Union of South American Nations

The Union of South American Nations (USAN; Spanish: Unión de Naciones Suramericanas, UNASUR; Portuguese: União de Nações Sul-Americanas, UNASUL; Dutch: Unie van Zuid-Amerikaanse Naties, UZAN; and sometimes referred to as the South American Union) is an intergovernmental regional organization that once comprised twelve South American countries; as of 2019, most have withdrawn.

Union of South American Nations
  • Spanish:Unión de Naciones Sudamericanas
    Portuguese:União de Nações Sul-Americanas
    Dutch:Unie van Zuid-Amerikaanse Naties
Flag
Emblem
Motto: "Soy del Sur" (I am from the South)[1]
  Member states
  Suspended member states
  Former member states
Administrative centers
Official languages
  • Portuguese
  • Spanish
  • English
  • Dutch
Demonym(s)South American
TypeContinental union
Membership
2 observers
Leaders
 President
Vacant
Vacant
LegislatureSouth American Parliament
EstablishmentFormation
8 December 2004
23 May 2008
 Treaty in force
11 March 2011
Currency
Time zoneUTC−04 to −03
Calling codesee list
Internet TLD
Notes
^S : Membership suspended

The UNASUR Constitutive Treaty was signed on 23 May 2008, at the Third Summit of Heads of State, held in Brasília, Brazil.[4] According to the Constitutive Treaty, the Union's headquarters will be located in Quito, Ecuador.[3] On 1 December 2010, Uruguay became the ninth state to ratify the UNASUR treaty, thus giving the union full legality.[5][6] As the Constitutive Treaty entered into force on 11 March 2011, UNASUR became a legal entity during a meeting of Foreign Ministers in Mitad del Mundo, Ecuador, where they had laid the foundation stone for the Secretariat Headquarters.[citation needed]

In April 2018, six countries—Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Paraguay and Peru[7][8]—suspended their membership, and in August of the same year, Colombia announced its withdrawal from the organization.[9] In March 2019, Brazil's president Jair Bolsonaro announced his country's intention to withdraw from the organization.[10] On 13 March 2019, Ecuador announced that it will withdraw from the organization. The president of the country, Lenin Moreno, also asked the bloc to return the headquarters building of the organization, based in Quito.[11]

In January 2019, amid growing concern about Venezuela's Nicolás Maduro, a new group, PROSUR, has been advanced to counteract the influence of what countries in the region call a dictatorship in Venezuela.[12] A Chilean summit to organize Prosur was held on 22 March 2019, and excluded Venezuela. Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Chile, Ecuador, Uruguay, Paraguay, Peru, Guyana and Suriname were invited to join the new regional bloc.[13] On 10 March 2020, Uruguay officially announced its withdrawal from the organization.[14]