Testing area for changes to the Shield of the Trinity article
The Shield of the Trinity or Scutum Fidei is a traditional Christian visual symbol which expresses many aspects of the doctrine of the Trinity, summarizing the first part of the Athanasian Creed in a compact diagram. In late medieval England and France, this emblem was considered to be the heraldic arms of God (or of the Trinity).
This diagram consists of four nodes (generally circular in shape) interconnected by six links. The three nodes at the edge of the diagram are labelled with the names of the three persons of the Trinity (traditionally the Latin-language names, or scribal abbreviations thereof): The Father ("PATER"), The Son ("FILIUS"), and The Holy Spirit ("SPIRITUS SANCTUS"). The node in the center of the diagram (within the triangle formed by the other three nodes) is labelled God (Latin "DEUS"), while the three links connecting the center node with the outer nodes are labelled "is" (Latin "EST"), and the three links connecting the outer nodes to each other are labelled "is not" (Latin "NON EST").
The links are non-directional — this is emphasized in one thirteenth-century manuscript by writing the link captions "EST" or "NON EST" twice as many times (going in both directions within each link), and is shown in some modern versions of the diagram by superimposing each occurrence of the "is" / "is not" text on a double-headed arrow ↔ (rather than enclosing it within a link). So the following twelve propositions can be read off the diagram:
- "The Father is God"
- "The Son is God"
- "The Holy Spirit is God"
- "God is the Father"
- "God is the Son"
- "God is the Holy Spirit"
- "The Father is not the Son"
- "The Son is not the Father"
- "The Father is not the Holy Spirit"
- "The Holy Spirit is not the Father"
- "The Son is not the Holy Spirit"
- "The Holy Spirit is not the Son"
The Shield of the Trinity is not generally intended to be any kind of schematic diagram of the structure of God, but instead is merely a compact visual device from which the above statements (contained in or implied by the Athanasian Creed) can be read off.
The precise origin of this diagram is unknown, but it was evidently influenced by 12th-century experiments in symbolizing abstract concepts in visual form, such as Petrus Alfonsi's Tetragrammaton-Trinity diagram of ca. 1109 (and possibly also by Joachim of Fiore's different Tetragrammaton-Trinity diagram of three circles, which in turn led to the Borromean rings being used as a symbol of the Trinity ), in combination with the Athanasian Creed. The Shield of the Trinity diagram is attested from as early as a ca. 1208-1216 manuscript of Peter of Poitiers' Compendium Historiae in Genealogia Christi, but the period of its most widespread use was during the 15th and 16th centuries, when it is in found in a number of English and French manuscripts and books (such as the Sherborne Missal), and as part of stained-glass windows and ornamental carvings in a number of churches (many in East Anglia). The diagram was used heraldically from the mid-13th century, when a shield-shaped version of the diagram (not actually placed on a shield) was included among the ca. 1250 heraldic shields in Matthew Paris' Chronica Majora, while the ca. 1260 allegorical illustrations of a knight battling the seven deadly sins in a manuscript of William Peraldus' Summa Vitiorum, and of a woman penitent fending off diabolical attacks in the De Quincy Apocalypse, show the diagram placed on a shield. In the 15th century, one form of the Shield of the Trinity was considered to be the coat of arms of God (see discussion below). The use of the diagram declined in England with the rise of Protestantism, and from the 17th century to the early 19th century, it was mainly of interest to historians of heraldry; but beginning in the 19th century it underwent a limited revival as an actively-used Christian symbol among English-speaking Christians, partly due to being included in books such as the Handbook of Christian Symbolism by W.J. and G.A. Audsley (1865).
The only name for this diagram which was in any regular use during the Middle Ages was "Scutum Fidei" (a Latin phrase meaning "Shield of the Faith", taken from the Vulgate of Ephesians verse 6:16). For example, in this ca. 1247-1258 manuscript of John of Wallingford's writings, the quote from Ephesians 6:16 is placed directly above the diagram.
The particular phrase "Shield of the Trinity", which is now the most common name for the diagram in English, didn't come into regular use until the 20th century. However, it is called in Latin Scutum Sancte Trinitatis or "Shield of the Holy Trinity" (where sancte is a medieval form for more classical sanctae) on the font in Crosthwaite Church, near Keswick, Cumbria, England. Other variant names are "Arms of the Trinity", "Shield of the Blessed Trinity", "Emblem of the Trinity", "Arms of the Faith", "Emblem of the Holy and Undivided Trinity", etc.
Some variations of the Shield of the Trinity diagram are shown in the image below:
A shield-shaped version of the diagram placed on a red shield (heraldic "gules") was attributed as the arms of God (or of the Trinity) by heralds in 15th-century England and France. The "banner of the Trinity" which Jean Le Fevre, Seigneur of St. Remy, and Jehan de Wavrin attest that Henry V of England displayed at Agincourt would have been the same (but with the emblem on a red flag instead of a red shield). This coat of arms was given the following heraldic blazon in "On Sacred Heraldry" by E.L. Blackburne (attached as Appendix II to Emblems of the Saints, By which they are Distinguished in Works of Art by F. C. Husenbeth, edited by Augustus Jessopp, 3rd.ed. 1882):
- Gules, an orle and pall Argent, conjoined and surmounted of four plates, occupying the dexter and sinister chief and the base and fess points respectively; the first inscribed "Pater", the second "Filius", and the third "Spiritus Sanctus", the centre "Deus"; the connecting portions of the orle between them having the words "non est", and those of the pall "est".
The diagram on a blue shield (heraldic "azure") was the coat of arms of the Priory of Black Canons (monastery of Christ Church) near Aldgate in the City of London (see also the 15th century coat of arms attributed to St. Michael the Archangel and the modern coat of arms of the Anglican diocese of Trinidad shown below). Two of the 13th-century manuscripts have the diagram on a green shield (heraldic "vert"), which is also found in the coat of arms of Trinity Parish, Jersey shown below. Green is the color of Trinity Sunday or the Trinity liturgical season in some traditions.
Other variant forms of the diagram have the lettering on nodes and links with a yellow background color (instead of white), since "or" (i.e. gold/yellow) is the other heraldic "metal" color. So the arms attributed to St. Faith in late medieval England consist of a diagram with lettering on yellow, placed on a red or blue shield, while the parish of the Forest, Guernsey uses a diagram with lettering on white or yellow nodes and links, placed on a green shield.
