Visa policy of the Schengen Area
The visa policy of the Schengen Area is set by the European Union and applies to the Schengen Area and to other EU member states except Ireland. The visa policy allows nationals of certain countries to enter the Schengen Area via air, land or sea without a visa for stays of up to 90 days within a 180-day period. Nationals of certain other countries are required to have a visa either upon arrival or in transit.
|European Union portal|
The Schengen Area consists of 22 EU member states and four non-EU countries that are members of EFTA: Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland. Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania, while EU members, are not yet part of the Schengen Area but, nonetheless, have a visa policy that is partially based on the Schengen acquis.
Nationals of EU single market countries are not only visa-exempt but are legally entitled to enter and reside in each other's countries. Their right to freedom of movement in each other's countries can, however, be limited in a reserved number of situations, as prescribed by EU treaties.
Freedom of movement
|Rules for freedom of movement|
|Directive 2004/38/EC defines the right of free movement for citizens of the European Economic Area (EEA), which includes the European Union (EU) and three European Free Trade Association (EFTA) members Iceland, Norway and Liechtenstein. Switzerland, which is a member of EFTA but not of the EEA, is not bound by the Directive but rather has a separate bilateral agreement on the free movement with the EU. Freedom of movement between Switzerland and the other EFTA countries happens in accordance with the EFTA convention. All of these countries comprise the EU single market.
Nationals of all EU single market states holding a valid passport, passport card, or national identity card can enter, reside and work in each other's territory without a visa. If they are unable to present a valid passport or national identity card at the border, they must nonetheless be afforded every reasonable opportunity to obtain the necessary documents or have them brought to them within a reasonable period of time or corroborate or prove by other means that they are covered by the right of free movement.
However, EU single market states can refuse entry to any EU single market national on public policy, public security or public health grounds where the person presents a "genuine, present and sufficiently serious threat affecting one of the fundamental interests of society". If the person has obtained permanent residence in the country where entry is sought (a status which is normally attained after 5 years of residence), the member state can only expel the person on serious grounds of public policy or public security. Where the person has resided for 10 years or is a minor, the member state can only expel the person on imperative grounds of public security (and, in the case of minors, if expulsion is necessary in the best interests of the child, as provided for in the Convention on the Rights of the Child). Expulsion on public health grounds must relate to diseases with 'epidemic potential' which have occurred less than 3 months from the person's date of arrival in the member state where entry is sought.
Temporary restriction on the entry of persons without the right of free movement for non-essential travel
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, on 16 March 2020 the European Commission issued a recommendation to all EU and Schengen member states to introduce a temporary restriction on the entry of third-country nationals (i.e. travellers who are not EU/EEA/Swiss/British citizens and family members with the right of free movement) to the Schengen Area for non-essential travel for an initial period of 30 days (with the possible prolongation of this period to be assessed based on further developments). However, third-country nationals who are holders of long-term visas or residence permits or are family members of EU/EEA/Swiss/British citizens are exempt from this restriction. Further, third-country nationals 'with an essential function or need' (such as healthcare workers, transport personnel, aid workers, military personnel, seasonal agricultural workers), passengers in transit, those travelling 'for imperative family reasons' and those 'in need of international protection or for other humanitarian reasons' are exempt from this restriction. Nevertheless, the European Commission re-iterated that 'coordinated and reinforced health checks' should be carried out on all travellers who are permitted to enter the EU and Schengen Area. All EU (except Ireland) and Schengen member states are now applying this travel restriction.
Further, on 30 March 2020, the European Commission published 'Guidance on the implementation of the temporary restriction on non-essential travel to the EU, on the facilitation of transit arrangements for the repatriation of EU citizens, and on the effects on visa policy' in order to provide 'advice and practical instructions'. The Guidance states that member states are permitted to take measures (such as requiring non-nationals to undergo a period of self-isolation if arriving from a territory affected by COVID-19), provided that the same requirements is imposed on its own nationals. The Guidance also clarifies that citizens of the European micro-states (Andorra, the Holy See, Monaco and San Marino) are exempt from the temporary restriction on the entry of third-country nationals to the European Union and the Schengen Area for non-essential travel. In addition, citizens of Serbia, North Macedonia, Montenegro and Turkey should be permitted entry to the European Union and the Schengen Area if they are stranded abroad in order to facilitate repatriation to their country of origin.
