Vascular plant

Vascular plants (from Latin vasculum 'duct'), also called tracheophytes (/trəˈk.əˌfts/)[5][6] or collectively Tracheophyta (from Ancient Greek τραχεῖα ἀρτηρία (trakheîa artēría) 'windpipe', and φυτά (phutá) 'plants'),[6] form a large group of land plants (c.300,000 accepted known species)[7] that have lignified tissues (the xylem) for conducting water and minerals throughout the plant. They also have a specialized non-lignified tissue (the phloem) to conduct products of photosynthesis. Vascular plants include the clubmosses, horsetails, ferns, gymnosperms (including conifers) and angiosperms (flowering plants). Scientific names for the group include Tracheophyta,[8][4]:251 Tracheobionta[9] and Equisetopsida sensu lato. Some early land plants (the rhyniophytes) had less developed vascular tissue; the term eutracheophyte has been used for all other vascular plants, including all living ones.

Vascular plants
Temporal range: Silurian–Present, 425–0 Ma[1][2]
Common lady-fern, a non-seed-bearing plant
Lemon basil, a seed-bearing plant
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Embryophytes
Clade: Polysporangiophytes
Clade: Tracheophytes
Sinnott, 1935[3] ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998[4]
† Extinct

Historically, vascular plants were known as "higher plants," as it was believed that they were further evolved than other plants due to being more complex organisms. However, this is an antiquated remnant of the obsolete scala naturae, and the term is generally considered to be unscientific.[10]

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