In the Middle Ages, the shield-shaped version of the diagram was sometimes imagined as a protective shield wielded by the Archangel Michael, or by an ordinary soul, in the spiritual warfare against dark forces described in Ephesians chapter 6 (as in the ca. 1260 allegorical illustrations in manuscripts of Peraldus' Summa Vitiorum and the De Quincy Apocalypse).
A symmetrical rounded form of the diagram with one vertex up and two down was apparently popularized in the modern period by the Audsleys' Handbook of Christian Symbolism; this rounded form also occurs with one vertex down and two up. The outer node captions can be reduced to simple initials ("P", "F", and "SS"). On the coat of arms of Trinity Parish, Jersey shown below, all four node captions are reduced to single initials, and in some late medieval English church decorations (such as the bench end at Holy Trinity church, Blythburgh, Suffolk and the font at St John the Baptist church, Butley, Suffolk) the four connected circles are intended as a symbol of the Trinity even when all text is omitted.
Obviously, many further slight artistic variations can occur in the relative sizes of nodes and links, their exact placement, in lettering styles, in further decorative elaboration, etc. Occasionally one or more of the outer nodes is drawn as a non-circular shape to fit within a space allotted.
Also, the diagram can be color-coded in order to bring out the interrelationships between its elements more clearly; in the version included above, the positive or asserting parts of the diagram are shown in black, while the negative or denying parts of the diagram are in red. This is similar to the version of the Shield of the Trinity present in a 15th-century stained glass window in St. Peter and St. Paul church, Fressingfield, Suffolk, England (where only the positive or asserting parts of the diagram are shown — see link below).
Finally, a version of the diagram with translated English-language captions is shown in the illustration above. (For simplicity, the definite article could also be left out of the English translations of the outer node captions, as in the next illustration below.) In the Middle Ages, Latin was the liturgical language and main language of scholarship of Western Europe, so that Latin captions were then most often used (but at least one old rendition of the diagram in another language is attested in the ca. 1260 Anglo-Norman French allegorical illustration in the De Quincy Apocalypse).
Orientation of diagram, and placement of outer node captions
As the First Person of the Trinity, the Father is always in the most honorable position in the diagram. So in the form of the diagram with one vertex down, the caption "PATER" or Father is always placed in the top left node (which is heraldically the top right or "dexter chief", when considered from the point of view of someone holding the shield from behind). And in the form of the diagram with one vertex up, the caption "PATER" or Father is always placed in the topmost node. The placement of the captions "FILIUS" or Son and "SPIRITUS SANCTUS" or Holy Spirit in the remaining two outer nodes can vary.
In the 13th-century versions of the diagram, the caption "FILIUS" is placed in the bottom node, and often a cross is drawn in the link between the center node and the bottom node, in order to symbolize the idea that the Second Person of the Trinity entered into the world (or that "The Word was made flesh", as is stated in a Latin annotation on the diagram included in Matthew Paris' Chronica Majora which quotes from the Vulgate of John verse 1:14). However, when this form of the Shield of the Trinity diagram with one vertex down is used after the 13th century, the Son is much more often placed in the top right node, and the Holy Spirit in the bottom node (as shown in the illustrations above).
The diagram below shows the earliest and most recent major variants of the "Shield of the Trinity" diagram: On the left, the form attested in various manuscripts ca. 1208-1260 A.D., and on the right the form popularized among some English-speaking Protestants in recent years by Paul P. Enns' 1989 book The Moody Handbook of Theology and H. Wayne House's 1992 book Charts of Christian Theology and Doctrine. Note that in the 13th-century manuscripts, the cross is often drawn as a detailed artistic illumination of Christ on the cross, which is not attempted here.
A few authors of 20th-century books on Christian symbolism (such as Edward N. West in Outward Signs: The Language of Christian Symbolism, 1989) have been of the opinion that the form of the diagram with one vertex down and the captions "PATER" and "FILIUS" in the two top nodes is more appropriate for Western Christianity with its Filioque, while the form of the diagram with one vertex up represents more closely the doctrine of the Trinity in Eastern Christianity (without the Filioque) — though this hyper-refined interpretation does not agree with 13th-century usage, nor with the use of versions of the diagram with one vertex up by modern Catholics and Protestants.
The main achievement of the Shield of the Trinity diagram is to transfer a large part of the essential "mystery" or "paradox" of the Christian doctrine of the Trinity from the realm of complex verbal philosophical abstractions and esoteric theological vocabulary to the realm of simple logic, as presented in the relatively easily graspable form of a concrete and conveniently compact visual diagram. It is remarkable as a basically-successful attempt, roughly 800 years old, to represent a complex set of abstract concepts in precise graphic form (as opposed to many of the near-contemporary attempts of Joachim of Fiore and Raymund Lull, which were not so successful). Thus it is probably one of the oldest meaningful "graphs", in the sense of graph theory (technically, it is a complete graph on 4 vertices, the same as the vertices and edges of a tetrahedron).
Of course, if the diagram is interpreted according to ordinary logic, then it contains a number of contradictions (since the set of twelve propositions listed above is mutually contradictory). However, if the three links connecting the three outer nodes of the diagram to the center node are interpreted as representing a non-transitive quasi-equivalence relation (where the statement "A is equivalent to C" does not follow from the two statements "A is equivalent to B" and "B is equivalent to C"), then the diagram is fully logically coherent and non-self-contradictory. So the medieval Shield of the Trinity diagram could be considered to contain some implicit kernel of the idea of alternative logical systems.
Unlike some other logical or mathematical constructs sometimes offered as analogies for the Trinity (such as the Venn diagram and the cube viewed by inhabitants of a two-dimensional plane), the Shield of the Trinity does not too easily lend itself to interpretations which are non-orthodox from the traditional mainstream Christian point of view.
