Victor Emmanuel III of Italy

Victor Emmanuel III (Vittorio Emanuele Ferdinando Maria Gennaro di Savoia; Italian: Vittorio Emanuele III, Albanian: Viktor Emanueli III, Amharic: ቪቶርዮ አማኑኤል, romanized: Vītoriyo Āmanu’ēli; 11 November 1869 – 28 December 1947) reigned as King of Italy from 29 July 1900 until his abdication on 9 May 1946. In addition, he was Emperor of Ethiopia (1936–1941) and King of the Albanians (1939–1943). During his reign of nearly 46 years, which began after the assassination of his father Umberto I, the Kingdom of Italy became involved in two world wars. His reign also encompassed the birth, rise, and fall of Italian Fascism and its regime.

Victor Emmanuel III
The King in 1919
King of Italy
Reign29 July 1900 – 9 May 1946
PredecessorUmberto I
SuccessorUmberto II
Prime MinistersSee list
Emperor of Ethiopia
Reign9 May 1936 – 5 May 1941
PredecessorHaile Selassie I
SuccessorHaile Selassie I
King of the Albanians
Reign16 April 1939 – 8 September 1943
PredecessorZog I
SuccessorZog I (formally)
Prime MinistersSee list
Born(1869-11-11)11 November 1869
Naples, Kingdom of Italy
Died28 December 1947(1947-12-28) (aged 78)
Alexandria, Kingdom of Egypt
(m. 1896)
Vittorio Emanuele Ferdinando Maria Gennaro di Savoia-Carignano
FatherUmberto I of Italy
MotherMargherita of Savoy

During the First World War, Victor Emmanuel III accepted the resignation of Prime Minister Paolo Boselli and named Vittorio Emanuele Orlando (the premier of victory) in his place. Following the March on Rome, he appointed Benito Mussolini as Prime Minister and later deposed him in 1943 during the Allied invasion of Italy of the Second World War.

Victor Emmanuel abdicated his throne in 1946 in favour of his son Umberto II, hoping to strengthen support for the monarchy against an ultimately successful referendum to abolish it. He then went into exile to Alexandria, Egypt, where he died and was buried the following year in St. Catherine's Cathedral of Alexandria. In 2017 his remains were returned to rest in Italy, following an agreement between Italian President Sergio Mattarella and Egyptian President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi.

Victor Emmanuel was also called by some Italians Sciaboletta ("little saber"), due to his height of 1.53 m (5 ft 0 in),[1] and il Re soldato (the Soldier King), for having led his country during both world wars.