Vietnam

Vietnam or Viet Nam[n 3] (Vietnamese: Việt Nam, [vîət nāːm] (listen)), officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam,[n 4] is a country in Southeast Asia, at the eastern edge of mainland Southeast Asia, with an area of 311,699 square kilometres (120,348 sq mi) and population of 96 million, making it the world's fifteenth-most populous country. Vietnam borders China to the north, and Laos and Cambodia to the west. It shares maritime borders with Thailand through the Gulf of Thailand, and the Philippines, Indonesia, and Malaysia through the South China Sea. Its capital is Hanoi and largest city Ho Chi Minh City (commonly known as Saigon)

Socialist Republic of Vietnam
Cộng hòa Xã hội chủ nghĩa Việt Nam (Vietnamese)
Motto: Độc lập – Tự do – Hạnh phúc
"Independence – Liberty – Happiness"
Anthem: Tiến Quân Ca
"Army March"
Location of Vietnam (green)

in ASEAN (dark grey)

CapitalHanoi
21°2′N 105°51′E
Largest cityHo Chi Minh City
10°48′N 106°39′E
National languageVietnamese[n 1]
Ethnic groups
(2019)
Religion
(2019)
Demonym(s)Vietnamese
GovernmentUnitary Marxist–Leninist one-party socialist republic
Nguyễn Phú Trọng
 President
Nguyễn Xuân Phúc
Phạm Minh Chính
Vương Đình Huệ
LegislatureNational Assembly
Formation
1 February 939
968
1804
25 August 1883
2 September 1945
21 July 1954
30 April 1975
2 July 1976
18 December 1986
28 November 2013[n 2]
Area
 Total
331,699 km2 (128,070 sq mi) (66th)
 Water (%)
6.38
Population
 2022 estimate
103,808,319[5] (16th)
 2019 census
96,208,984[2]
 Density
295.0/km2 (764.0/sq mi) (29th)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
 Total
$1.278 trillion[6] (25th)
 Per capita
$12,881[6] (111th)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
 Total
$408.947 billion[6] (39th)
 Per capita
$4,122[6] (139th)
Gini (2018) 35.7[7]
medium
HDI (2019) 0.704[8]
high · 117th
Currencyđồng (₫) (VND)
Time zoneUTC+07:00 (Vietnam Standard Time)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code+84
ISO 3166 codeVN
Internet TLD.vn

Vietnam was inhabited by the Paleolithic age, with states established in the first millennium BC on the Red River Delta in modern-day northern Vietnam. The Han dynasty annexed Northern and Central Vietnam under Chinese rule from 111 BC, until the first dynasty emerged in 939. Successive monarchical dynasties absorbed Chinese influences through Confucianism and Buddhism, and expanded southward to the Mekong Delta, conquering Champa. The Nguyễn—the last imperial dynasty—surrendered to France in 1883. Following the August Revolution, the nationalist Viet Minh under the leadership of communist revolutionary Ho Chi Minh proclaimed independence from France in 1945.

Vietnam went through prolonged warfare in the 20th century. After World War II, France returned to reclaim colonial power in the First Indochina War, from which Vietnam emerged victorious in 1954. As a result of treaties signed two years later, Vietnam was also separated into two parts. The Vietnam War began shortly after, it was the war between communist North supported by the Soviet Union and China, and anti-communist South supported by the United States. Upon the North Vietnamese victory in 1975, Vietnam reunified as a unitary socialist state under the Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV) in 1976. An ineffective planned economy, a trade embargo by the West, and wars with Cambodia and China crippled the country further. In 1986, the CPV initiated economic and political reforms similar to the Chinese economic reform, transforming the country to a market-oriented economy. The reforms facilitated Vietnamese reintegration into global economy and politics.

A developing country with a lower-middle-income economy, Vietnam is nonetheless one of the fastest growing economies of the 21st century, with GDP predicted to rival developed nations by 2050. Vietnam has high levels of corruption, censorship and a poor human rights record; the country ranks among the lowest in international measurements of civil liberties, freedom of the press and freedom of religion and ethnic minorities. It is part of international and intergovernmental institutions including the ASEAN, the APEC, the CPTPP, the Non-Aligned Movement, the OIF, and the WTO. It has assumed a seat on the United Nations Security Council twice.


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