- "The Heraldic Imagination" by Rodney Dennys (1975). (Good historic and heraldic references)
- "An Illustrated Fragment of Peraldus's Summa of Vice: Harleian MS 3244" by Michael Evans in Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, vol. 45 (1982), pp. 14-68. JSTOR 750966 (Contains descriptions and photos of most known surviving 13th-century diagrams, including experimental attempts to use the basic structure of the diagram for other purposes)
- "Church Symbolism: An Explanation of the more Important Symbols of the Old and New Testament, the Primitive, the Mediaeval and the Modern Church" by Frederick Roth Webber (2nd. edition, 1938). OCLC 236708 (Convenient overview from the point of view of Christian symbolism; also, the earliest attestation of the exact phrase "Shield of the Trinity" that I can find)
- "Handbook of Christian Symbolism" by William James Audsley and George Ashdown Audsley (1865). (Probably the earliest significant source for the 19th-century revival of use)
Links to depictions of the Shield of the Trinity diagram
13th century manuscripts
- Ca. 1208-1216 manuscript of Compendium Historiae in Genealogia Christi by Peter of Poitiers (Petrus Pictavensis) - Cotton Faustina B. VII folio 42v at British Library online
- Ca. 1247-1258 manuscript of John of Wallingford's writings - Cotton Julius D. VII folio 3v at British Library online
- Ca. 1255-1265 manuscript of Summa Vitiorum or "A Treatise on the Vices" by William Peraldus - Harley 3244 folios 27-28 at British Library online
- Folio 38r of the Abingdon Apocalypse (British Museum additional manuscript 42555, ca. 1262) contains a form of the Shield of the Trinity, according to the Michael Evans journal article (however, without text, and with a superimposed central cross).
- The diagrams in Matthew Paris' Chronica Majora and the De Quincy Apocalypse (Lambeth palace ms. 209, folio 53r) are not online, but are shown in the Michael Evans journal article.
15th- or 16th-century manuscripts and books
- This page has a scan of a 16th-century woodcut which is very similar to an illustration in a Book of Hours printed by Simon Vostre in Paris in 1524 (as reproduced in vol. 2 of Didron's 1843 Christian Iconography).
- The Sherborne Missal — illustration for Trinity Sunday in an early 15th-century manuscript at British Library online.
- See the coat of arms attributed to St. Michael ("Sent Myhell") in a 15th-century (ca. 1460?) heraldic manuscript in the image at right.
- A redrawn version of the arms of the monastery of Christ Church, London can be seen as part of the on-line version of the 1894 book A Glossary of Terms Used in Heraldry by James Parker.
15th- or 16th-century church decorations
- Depiction by 16th-century Spanish artist Jerónimo Cosida
- St. Nicholas, Yarmouth, Norfolk, England
- St. Peter and St. Paul, Salle, Norfolk, England
- St. Martin, Nacton, Suffolk, England
- St Michael's Church, Framlingham (carved baptismal font without text)
- St. Peter and St. Paul, Fressingfield, Suffolk, England (shows only the "positive" parts of the diagram, as discussed above)
- St. Mary, Henham, Essex, England
- St. John the Baptist, Butley, Suffolk, England
- Holy Trinity, Blythburgh, Suffolk, England
- All Saints, Wighton, Norfolk, England (textless carving)
- Photographs of stained-glass windows on Flickr:
Some modern church decorations
- Holy Trinity church, Bottisham, Cambridgeshire (shield-shaped diagram on red shield)
- Saint-Maurice-des-Champs, Lille. France (floor inlay)
- Grace Episcopal Church, Decorah, Iowa (stained glass window)
- St Mary the Virgin, Bromfield, Shropshire (ceiling, one of the few 17th-century uses of the diagram, without nodes)
- Circular diagram on stained-glass window — St Oswald's, Sowerby, North Yorkshire
- Embroidered church decoration (with decorative outer "Sanctus" circle) — Mary Magdalene, Lincoln
- Stained glass window with trefoil nodes — St Andrew, Wissett, Suffolk
- Stained-glass window — St Andrew, Newcastle
- Stained-glass window — St Andrew, Newcastle
- Stained-glass window — Holy Trinity, Brathay, Cumbria
- Stained-glass window — All Saints, Longstanton, Cambridge
- Stained-glass window — St. Mary's Church, Deerhurst, Gloucestershire
- Banner for the first Sunday of Trinity, in seasonal liturgical colors of white and green, with symbols of the three Persons of the Trinity — North Salem Lutheran Church, Sandusky, Ohio
- Stained glass window of Shield of Trinity diagram as symbol of the Athanasian Creed — Messiah Evangelical Lutheran Church, Sterling, Illinois
- Floor decoration — Our Savior's Lutheran Church in Port Orange, Florida (for artist's draft of design, see here)
- Stained glass window of diagram in circular form — Lehigh Valley Presbyterian Church, Pennsylvania
- Stained glass window of diagram in circular form — Holy Trinity, Avon, Ohio
- Baptismal font, Most Sacred Heart Catholic Church, Eureka, Missouri
- 1937 version of diagram by Ade Bethune in collection at St. Catherine University
- Elaborate stained-glass window with symbolic representations of the three persons of the Trinity filling the three outer nodes — Trinity Episcopal Church, Lawrence, Kansas (photo is contained in PDF file on all the stained-glass windows in the church)
Other Shield of the Trinity related images
- Image:Wernigeroder Wappenbuch 010.jpg, Image:Harleian Ms2169 St Mihell arms tricked original.gif, Image:Harleian Ms2169 St Mihell arms colorized.gif -- 15th-century armorial manuscript illustrations
- Image:Shield-Trinity-Scutum-Fidei-basic.png , Image:Scutum_fidei_LAT.svg -- Basic "Shield of the Trinity" diagram (Latin)
- Image:Shield-Trinity-Scutum-Fidei-variations.png , Image:Shield-Trinity-Scutum-Fidei-variations.svg -- Variants of the "Shield of the Trinity"
- Image:Sent-Myhell-Armys--Arms-of-St-Michael-ca-1460.png -- Arms attributed to St. Michael in the 15th century
- Image:Shield of Trinity Aveling 1891.png -- from 1891 book
- Image:Trinity triangle (Shield of Trinity diagram) 1896.jpg -- from 1896 book
- Image:Shield-Trinity-Scutum-Fidei-earliest-and-latest-major-variants.png , Image:Shield-Trinity-Scutum-Fidei-earliest-and-latest-major-variants.svg - The earliest and most recent major variations of the "Shield of the Trinity" diagram
- Image:Trinity-Parish-Jersey-Coat-of-Arms.png , Image:Trinity-Parish-Jersey-Coat-of-Arms.png -- Coat of Arms of Trinity Parish, Jersey (British channel islands)
- Image:Shield-Trinity-Scutum-Fidei-English.png , Image:Shield-Trinity-Scutum-Fidei-English.svg - "Shield of the Trinity" diagram with translated English captions
- Image:Shield-Trinity-medievalesque.png , Image:Shield-Trinity-medievalesque.svg -- large modern version of medieval arms of God (with vector source).
