shche ne vmerla Ukrainy"
"Ukraine's glory has not perished"
Boundary of Ukrainian People's Republic claimed by Ukrainian delegation on Paris Peace Conference, 1919 on the map with modern state boundaries.
StatusAutonomy within the Russian Republic
(1917–1918)
Partially-recognized state
(1918–1920)
Government-in-exile
(1920–1992)
CapitalKyiv
Common languagesOfficial:
Ukrainian
Widespread:
Russian
Minority languages:
Yiddish, Polish, German, Belarusian, Romanian, Bulgarian, Greek, Urum, etc.
Religion
Demonym(s)Ukrainian
GovernmentRepublic
 19171918
Mykhailo Hrushevskyi
 19181920[lower-alpha 2]
Directorate
President-in-exile 
 19261954
Andriy Livytskyi
 19541965
Stepan Vytvytskyi
 19651989
Mykola Livytskyi
 19891992
Mykola Plaviuk
LegislatureCentral Rada
(to April 1918)
Labor Congress
Historical eraWorld War I
 Autonomy declared
23 June 1917
 Republic proclaimed
20 November 1917
 Independence
22 January 1918
 Directorate formed
13 November 1918
 Hetmanate defeated
14 December 1918
 Unity Act signed
22 January 1919
18 March 1921
 Authority handed over to post-Soviet Ukraine
15 March 1992
Area
1897477,021 km2 (184,179 sq mi)
Population
 1897
23,430,407
CurrencyKarbovanets
Hryvnia
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Southwestern Krai
West Ukrainian People's Republic
1918:
Ukrainian State
1918:
Ukrainian State
1919–1921:
Ukrainian SSR
Second Polish Republic
General Command of the Armed Forces of South Russia
Free Territory
Today part of

During its short existence, the republic went through several political transformations - from the socialist-leaning republic headed by the Central Council with its general secretariat to the socialist republic led by the Directorate and by Symon Petliura. Soon after de-occupation of Ukraine from Bolshevik Russia between April and December 1918, the socialist authority of Ukrainian People's Republic suspended, having been overthrown by the pro-German Ukrainian State of Pavlo Skoropadsky, who was elected as a Hetman by congress of peasants.[1][2][need quotation to verify] From late 1919, the UNR operated as an ally of the Second Polish Republic. On 10 November 1920, the state lost the remainder of its territory to the Bolsheviks. The 18 March 1921 Treaty of Riga between the Second Polish Republic, Soviet Russia (acting also on behalf of Soviet Belarus), and Soviet Ukraine sealed the fate of the Ukrainian People's Republic.

After the October Revolution, many governments formed in Ukraine, most notably the Ukrainian People's Republic of Soviets (1917–1918) based in Kharkiv, and its Soviet successors. This force, along with the Ukrainian Republic (based in Kyiv), plus the White Movement, Poland, Green armies, and the Anarchists, fought constantly with each other, which resulted in many casualties among Ukrainians fighting in a 1917–21 Ukrainian Civil War as part of the wider Russian Civil War of 1917–23. The Russian SFSR would (after the 1921 Treaty of Riga) extend control over what would ultimately become the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic and (in 1922) a founding member of the Soviet Union.[1]