Uttar Pradesh

Uttar Pradesh (/ˌʊtər prəˈdɛʃ/;[10] Hindi: [ˈʊt̪ːəɾ pɾəˈdeːʃ] (listen), lit. 'Northern Province') is a state in northern India. With over 200 million inhabitants, it is the most populated state in India as well as the most populous country subdivision in the world.[11] It was created on 1 April 1937 as the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh during British rule, and was renamed Uttar Pradesh in 1950, giving it the acronym UP. The state is divided into 18 divisions and 75 districts, with the state capital being Lucknow, and Allahabad serving as the judicial capital. On 9 November 2000, a new state, Uttaranchal (now Uttarakhand), was carved from the state's Himalayan hill region. The two major rivers of the state, the Ganges and Yamuna, join at Triveni Sangam in Allahabad and flow further east as Ganges. Other prominent rivers are Gomti and Saryu. The forest cover in the state is 6.1% of the state's geographical area. The cultivable area is 82% of total geographical area and net area sown is 68.5% of cultivable area.[citation needed]

Uttar Pradesh
Etymology: Uttar (meaning 'north') and Pradesh (meaning 'province or territory')
Location of Uttar Pradesh in India
Coordinates: 26.85°N 80.91°E / 26.85; 80.91
Country India
RegionsAwadh, Bagelkhand, Bhojpur-Purvanchal, Braj, Bundelkhand, Kannauj, and Rohilkhand
Statehood24 January 1950[1]
CapitalLucknow
Largest cityKanpur
Districts75[2][3]
Government
  BodyGovernment of Uttar Pradesh
  GovernorAnandiben Patel[4][5]
  Chief MinisterYogi Adityanath
  Deputy Chief Ministers
  LegislatureBicameral
  Parliamentary constituency
Area
  Total240,928 km2 (93,023 sq mi)
Area rank4th
Highest elevation
(Amsot Peak)
957 m (3,140 ft)
Population
 (2011)
  Total199,812,341
  Rank1st
  Density830/km2 (2,100/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Uttar Pradeshi
GDP (2020–21)
  Total17.05 lakh crore (US$240 billion)
(3rd rank)
  Per capita65,431 (US$920)
Languages[7]
  OfficialHindi
  Additional officialUrdu
Time zoneUTC+05:30 (IST)
UN/LOCODEIN-UP
Vehicle registrationUP XX—XXXX
HDI (2018) 0.596[8] Medium · 35th
Literacy (2011)69.67%[9]
Sex ratio (2011)912 /1000 [9]
Websiteup.gov.in
Symbols of Uttar Pradesh
Emblem Emblem of Uttar Pradesh
Mammal
Barasingha (Rucervus duvaucelii)
Bird
Sarus crane (Antigone antigone)
Flower
Palash (Butea monosperma)
Tree
Ashoka (Saraca asoca)

The state is bordered by Rajasthan to the west, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Delhi to the northwest, Uttarakhand and an international border with Nepal to the north, Bihar to the east, Madhya Pradesh to the south, and touches the states of Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh to the southeast. It covers 240,928 km2 (93,023 sq mi), equal to 7.3% of the total area of India, and is the fourth-largest Indian state by area. Though long known for sugar production, the state's economy is now dominated by the services industry. The service sector comprises travel and tourism, hotel industry, real estate, insurance and financial consultancies. The economy of Uttar Pradesh is the second-largest state economy in India with 21.73 lakh crore (US$300 billion) in gross domestic product and a per capita GSDP of 95,000 (US$1,300).[6] President's rule has been imposed in Uttar Pradesh ten times since 1968, for different reasons and for a total of 1,700 days.[12] The state has currently two international airports, Chaudhary Charan Singh Airport (Lucknow) and Lal Bahadur Shastri Airport (Varanasi). Allahabad Junction is the headquarters of the North Central Railway and Gorakhpur Railway Station serves as the headquarters of the North Eastern Railway. The High Court of the state is located in Allahabad. The state contributes 80 seats and 31 seats to the lower house Lok Sabha and to the upper house Rajya Sabha respectively.

Inhabitants of the state are called either Awadhi, Bagheli, Bhojpuri, Braji, Bundeli, Kannauji, or Rohilkhandi depending upon their region of origin. Hinduism is practised by more than three-fourths of the population, with Islam being the next largest religious group. Hindi is the most widely spoken language and is also the official language of the state, along with Urdu. Uttar Pradesh was home to most of the mainstream political entities that have existed in ancient and medieval India including Maurya Empire, Harsha Empire, Gupta Empire, Pala Empire, Delhi Sultanate, Mughal Empire as well as many other empires. At the time of Indian independence movement in the early 20th century, there were three major princely states in Uttar Pradesh – Ramgadi, Rampur and Benares. The state houses several holy Hindu temples and pilgrimage centres. Uttar Pradesh has three World Heritage sites and ranks first among tourist destinations in India. Uttar Pradesh has several historical, natural, and religious tourist destinations, such as Agra, Allahabad, Aligarh, Ayodhya, Kushinagar, Varanasi and Vrindavan.