- Image:St-Faith-Arms.png - arms attributed to St Faith in medieval England (the same as the preceding, except with yellow diagram background instead of white).
- Image:Trinidad-Anglican-Episcopal-Coat-of-Arms-large.png , Image:Trinidad-Anglican-Episcopal-Coat-of-Arms.svg -- larger version of Anglican Trinidad diocese arms.
- Image:3enighed.png , Image:3enighed.svg -- Shield of Trinity diagram taken from the preceding for Danish Wikipedia.
- Image:Shield of Trinity in hexagon.svg, Image:Shield of Trinity in hexagon English.svg -- compactly fitting inside hexagon
- Image:Escudo-de-la-Fe Simbolo-Atanasiano.svg (Spanish)
- Image:Schild-Dreieinheit-Scutum-Fidei-Deutsch.svg (German)
- ar:Image:Turs-ul-Iman Shi'ar-uth-Thaluth.png , Image:Turs-ul-Iman Shi'ar-uth-Thaluth.svg (Arabic)
- Image:3enighed-heb.svg (Hebrew)
- Image:Shield-Trinity-Separ-Iman-Farsi.svg (Farsi/Persian)
- Image:Sxildo-de-fido de-la-Triunuo.svg (Esperanto)
- Image:Shield_of_the_Trinity_diagram_-_language-neutral_concept.svg -- not completed
- The heraldic coat of arms of the Anglican diocese of Trinidad
- Trinity, Jersey
- The earliest and most recent major variations of the "Shield of the Trinity" diagram
- Four variants of the "Shield of the Trinity"
Other images I've created or worked on to a significant degree (on other Wikipedia areas than "en", or not connected to the "Shield of the Trinity" article):
- Image:167th-Infantry-Regiment distinctive-unit-insignia.svg, Image:48th Division Shoulder Patch.svg
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- Image:1984 Social Classes.png
- Image:6Loops-Brunnian-link.svg, Image:3Loops-Borromean-link.svg
- Image:Archimedean spiral.png, Image:Archimedean-involute-circle-spirals-comparison.svg
- Image:Basic constituent structure analysis English sentence.svg
- Image:Basic staple diagram (named parts).svg
- Image:Borromeanrings.png, Image:BorromeanRings.svg, Image:Borromean-rings-BW.svg, Image:Borromean-rings minimal-overlap.svg, Image:Two-representations-of-L6n1-link-as-linked-circles.svg
- Image:Brunnian.png, Image:Brunnian-4loops.svg
- Image:Bond-coat-of-arms (semi-fictional).svg
- Image:Coat of arms of Italian family of Daddi.svg
- Image:Coat of arms of Archenland (Narnia).svg
- Image:Coat of arms of county Gronsveld (HRE).svg
- Image:Coat of arms of Pailly, Vaud.svg
- Image:Coat of arms of William Shakespeare and his father.svg
- Image:Four Freedoms Flag or United Nations Honour Flag ca 1943-1948.svg, Image:United Nations flag proposal January 1947.svg
- Image:Hebrew Chai Symbol.png, Image:Hebrew Chai Symbol.svg
- Image:Israel and Palestine Peace.png
- Image:Isratine.png, Image:Isratine.svg
- Image:Kajira-kef.png, Image:Kajira-kef.svg, Image:Kajira-kef (alternate).svg
- Image:Libyan protesters flag (observed 2011).svg
- Image:Maurice of Nassau arms.svg
- Image:Melchior Armes imaginaires selon Pastoureau medievales.svg
- Image:Muzzaffar (Mogadishu area) flag according to 1576 Portuguese map.svg
- Image:Odder coat of arms.svg
- Image:Palestine-Mandate-Ensign-1927-1948.png, Image:Palestine-Mandate-Ensign-1927-1948.svg, Image:Flag-map of historic Palestine.svg, Image:Flag map of the Palestinian territories.svg
- Image:Patriarchal cross.png, Image:Patriarchal cross.svg
- Image:Poiuyt.svg, Image:Poiuyt--opaque.svg, Image:Poiuyt-pseudo-backgrounds.svg
- Image:Sable a Fess Or.svg, Image:Argent chevron azure three martlets sable crescents Or.svg, Image:Azure bend Or between two roses Argent three crescents Sable.svg,
- Image:Sacred-chao.png, Image:Sacred-Chao.svg, Image:GoldenAppleDiscord.svg
- Image:Simple inverse relationship chart.svg
- Image:Trefoil-Architectural.png, Image:Trefoil-Architectural.svg - image created for Trefoil article.
