Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic

The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (Ukrainian: Украї́нська Радя́нська Соціалісти́чна Респу́бліка, Ukrainska Radianska Sotsialistychna Respublika;[note 1] Russian: Украи́нская Сове́тская Социалисти́ческая Респу́блика[note 2]), abbreviated as the Ukrainian SSR, UkrSSR, or UkSSR, and also known as Soviet Ukraine, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union from 1922 until 1991.[11] In the anthem of the Ukrainian SSR, it was referred to simply as Ukraine. Under the Soviet one-party model, the Ukrainian SSR was governed by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union through its republican branch: the Communist Party of Ukraine.

Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
Українська Радянська Соціалістична Республіка (Ukrainian)
Украинская Советская Социалистическая Республика (Russian)[1]
1941–1944: Reichskommissariat Ukraine
State emblem
Motto: Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! (Ukrainian)
Proletari vsikh krain, yednaitesia!  (transliteration)
"Workers of the world, unite!"
Anthem: Інтернаціонал (Ukrainian)
Internatsional  (transliteration)
"The Internationale"

Державний гімн Української Радянської Соціалістичної Республіки (Ukrainian)
Derzhavnyy himn Ukrayins'koyi Radyans'koyi Sotsialistychnoyi Respubliky  (transliteration)
"State Anthem of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic"
Location of the Ukrainian SSR (red) within the Soviet Union (red and light yellow) between 1954 and 1991
StatusSatellite state of the Russian SFSR (1919–1922)
Union Republic of the Soviet Union (1922–1991)
CapitalKharkov (1919–1934)[2]
Kiev (1934–1991)[3]
Largest cityKiev
Official languagesRussian[4][5]
(Ukrainian declared as sole official language in 1990)a[7]
Recognised languagesBelarusian, Crimean Tatar, Hungarian, Moldovan/Romanian, Polish
State atheism (officially)
Russian Orthodox Church (de facto) (through Ukrainian Exarchate)
Greek Catholic Church (illegal)
Sunni Islam
Demonym(s)Ukrainian, Soviet
Unitary Marxist–Leninist one-party Soviet socialist republic
Unitary parliamentary republic
First Secretary 
 1918–1919 (first)
Emanuel Kviring
 1990 (last)[8]
Stanislav Hurenko
Head of state 
 1919–1938 (first)
Grigory Petrovsky
 1990–1991 (last)
Leonid Kravchuk
Head of government 
 1918–1919 (first)
Georgy Pyatakov
 1988–1991 (last)
Vitold Fokin
LegislatureCongress of Soviets (1919–1938)[9]
Supreme Soviet (1938–1991)[10]
 Declaration of the Ukrainian Socialist Soviet Republic
10 March 1919
30 December 1922
15 November 1939
2 August 1940
 Admitted to the United Nations
24 October 1945
19 February 1954
16 July 1990
 Declaration of independence, Ukrainian SSR renamed to Ukraine
24 August 1991
1 December 1991
10 December 1991
 Dissolution of the Soviet Union (Ukraine's independence formally recognized)
26 December 1991
28 June 1996
603,700 km2 (233,100 sq mi)
HDI (1990)0.725
CurrencySoviet ruble (руб) (SUR)
Calling code7 03/04/05/06
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Ukrainian People's Republic
Second Polish Republic
Kingdom of Romania
Reichskommissariat Ukraine
General Government
Polish People's Republic
Kingdom of Hungary
Crimean Oblast
Kholodny Yar Republic
  1. Law of Ukraine "About languages of the Ukrainian SSR"

The first iterations of the Ukrainian SSR were established during the Russian Revolution, particularly after the Bolshevik Revolution. The outbreak of the Ukrainian–Soviet War in the former Russian Empire saw the Bolsheviks defeat the independent Ukrainian People's Republic, after which they founded the Ukrainian People's Republic of Soviets as a republic of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic in December 1917; it was later succeeded by the Ukrainian Soviet Republic in 1918, also under the Russian SFSR. Simultaneously with the Russian Civil War, the Ukrainian War of Independence was being fought among the different Ukrainian republics founded by Ukrainian nationalists, Ukrainian anarchists, and Ukrainian Bolsheviks—with either help or opposition from neighbouring states. As a Soviet quasi-state, the newly-established Ukrainian SSR became a founding member of the United Nations[12] alongside the Byelorussian SSR, in spite of the fact that they were legally represented by the All-Union in foreign affairs. In 1922, it was one of four Soviet republics (with the Russian SFSR, the Byelorussian SSR, and the Transcaucasian SFSR) that signed the Treaty on the Creation of the Soviet Union. Upon the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Ukrainian SSR emerged as the present-day independent state of Ukraine, although the Soviet constitution remained in use throughout the country until the adoption of the Ukrainian constitution in June 1996.[13]

Throughout its 72-year history, the republic's borders changed many times, with a significant portion of what is now western Ukraine having been annexed from eastern Poland in 1939, with significant portions of Romania in 1940, alongside another addition of territory in 1945 from Carpathian Ruthenia in Czechoslovakia. From the 1919 establishment of the Ukrainian SSR until 1934, the city of Kharkov served as its capital; however, the republic's seat of government was subsequently relocated in 1934 to the city of Kiev, the historic Ukrainian capital, and remained at Kiev for the remainder of its existence.

Geographically, the Ukrainian SSR was situated in Eastern Europe, to the north of the Black Sea, and was bordered by the Soviet republics of Moldavia, Byelorussia, and Russia, and the countries of Romania, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Poland. The republic's border with Czechoslovakia formed the Soviet Union's westernmost border point. According to the 1989 Soviet census, the republic of Ukraine had a population of 51,706,746, which fell sharply after the Soviet Union's dissolution in 1991.

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