Third-country nationals (not covered by one of the exemptions from the temporary restriction of entry for non-essential reasons) who seek to enter the Schengen Area will be refused entry at the external border crossing point and will receive a refusal of entry form (with the reason of refusal marked as "I", i.e. a threat to public health), as well a passport stamp cancelled by an indelible cross in black ink and the letter "I" on the right hand side.
Third-country nationals (including 'Annex II' visa-exempt nationals) who are 'compelled' to stay beyond their original period of stay (in most cases, 90 days) may be issued a national long-term visa or temporary residence permit. Schengen member states are also encouraged to waive any administrative sanctions or penalties on third-country nationals who overstay due to travel restrictions hindering their ability to leave the Schengen Area.
On 8 April 2020, the European Commission invited EU and Schengen member states to extend the restriction on the entry of third-country nationals for non-essential travel for a further period of 30 days until 15 May 2020. On 8 May 2020, the European Commission again invited member states to extend the restriction for another 30 days until 15 June 2020. On 11 June 2020, the European Commission recommended member states to prolong the restriction on the entry of third-country nationals for non-essential travel until 30 June 2020.
Nationals of 'Annex II' countries and territories (visa waiver countries)
Since 2001, the European Union has issued a list of countries whose nationals need visas (Annex I) and a list of those who do not (Annex II). The two lists are also adopted by Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania, even though the four countries are not yet part of the Schengen Area.
Nationals of the following 63 countries and territories holding ordinary passports may enter the Schengen Area, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania without a visa, for short stays (usually 90 days within a 180-day period):
|Rules for Annex II nationals|
|To be able to enter the Schengen Area, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus or Romania, the above Annex II nationals are required to:
The above Annex II nationals can enter the Schengen Area as a whole for pleasure or for business without the need to apply for a visa for a maximum of 90 days in any 180-day period (which entails considering the 180-day period preceding each day of stay). This does not apply to the nationals of those countries that have concluded visa waiver agreements with the EU – Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Brazil, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Mauritius, and Seychelles, with respect to which the old definition of 3 months during a 6 months period following the date of first entry continues to apply. Any time spent by an Annex II national in the Schengen Area on a long-stay visa or a residence permit does not count towards the visa exemption period limit of 90 days.
Australian and New Zealand citizens enjoy a more liberal visa policy, with both governments having signed bilateral visa agreements with individual Schengen countries. Australian citizens can spend up to 90 days in each of Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Norway, and Sweden without reference to time spent in other Schengen signatory states. New Zealand citizens can spend up to 90 days in each of Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland (as well as Hungary if visiting it as the final Schengen destination) without reference to time spent in other Schengen signatory states, but if travelling to other Schengen countries the 90 days in any 180-day period time limit applies.
In addition, above the framework of the Schengen visa exemption of 90 days in any 180-day period, Argentine, Chilean, Costa Rican, Israeli, Malaysian, South Korean and Uruguayan nationals are permitted to spend an extra 3 months per 6-month period visa-free in the Czech Republic, regardless of time spent in other Schengen countries. Further, the old method of calculating the length of the visa-free stay (i.e. 3 months within 6 months instead of 90 days in any 180-day period) still applies to nationals of Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama and Paraguay in the Czech Republic.
Similarly, above the framework of the Schengen visa exemption of 90 days in any 180-day period, Canadian, Chilean, Israeli, Japanese, Malaysian, Singaporean, South Korean and United States nationals are permitted to spend an extra period of 90 days visa-free in Denmark.
In addition to the Schengen visa exemption of 90 days in any 180-day period, Argentine, Australian, Brazilian, Bruneian, Canadian, Chilean, Costa Rican, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduran, Israeli, Japanese, Malaysian, Mexican, Nicaraguan, Panamanian, Paraguayan, Singaporean, South Korean, United States, Uruguayan and Venezuelan nationals are permitted to spend an extra period of 90 days visa-free in Norway.
Yet further, above the framework of the Schengen visa exemption of 90 days in any 180-day period, Argentine, Chilean, Costa Rican, Honduran, Israeli, Japanese, Malaysian, Mexican, Nicaraguan, Panamanian, Singaporean, South Korean, United States and Uruguayan nationals are permitted to spend an extra period of 90 days visa-free in Poland.
All Annex II nationals can also enter Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania without a visa for a maximum of 90 days in a 180-day period in each of these countries. The visa-free time restrictions for each of these countries is calculated separately (as well as being separate to the Schengen Area visa-free time restriction).