- Image:United States Bicentennial star 1976 (geometry).svg, Image:United States Bicentennial star 1976 (monochrome).svg
- Image:U5974-History.png, Image:U5974-History.svg, Image:U5973-radical-38 early-form.svg
- Image:Vesica piscis.png
- Image:8crossings-rose-limacon-knot.svg, Image:12crossings-rose-limacon-knot.svg, Image:14crossings-decorative-knot-trig-curve.svg
- Image:10crossings-two-triquetras-joined.svg, Image:9crossings-decorative-knot-threefold-incircle.svg, Image:12crossing-decorative-knot-triskele.svg, Image:12crossings-4symmetrical-square.svg, Image:12crossings-fourfold-symmetric.svg, Image:Circular-cross-decorative-knot-12crossings.svg, Image:15crossings-three-trefoils-decorative-knot.svg, Image:20crossings-four-trefoils-decorative-knot.svg, Image:12-crossings-ornamental-knot-around-triangle.svg, Image:12crossing-link-inrectangle.svg, Image:15crossings-decorative-knot.svg, Image:16-crossings-ornamental-knot.svg, Image:20-crossings-ornamental-knot.svg, Image:24crossing-link-inrectangle.svg, Image:25crossings-decorative-knot.svg, Image:36crossing-link-inrectangle.svg
- Image:15-threefold-decorative-knot.svg, Image:Octagram-in-square.svg, Image:Irish compass rose.svg, Image:Pentacle-knot-15crossings.svg, Image:Pseudo-Celtic 13crossing knot.svg, Image:Quasi-Celtic-ornamental-knot-49crossings-inrectangle.svg, Image:Semiregular-quasi-Celtic-knot-linear-inrectangle.svg, Image:10-59 knot theory square.svg, Image:10-60 knot theory square.svg, Image:4intersecting-rounded-rectangles.svg, Image:8-16 knot theory square.svg, Image:8crossing-symmetrical-nonalternating.svg, Image:8crossing-symmetrical.svg, Image:8crossings-two-trefoils.svg, Image:8symmetric-quasi-arabesque.svg, Image:9-2 star polygon interlaced.svg, Image:9-crossing non-alternating 3-symmetrical.svg, Image:9crossing-knot symmetrical grid.svg, Image:9crossings-threesymmetric-other.svg, Image:Two-trefoils-on-loop doubly-interlinked 10crossings.svg, Image:Celtic-knot-basic-rectangular.svg, Image:Celtic-knot-linear-7crossings.svg
- Image:Azure-Cross-Or-Heraldry-small.png, Image:Azure-Cross-Or-Heraldry.svg
- Image:BorromeanRings-Trinity.png, Image:BorromeanRings-Trinity.svg
- Image:Borromean-cross.png, Image:Borromean-cross.svg
- Image:Brunnian-3-not-Borromean.png, Image:Brunnian-link-12crossings-nonBorromean-quasi-Arabesque.svg
- Image:Borromean interlaced torcs Wayland knot.svg
- Image:Celtic-knot-basic.png, Image:Celtic-knot-basic.svg
- Image:Celtic-knot-basic-linear.png, Image:Celtic-knot-basic-linear.svg
- Image:Celtic-knot-insquare.svg, Image:Celtic-knot-insquare-green-transparentbg.svg, Image:Celtic-knot-insquare-39crossings.svg, Image:Celtic-knot-insquare-39crossings red-on-black.svg
- Image:Celtic key Cross.svg, Image:Celtic key Cross 2.svg
- Image:Chinese-Army-Wuhan-Flag-1911-1928 dots18.svg, Image:Chinese-Army-Wuhan-Flag-1911-1928 dots19.svg
- Image:Christianity symbols Cross Ichthys.svg
- Image:Croix de l'Ordre Hospitalier du Saint-Esprit.svg
- Image:Cross-Flory-Heraldry.png, Image:Cross-Flory-Heraldry.svg
- Image:Cross-Fourchee-Heraldry.png, Image:Cross-Fourchee-Heraldry.svg
- Image:Cross-Bottony-Heraldry.png, Image:Cross-Bottony-Heraldry.svg
- Image:Cross-Potent-Heraldry.png, Image:Cross-Potent-Heraldry.svg
- Image:Cross-Jerusalem-Potent-Heraldry.png, Image:Cross-Jerusalem-Potent-Heraldry.svg
- Image:Cross-Triple-Parted-Fretted-BW.png, Image:Cross-Triple-Parted-Fretted-BW.svg
- Image:Cross-Triple-Parted-Fretted-Or.png, Image:Cross-Triple-Parted-Fretted-Or.svg
- Image:Cross-Moline-Heraldry.png, Image:Cross-Moline-Heraldry.svg, Image:Cross-Moline-Heraldry-red.svg
- Image:Cross-Crosslet-Heraldry.png, Image:Cross-Crosslet-Heraldry.svg
- Image:Cross-Pattee-Alisee.png, Image:Cross-Pattee-Alisee.svg
- Image:Cross-Pattee-Heraldry.png, Image:Cross-Pattee-Heraldry.svg
- Image:Cross-Pattee-alternate.png, Image:Cross-Pattee-alternate.svg
- Image:Cross-Pattee-alternate2.png, Image:Cross-Pattee-alternate2.svg
- Image:Cross-Pattee-alternate3.png, Image:Cross-Pattee-alternate3.svg
- Image:Cross-Pommee-Heraldry.png, Image:Cross-Pommee-Heraldry.svg
- Image:Cross-Patonce-Heraldry.png, Image:Cross-Patonce-Heraldry.svg
- Image:E-bitu Cuneiform.svg, Image:GAL-rabu Cuneiform.svg, Image:MUNUS-SAL-sinnishtu Cuneiform.svg, Image:GEME-amtu-Cuneiform-sign-history.svg, Image:NIN-beltu Cuneiform.svg, Image:TUG-subatu-ku Cuneiform.svg, Image:LU-awilu Cuneiform.svg
- Image:Shield of Domincan Order.svg, Image:Shield of Dominican Order (simple).svg, Image:Dominican cross basic.svg, Image:Dominican US Western province coat of arms.svg, Image:Dominican province boundaries United States.svg
- Image:Double-heart-knot 10crossings.svg, Image:Double-heart-knot 14crossings.svg
- Image:Endless-Knot 9crossings-7significant outlined.svg, Image:25crossing-Endless-Knot-elaborated.svg, Image:Endless-knot-81-crossings.svg, Image:Endless-knot-49-crossings.svg
- Image:Federal-Republic-Mars flag Moving-Mars Greg-Bear.svg
- Image:Figure8knot-math-square-alternate.svg, Image:Figure8knot-math-square.svg, Image:Figure8knot-rose-limacon-curve.svg, Image:Three-figure8-knot triang1.svg, Image:Three-figure8-knot triang2.svg, Image:Figure8knot-mathematical-knot-theory.svg
- Image:Nordic flag of the United Kingdom (Proposal).svg, Image:Colonial-Red-Ensign.svg
- Image:Flag of the United States (symmetrical).svg, Image:Flag of the United States 50 stars great star arrangement (alt).svg, Image:Flag of the United States 50 stars great star arrangement.svg
- Image:Genji chapter symbols groupings of 5 elements.svg
- Image:Heraldic gurges (whirlpool) Gorges.svg
- Image:Heraldic shield shape 485x525.svg, Image:Heraldic shield shape 543x623.svg, Image:Heraldic shield shape 600x660.svg
- Image:How to make mathematical roller curve based on triangle.svg
- Image:Impossible trefoil knot Isometric.svg
- Image:Initial Teaching Alphabet ITA chart.svg
- Image:Italian syllable onset phonotactics diagram.gif
- Image:Flag of Iraq 1959-1963.svg, Image:Iraq-flag-map 1959-1963.svg
- Image:Coat of arms (emblem) of Iraq 2008.svg
- Image:Coat of arms of Heraldry itself.svg
- Image:Coat of arms Ivory Coast ca 1964-2000.svg
- Image:Coat of arms of Upper Volta.svg
- Image:Per saltire argent and azure.svg
- Image:Macedonian-ccross-alternate.svg, Image:Macedonian-cross-regularized.svg
- Image:Maltese-Cross-Heraldry.png, Image:Maltese-Cross-Heraldry.svg, Image:Maltese Cross variant red.svg, Image:Cross-Not-Pattee-Not-Maltese.png
- Image:Marriage-cross-Christian-symbol.svg, Image:Cross-Trinity-Borromean-interlinked.svg
- Image:JHS-IHS-Monogram-Name-Jesus.png, Image:JHS-IHS-Monogram-Name-Jesus.svg - JHS or IHS Christogram (Christian divine monogram of the name of Jesus) with cross, frequently used in western Church decoration.
