Uttarakhand (English: /ˈʊtərɑːˌkʌnd/,[23] /ˌʊtərəˈkʌnd/[24] or /ˌʊtəˈrækənd/;[25] Hindi: ['ʊt̪ːərɑːkʰəɳɖ], lit.'Northern Land'), also known as Uttaranchal (English: /ˈʊtəˈrænʌl/; the official name until 2007),[26] is a state in the northern part of India. It is often referred to as the "Devbhumi" (literally 'Land of the Gods')[27] due to its religious significance and numerous Hindu temples and pilgrimage centres found throughout the state. Uttarakhand is known for the natural environment of the Himalayas, the Bhabar and the Terai regions. It borders the Tibet Autonomous Region of China to the north; the Sudurpashchim Province of Nepal to the east; the Indian states of Uttar Pradesh to the south and Himachal Pradesh to the west and north-west. The state is divided into two divisions, Garhwal and Kumaon, with a total of 13 districts. The winter capital of Uttarakhand is Dehradun, the largest city of the state, which is a rail head. Bhararisain, a town in Chamoli district, is the summer capital of Uttarakhand.[28][29][30] The High Court of the state is located in Nainital.

Clockwise from top: A view of the Garhwal Himalayas from Auli, Badrinath Temple at Badrinath, Kedarnath Temple at Kedarnath, the Raj Bhavan in Nainital, confluence of the Alaknanda and Mandakini rivers at Rudraprayag, a friendly tussle of two Indian elephants at the Jim Corbett National Park, and Har Ki Pauri in Haridwar.
("Land of the Gods")
Anthem: "Uttarakhand Devbhumi Matribhumi"[1]
("Uttarakhand, Land of the Gods, O Motherland!")
Location of Uttarakhand in India
Coordinates (Dehradun): 30.33°N 78.06°E / 30.33; 78.06 (Dehradun)
Formation9 November 2000
CapitalBhararisain (summer) Dehradun (winter)
Judicial seatNainital
Largest cityDehradun
  TypeState Government
  BodyGovernment of Uttarakhand
  GovernorGurmit Singh
  Chief MinisterPushkar Singh Dhami (BJP)[2]
  Chief JusticeSanjaya Kumar Mishra (acting)[3]
  Speaker of the AssemblyPremchand Aggarwal (BJP)
  Total53,483 km2 (20,650 sq mi)
Highest elevation7,816 m (25,643 ft)
Lowest elevation190 m (620 ft)
  Density189/km2 (490/sq mi)
GDP (nominal) (2019–20)
  Total2.93 lakh crore (US$38 billion) (20th)[7]
  Per capita220,275 (US$2,900) (10th)
  Additional officialSanskrit[9][10]
  NativeGarhwali, Kumaoni and Jaunsari
Time zoneUTC+05:30 (IST)
ISO 3166 codeIN-UT
Vehicle registrationUK 01—XX
HDI (2018) 0.684[11][12]
medium (18th)
Literacy (2011)87.60%[13] (17th)
Sex ratio (2011)963 /1000 [13] (14th)
Symbols of Uttarakhand[14]
Foundation dayUttarakhand Day[15]
MammalAlpine Musk Deer
BirdHimalayan Monal
FishGolden Mahseer[17][18]
ButterflyWest Himalayan Common Peacock[19][20]
FlowerBrahma Kamal[21]

Archaeological evidence supports the existence of humans in the region since prehistoric times. The region formed a part of the Uttarakuru Kingdom during the Vedic age of Ancient India. Among the first major dynasties of Kumaon were the Kunindas in the second century BCE who practiced an early form of Shaivism. Ashokan edicts at Kalsi show the early presence of Buddhism in this region. During the medieval period, the region was consolidated under the Katyuri rulers of Kumaon also known as 'Kurmanchal Kingdom'.[31] After the fall of Katyuris, the region was divided into the Kumaon Kingdom and the Garhwal Kingdom. In 1816, most of modern Uttarakhand was ceded to the British as part of the Treaty of Sugauli. Although the erstwhile hill kingdoms of Garhwal and Kumaon were traditional rivals, the proximity of different neighbouring ethnic groups and the inseparable and complementary nature of their geography, economy, culture, language, and traditions created strong bonds between the two regions, which further strengthened during the Uttarakhand movement for statehood in the 1990s.

The natives of the state are generally called Uttarakhandi, or more specifically either Garhwali or Kumaoni by their region of origin. According to the 2011 Census of India, Uttarakhand has a population of 10,086,292, making it the 20th most populous state in India.[32]

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