Ur

Ur (/ΚŠΙ™r/; Sumerian: Urim;[1] Sumerian Cuneiform: π’ŒΆπ’†  URI5KI, 𒋀𒀕𒆠 URIM2KI or π’‹€π’€Šπ’†  URIM5KI;[2] Akkadian: 𒋀𒀕𒆠, romanized: Uru;[3] Arabic: Ψ£ΩΩˆΩ’Ψ±β€Ž, romanized: ΚΎΕ«r; Hebrew: ΧΧ•ΦΌΧ¨β€Ž, romanized: ΚΎΓ»r) was an important Sumerian city-state in ancient Mesopotamia, located at the site of modern "Tell el-Muqayyar" (Arabic: ΨͺΩ„ Ω±Ω„Ω’Ω…ΩΩ‚ΩŽΩŠΩŽΩ‘Ψ±β€Ž) in south Iraq's Dhi Qar Governorate.[4] Although Ur was once a coastal city near the mouth of the Euphrates on the Persian Gulf, the coastline has shifted and the city is now well inland, on the south bank of the Euphrates, 16 kilometres (9.9 miles) from Nasiriyah in modern-day Iraq.[5] The city dates from the Ubaid period circa 3800 BC, and is recorded in written history as a city-state from the 26th century BC, its first recorded king being Mesannepada.

Ur
π’ŒΆπ’†  URI5KI, 𒋀𒀕𒆠 or π’‹€π’€Šπ’†  Urim (Sumerian)
𒋀𒀕𒆠 Uru (Akkadian)
Ψ£ΩΩˆΩ’Ψ± ΚΎΕ«r (Arabic)
The ruins of Ur, with the Ziggurat of Ur visible in the background
Ur
Shown within Iraq
Ur
Ur (Near East)
Ur
Ur (West and Central Asia)
LocationTell el-Muqayyar, Dhi Qar Governorate, Iraq
RegionMesopotamia, Middle East
Coordinates30Β°57β€²42β€³N 46Β°06β€²18β€³E
TypeSettlement
History
Foundedc. 3800 BC
Abandonedafter 500 BC
PeriodsUbaid period to Iron Age
CulturesSumerian
Site notes
Excavation dates1853–1854, 1922–1934
ArchaeologistsJohn George Taylor, Charles Leonard Woolley
Official nameUr Archaeological City
Part ofAhwar of Southern Iraq
CriteriaMixed: (iii)(v)(ix)(x)
Reference1481-006
Inscription2016 (40th Session)
Area71 ha (0.27 sq mi)
Buffer zone317 ha (1.22 sq mi)

The city's patron deity was Nanna (in Akkadian, Sin), the Sumerian and Akkadian moon god, and the name of the city is in origin derived from the god's name, UNUGKI, literally "the abode (UNUG) of Nanna".[5] The site is marked by the partially restored ruins of the Ziggurat of Ur, which contained the shrine of Nanna, excavated in the 1930s. The temple was built in the 21st century BC (short chronology), during the reign of Ur-Nammu and was reconstructed in the 6th century BC by Nabonidus, the last king of Babylon. The ruins cover an area of 1,200 metres (3,900 ft) northwest to southeast by 800 metres (2,600 ft) northeast to southwest and rise up to about 20 metres (66 ft) above the present plain level.[6]