- Image:IHC-monogram-Jesus-medievalesque.PNG, Image:IHC-monogram-Jesus-medievalesque.svg
- Image:IHS-monogram-Jesus-medievalesque.png, Image:IHS-monogram-Jesus-medievalesque.svg
- Image:Ichthys Cross.svg
- Image:Keystone state symbol Pennsylvania.svg
- Image:Knotwork-cross.svg, Image:Knotwork-cross-multicolored.svg, Image:Knotwork-cross-alternate.svg, Image:Gevlochten Iers kruis Irish cross.svg, Image:Knotwork-cross-4loops.svg, Image:Simple-knotwork-cross-12crossings.svg
- Image:Knotwork-cross-(simplest)-or-eightfold-star-(irregular).svg, Image:Interlaced ten-point star in irregular decagon.svg, Image:Interlaced 14-point star in irregular polygon.svg
- Image:LinearPotteryCulture vase design (redrawn with symmetry).svg
- Image:Lo Shu 3x3 magic square.svg
- Image:Math-granny-knot-6crossings.svg, Image:Math-square-knot-6crossings.svg
- Image:Op-art-4-sided-spiral-tunnel.svg, Image:Optical-illusion-checkerboard-bw.svg, Image:Optical-illusion-checkerboard-twisted-cord.svg, Image:Optical-illusion-checkerboard.svg, Image:Optical-illusion-diamonds.svg, Image:Optical-illusion-grid-lines.svg, Image:Double optical illusion.svg
- Image:Quatrefoil-Architectural-alternate.png, Image:Quatrefoil-Architectural-alternate.svg
- Image:Retro-flower-ornaments.svg, Image:Retro-flower-icon-5petals.svg
- Image:StJames Cross.svg
- Image:Tesseract net Crooked House.svg
- Image:Three-interlaced-squares-Brunnian-24crossings.svg, Image:Three-interlaced-pentagons-Brunnian-30crossings.svg
- Image:Trefoil-Architectural-Equilateral-Triangle-interlaced.png, Image:Trefoil-Architectural-Equilateral-Triangle-interlaced.svg
- Image:Trefoil-triquetra-circular-arcs-around-triangle.svg, Image:Trefoil-triquetra-circular-arcs-around-triangle (solid).svg
- Image:Triquetra-circle-interlaced.png, Image:Triquetra-circle-interlaced.svg
- Image:Triquetra-Double.png, Image:Triquetra-Double.svg, Image:Triquetra-Double-concentric.svg
- Image:Triquetra-Interlaced-Triangle-Circle.png, Image:Triquetra-Interlaced-Triangle-Circle.svg, Image:Triquetra-circle-interlaced-wallpaper-tile.png
- Image:Triquetra-tightly-knotted.png, Image:Triquetra-tightly-knotted.svg
- Image:Triquetra-Vesica.png, Image:Triquetra-Vesica.svg
- Image:Trefoil-non-3-symm.svg, Image:Trefoil-non-3-symm-flip demonstration.svg
- Image:Four-trefoils-24crossings-ornamental.svg, Image:Three-trefoils-15crossings.svg
- Image:Ugaritic-alphabet-chart.svg, Image:Ugaritic-alphabet-chart-Arabic.svg
- Image:Aogashima Tokyo chapter.svg, Image:Flag of Chiyoda Gunma.svg, Image:Flag of Former Honjo Saitama.svg, Image:Former Honjo Saitama chapter.svg, Image:Hazu Aichi chapter.svg, Image:Hirose Shimane chapter.svg, Image:Flag of Horai Aichi.svg, Image:Horai Aichi chapter.svg, Image:Innoshima Hiroshima chapter.svg, Image:Iwaki Fukushima chapter.svg, Image:Kaho Fukuoka chapter.svg, Image:Flag of Kazatin.svg, Image:Kiire Kagoshima chapter.svg, Image:Kisuki Shimane chapter.svg, Image:Flag of Kogota Miyagi.svg, Image:Miguni Fukui chapter.svg, Image:Flag of Mikawa Ishikawa.svg, Image:Miwa Aichi chapter.svg, Image:Murayama Yamagata chapter.svg, Image:Flag of Naie Hokkaido.svg, Image:Nakaminato Ibaraki chapter.svg, Image:Flag of Nariwa Okayama.svg, Image:Flag of Nonoichi Ishikawa.svg, Image:Flag of Nozawaonsen Nagano.svg, Image:Nozawaonsen Nagano chapter.svg, Image:Okushiri Hokkaido chapter.svg, Image:Omiya Kyoto chapter.svg, Image:Ozu Kumamoto chapter.svg, Image:Flag of Sakaki Nagano.svg, Image:Sanmu Chiba chapter.svg, Image:Flag of Setoda Hiroshima.svg, Image:Setoda Hiroshima chapter.svg, Image:Shinwa Kumamoto chapter.svg, Image:Shiota Saga chapter.svg, Image:Flag of Tanashi Tokyo.svg, Image:Tsuwano Shimane chapter.svg, Image:Yaku Kagoshima chapter.svg
- Image:Asexual flag.svg
- Image:Bar-knot-basic-decorative.png, Image:Bar-knot-basic-decorative.svg
- Image:Bay-of-Piran maritime-boundary-dispute.jpg
- Image:Belgian Congo Free State coat of arms.svg
- Image:BDSM-rights-flag-Tanos.svg, Image:Ownership-flag-Tanos.svg
- Image:BDSM logo.svg
- Image:Bolo-glyph bolo'bolo P M.svg
- Image:Box or Vicsek Fractal 4-iterations.svg, Image:Box fractal.svg
- Image:Cretan-labyrinth-circular-disc.svg, Image:Cretan-labyrinth-round.svg, Image:Cretan-labyrinth-half-round.svg, Image:Cretan-labyrinth-round2.svg, Image:Cretan-labyrinth-square.svg, Image:Cretan-labyrinth-square-path.svg, Image:Cretan-labyrinth-square-path-traversal multicolor.svg, Image:How to do labyrinth.svg
