University

A university (from Latin universitas 'a whole') is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in several academic disciplines. Universities typically offer both undergraduate and postgraduate programs. In the United States, the designation is reserved for colleges that have a graduate school.

The alma mater, meaning "nourishing mother" in Latin, is one of the most enduring symbols of the university. The phrase was first used to describe the University of Bologna, Italy, founded in 1088.

The word university is derived from the Latin universitas magistrorum et scholarium, which roughly means "community of teachers and scholars".[1]

The first universities in Europe were established by Catholic Church monks.[2][3][4][5][6] The University of Bologna (Università di Bologna), Italy, founded in 1088, is the first university in the sense of:

  • Being a high degree-awarding institute.
  • Having independence from the ecclesiastic schools, although conducted by both clergy and non-clergy.
  • Using the word universitas (which was coined at its foundation).
  • Issuing secular and non-secular degrees: grammar, rhetoric, logic, theology, canon law, notarial law.[7][8][9][10][11]

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