Utu,[lower-alpha 1] later worshipped by the East Semitic Akkadian-speaking Babylonians as Shamash,[lower-alpha 2] was the ancient Mesopotamian sun god, god of justice, morality, and truth, and the twin of the Mesopotamian goddess Inanna (Ishtar in the Assyrio-Babylonian language), the Queen of Heaven. His main temples were in the cities of Sippar and Larsa. He was believed to ride through the heavens in his sun chariot and see all things that happened in the day. He was the enforcer of divine justice and was thought to aid those in distress. According to Sumerian mythology, he helped protect Dumuzid when the galla demons tried to drag him to the Underworld and he appeared to the hero Ziusudra after the Great Flood. In the Epic of Gilgamesh, he helps Gilgamesh defeat the ogre Humbaba.

Utu (Shamash)
Sun god
God of justice, morality, and truth
Representation of Shamash from the Tablet of Shamash (c. 888 – 855 BC), showing him sitting on his throne dispensing justice while clutching a rod-and-ring symbol
SymbolMace, Saw, Sun rays from shoulders, Sun Disk
MountSun chariot
Personal information
Parentsusually Nanna and Ningal, but sometimes the son of An or Enlil
SiblingsEreshkigal (older sister) and Inanna (twin sister), Ishkur/ Hadad (in some sources)
ChildrenKittu ("Truth") and Misharu ("Justice")
Greek equivalentHelios
Roman equivalentSol
Hinduism equivalentSurya