- Image:Cretan-labyrinth-double.svg, Image:Half-labyrinth.svg, Image:Chakravyuha-labyrinth.svg, Image:Chakravyuha-labyrinth-alternate.svg Image:Pentagonal-labyrinth.svg, Image:Labyrinth-in-heart full.svg, Image:Labyrinth-in-heart.svg
- Image:Dragon's Eye symbol Koch.svg
- Image:Five-fivefold-spirals-quintuple-pentaskelion.svg, Image:Five-fivefold-spirals-Pentaskelion-simpler.svg
- Image:Five petal flower icon.svg
- Image:Five crescents.svg
- Image:Floral fivefold knot green (geometry).svg
- Image:Flower-of-Life-19circles36arcs-enclosed.png, Image:Flower-of-Life-19circles36arcs-enclosed.svg
- Image:Flower-of-Life-91circles36arcs.png, Image:Flower-of-Life-91circles36arcs.svg
- Image:Flower with heart-shaped petals.svg
- Image:Gibbous-Crescent-half-ellipse-in-circle.png, Image:Gibbous-Crescent-half-ellipse-in-circle.svg
- Image:Gibbous-Crescent-half-ellipse-in-circle-outlined.png, Image:Gibbous-Crescent-half-ellipse-in-circle-outlined.svg
- Image:Gorean-collar-3-moons-emblem.svg, Image:Dina-gor.svg, Image:Dina-Gor-alternative.svg
- Image:Gor-map-simplified.svg, Image:Gor-map-simplified fr.svg, Image:Gor-map-simplified de.svg
- Image:HandsGod.png, Image:HandsGod.svg
- Image:Happy feet 2.svg
- Image:HeteroSym.svg, Image:HeteroSym-pinkblue.svg, Image:HeteroSym-pinkblue2.svg, Image:Heterosexual symbol two hearts.svg, Image:HeteroSym-pinkblue3.svg, Image:Heterosexual-symbol-3D.svg, Image:Heterosexual-hearts-symbol-3D.svg, Image:Heterosym-heart-link.svg
- Image:Interlaced love hearts.svg, Image:Interlaced love hearts-3D.svg
- Image:Interlaced-Triangles quasi-Arabesque Brunnian-link.svg, Image:Interlaced-Triangles Brunnian-link alternate.svg
- Image:Iraqi Air Force roundel.svg
- Image:Iraq state emblem CoA 1959-1965 Qassem.svg, Image:Shamash-sun-symbol.svg
- Image:Ishtar-star-symbol-simplified.svg, Image:Ishtar-star-symbol-simplified-filled.svg
- Image:Isometric-Collar-BDSM.svg, Image:BDSM-collar-female-symbol.svg, Image:BDSM-collar-male-symbol.svg, Image:Chains-of-love (female).svg, Image:Chains-of-love (male).svg
- Image:New Jerusalem (Michell) Sacred Geometry.svg
- Image:Kalvan-Otherwhen Dralm-emblem Hostigos-flags.svg
- Image:Knot-9crossings-symmetrical.svg, Image:12crossings-rose-rhodonea-limacon-symmetrical-knot.svg
- Image:KTB-FemDom.svg, Image:Battle-sexes-jocular-symbols-.svg
- Image:Labrys-symbol.png, Image:Labrys-symbol.svg, Image:Labrys-symbol-transparent.svg
- Image:Double Venus.svg, Image:Double Venus-color.svg, Image:Lesbianl symbol two hearts.svg, Image:Lesbian-hearts-symbol-3D.svg
- Image:Mars-male-symbol-pseudo-3D-blue.svg, Image:Mars-male-symbol-wireframe-3D.svg
- Image:Man-and-woman-icon.svg, Image:Man-and-woman-icon-alt.svg, Image:Womens-love-vs-mens-love-joke.svg
- Image:No-FGM.png, Image:No-FGM.svg
- Image:Penrose pentagram.svg
- Image:Pentagonal-knot.svg, Image:Pentagonal-knot-unicursal.svg
- Image:Pentagrams-pentagon-interlaced.svg, Image:Pentagrams-interlaced-pattern.svg
- Image:Quinquetra-pattern.svg, Image:Quinquetra-interlaced-alternate.svg
- Image:Radial-labyrinth.svg, Image:Radial-labyrinth-fivefold.svg, Image:O'odham unofficial flag.svg
- Image:Roissy triskelion iron ring signet.png, Image:Roissy triskelion iron ring signet.svg
- Image:RWS02 High-Priestess crown.svg
- Image:RWS07 The-Chariot yoni-lingam Symbol.svg
- Image:Seven Days New Crete (Graves) Watch North-Wind Rise symbols.svg
- Image:Shoelace knot.svg
- Image:Sexes-planetary-sym.svg, Image:Sexes-planetary-sym-dimcolors.svg, Image:Sexes-planetary-sym-pinkblue.svg
- Image:Solomons-knot-square.svg, Image:Solomons-knot-ornamental.svg, Image:Solomons-knot-ornamental-in-square.svg, Image:Four-circles-Solomons-knot.svg, Image:Solomons-knot-quadruple.svg, Image:Solomon's knot carpet circular.svg
- Image:Simplified-stylized Minoan snake goddess symbol.svg
- Image:Spiral Goddess symbol neo-pagan.svg, Image:Spiral Goddess symbol neo-pagan 2.svg
- Image:State emblem COA Sudan pre-1970.svg
- Image:Syria-flag 1932-58 1961-63.svg
- Image:Syria-flag-changes.svg, Image:Flag of Egypt 1972.svg
- Image:Three-Crescents-Diane-Poitiers.png, Image:Three-Crescents-Diane-Poitiers.svg, Image:Three-Crescents-Diane-Poitiers-filled.svg
- Image:Three-Crescents-Diane-Poitiers-multicolored.png, Image:Three-Crescents-Diane-Poitiers-multicolored.svg
- Image:Triple-Goddess-Waxing-Full-Waning-Symbol.png, Image:Triple-Goddess-Waxing-Full-Waning-Symbol.svg
