Viceroyalty of Peru

The Viceroyalty of Peru (Spanish: Virreinato del Perú) was a Spanish imperial provincial administrative district, created in 1542, that originally contained modern-day Peru and most of the Spanish Empire in South America, governed from the capital of Lima. The Viceroyalty of Peru was sometimes called the Kingdom of Peru. Peru was one of the two Spanish Viceroyalties in the Americas from the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries.

Viceroyalty of Peru
Virreinato del Perú
1542–1824
Motto: Plus Ultra (Latin)
"Further Beyond"
Anthem: Marcha Real
"Royal March"
Location of the Viceroyalty of Peru: Initial territory 1542–1718 (light green) and final de jure territory 1776–1824 (dark green)
StatusViceroyalty of Castile (Spanish Empire)
CapitalLima
Cuzco (1821–24)
Common languagesOfficial: Spanish (de facto); Common: Quechua, Kichwa, Aymara, Puquina.
Religion
Roman Catholic
GovernmentMonarchy
King 
 1544–46
Charles I (first)
 1816–24
Ferdinand VII (last)
Viceroy 
 1544–46
Blasco Núñez Vela (first)
 1821–24
José de la Serna e Hinojosa (last)
Historical eraSpanish Empire
 Established
1542
1572
1717
1776
July 28, 1821
December 9 1824
CurrencyPeso
Spanish Real
ISO 3166 codePE
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Neo-Inca State
Governorate of New Castile
Governorate of New Toledo
Province of Tierra Firme
Governorate of New Andalusia
Chile
Free Province of Guayaquil
Protectorate of Peru
Viceroyalty of New Granada
Viceroyalty of Río de la Plata

The Spanish did not resist the Portuguese expansion of Brazil across the meridian established by the Treaty of Tordesillas. The treaty was rendered meaningless between 1580 and 1640 while Spain controlled Portugal. The creation during the 18th century of Viceroyalties of New Granada and Río de la Plata (at the expense of Peru's territory) reduced the importance of Lima and shifted the lucrative Andean trade to Buenos Aires, while the fall of the mining and textile production accelerated the progressive decay of the Viceroyalty of Peru. Eventually, the viceroyalty would dissolve, as with much of the Spanish Empire, when challenged by national independence movements at the beginning of the nineteenth century. These movements led to the formation of the modern-day country of Peru, as well as Chile, Colombia, Panama, Ecuador, Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Argentina, the territories that at one point or another had constituted the Viceroyalty of Peru.