- Image:Triple-Goddess-Waxing-Full-Waning-Symbol-filled.png, Image:Triple Goddess Symbol Filled.svg
- Image:Triple-Goddess-Waxing-Full-Waning-Symbol-multicolored.png, Image:Triple-Goddess-Waxing-Full-Waning-Symbol-multicolored.svg, Image:Göttin-Heros-Struktur.svg
- Image:Snoldelev-three-interlaced-horns.png, Image:Snoldelev-three-interlaced-horns.svg
- Image:Triple-Spiral-Symbol.png, Image:Triple-Spiral-Symbol.svg
- Image:Triple-Spiral-Symbol-filled.png, Image:Triple-Spiral-Symbol-filled.svg
- Image:Triple-Spiral-labyrinth.png, Image:Triple-Spiral-labyrinth.svg
- Image:Triple-Spiral-labyrinth-variant.png, Image:Triple-Spiral-labyrinth-variant.svg
- Image:Triple-Spiral-Symbol-heavystroked.png, Image:Triple-Spiral-Symbol-heavystroked.svg
- Image:Triple-Spiral-Symbol-4turns-filled.png, Image:Triple-Spiral-Symbol-4turns-filled.svg
- Image:Triple-spiral-wheeled-simple.png, Image:Triple-spiral-wheeled-simple.svg
- Image:Triple-Triple-Spiral-Trisk-simple.svg, Image:Triple-Triple-Spiral-Trisk-simpler.svg
- Image:Triskele-hollow-triangle.png, Image:Triskele-hollow-triangle.svg
- Image:Triskele-Symbol-spiral.png, Image:Triskele-Symbol-spiral.svg
- Image:Triskele-Symbol-spiral-five-thirds-turns.png, Image:Triskele-Symbol-spiral-five-thirds-turns.svg
- Image:Triskelion-spiral-threespoked-inspiral.png, Image:Triskelion-spiral-threespoked-inspiral.svg
- Image:Valknut-Symbol-borromean.png, Image:Valknut-Symbol-borromean.svg
- Image:Valknut-Symbol-triquetra.png, Image:Valknut-Symbol-triquetra.svg, Image:Valknut-Symbol-triquetra-alternate.svg
- Image:9crossings-knot-symmetric-triangles-pseudo-valknut.svg, Image:9crossings-knot-symmetric-triangles-quasi-valknut.svg
- Image:Venus symbol (green).svg, Image:Venus-female-symbol-pseudo-3D-pink.svg, Image:Venus-female-symbol-wireframe-3D.svg
- Image:Vulva symbols.svg
- Image:Wheeled-Triskelion-basic.png, Image:Wheeled-Triskelion-basic.svg
- Image:Williamsburg restroom sign cropped.svg
- Image:Woman-power emblem.svg
Not including images that I only cropped, grayscaled, fixed technical problems in, increased PNG compression ratios for, etc. (without real authorship or being the original uploader).
Other articles written from scratch (or nearly so)
- Triliteral (Now renamed "Semitic root")
- Quadriliteral (Now merged into "Semitic root")
- Quantitative metathesis (Now much-enlarged by others)
- Chai (symbol)
- Ballantine Adult Fantasy series (Now much-enlarged by others)
- Suleiman Khater
- Negroponte doctrine
- Q're perpetuum
- Yu Cong Eng v. Trinidad
- Always True to You in My Fashion
- Sir Horace Phillips
- Milord (some material now split into Milord (song))
- Song of Solomon (disambiguation)
- Harry Stewart ("Yogi Yorgesson") (Now much-enlarged by others)
- Junior Birdmen
- United States Census, 1840
- United States Census, 1850
- Dominicans in the United States
- Yahshuah (Basically rewritten by me from scratch — finally put into more or less satisfactory shape in October 2005)
- Solar symbol (Very extensive rewrite, not quite rewritten from scratch)
- Feme covert (Greatly expanded it, now merged with Coverture)
- Flag of the British Mandate of Palestine (drastically rewrote text later split off into separate article)
- Dimidiation (Significantly improved)
- L10a140 link (drastically restructured it under different name)
- Other languages:
- Commons image galleries:
- Category:Christian symbols
- commons:Category:Knots in art and decoration
- commons:Category:Monograms of the name of Jesus Christ
- commons:Category:Heterosexuality (greatly expanded membership)
- commons:Category:Propeller beanie
- commons:Category:Three faces on one head
- commons:Category:Big dipper in heraldry
- commons:Category:Shield of the Trinity
- commons:Category:Brunnian links
- commons:Category:Incomplete Borromean rings interlacings
In Recognition of Your High-Quality Contributions
|The Tireless Contributor Barnstar|
|This Barnstar is awarded in recognition of the high quality of your Reference Desk contributions, and your work in general at Wikipedia. μηδείς (talk) 02:49, 29 June 2012 (UTC)|
|Search user languages|
There are some other languages which I've studied from a linguistic point of view (sometimes quite intensively), but it would be exaggerating to say that I could very meaningfully contribute to writing enyclopedia articles in them in their modern form.
Here's my Arabic motto:
المتبرجة خير من الإرهابي المنتحر