Although all Annex II nationals can enter Schengen countries, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania visa-free for pleasure or for business, individual countries can decide to impose a visa requirement on those who wish to enter to work (i.e. to carry out a 'paid activity'). The table at the end of the article indicates which individual countries permit Annex II nationals to work during their visa-free stay.
Visa waiver access for Annex II nationals of Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia, North Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Serbia and Ukraine applies only to holders of biometric passports. Visa waiver access does not apply to holders of passports issued by the Serbian Coordination Directorate, which issues Serbian passports in Kosovo.
Visa waiver for New Zealand nationals also applies to Cook Islanders, Niueans and Tokelauans as they also use New Zealand passports.
Visa waiver for Taiwan applies only to holders of Taiwanese passports with their personal ID numbers stipulated in their respective passports. Taiwan issues passports without ID numbers to some persons not having the right to reside in Taiwan, including nationals without household registration and certain persons from Hong Kong, Macau, and mainland China. The visa waivers granted by the European Union and Ireland to Taiwan passport holders have not altered the European Union member states' non-recognition of Taiwan as a sovereign country. For this reason, Taiwan is listed in Annex II by the European Commission under the heading "entities and territorial authorities that are not recognised as states by at least one member state", by Bulgaria as "China, Taipei" and by Romania under the heading "Special Administrative Regions of the People's Republic of China".
Residents and holders of visas of Schengen states
Holders of a long-stay visa or residence permit issued by a Schengen state or Monaco may also travel to other Schengen states, without an additional visa, for a stay of up to 90 days in any 180-day period. Short-stay visas issued by a Schengen state are also valid for all other Schengen states unless marked otherwise.
Holders of a visa (even if limited to a specific country) or residence permit issued by a Schengen state, Monaco, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus or Romania may also travel to Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania without an additional visa, for a stay of up to 90 days in any 180-day period (except nationals of Turkey and Azerbaijan travelling to Cyprus, who still need a Cypriot visa). However, visas and residence permits issued by Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus or Romania are not valid for travel to the Schengen Area.
Family members of EU single market nationals
Individuals of any nationality who are family members of EU single market nationals and are in possession of a residence card indicating their status are exempt from the requirement to hold a visa when entering the EU single market when they are accompanying their EU single market family member or are seeking to join them.
|Rules for family members of EU single market nationals|
|An individual can enter and stay in each Schengen member state for up to 90 days without a visa if he/she:
Holders of a residence card of a family member of a Union citizen issued by a Schengen member state can travel to another Schengen member state without a visa, regardless of whether they are travelling independently, or accompanying or joining their EU/EEA/Swiss citizen family member. However, holders of a residence card of a family member of a Union citizen issued by Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Ireland and the UK can travel to the Schengen Area without a visa only if they are accompanying or joining their EU/EEA/Swiss citizen family member.
In theory, a family member of an EU single market national who does not fulfil the above conditions does not have to apply for a visa in advance, and can instead obtain a visa on arrival at the border checkpoint of a Schengen country, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus or Romania by presenting evidence of the familial relationship.
School pupils resident in the EU single market or Annex II countries and territories
Refugees and stateless people resident in Ireland or Annex II countries and territories
Holders of local border traffic permits
Currently the local border traffic regulation agreements exist with Belarus (with Latvia since 2011), Moldova (with Romania since 2010), Russia (with Norway since 2012, with Latvia since 2013 and Poland 2012-20161) and Ukraine (with Hungary and Slovakia since 2008, Poland since 2009 and Romania since 2015). Agreement between Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina is pending ratification but is applied on provisional basis.
- ^ Poland has suspended the border traffic agreements with Russia indefinitely from 4 July 2016.
|Rules for the holders of local border traffic permits|
|Schengen countries are authorised by virtue of the EU regulation no 1931/2006 to conclude bilateral agreements with neighbouring third countries to introduce a local border traffic permit scheme. Such permits are a type of multiple-entry visa in the form of a passport sticker or a card containing the holder's name and photo, as well as a statement that its holder is not authorised to move outside the border area and that any abuse shall be subject to penalties. The border area may include any administrative district within 30 kilometres from the external border (and, if any district extends beyond that limit, the whole district up to 50 kilometres from the border). The applicant for the permit has to show legitimate reasons to frequently cross an external land border under the local border traffic regime. The validity of the permit can be up to five years.
Holders of local border traffic permits are able to spend up to 3 months every time they enter the border area of the Schengen country which has issued the permit (this time limit is far more generous than the '90 days in a 180-day period' normally granted to third-country nationals visiting the Schengen Area).
A local border traffic permit scheme has been implemented in Hungary, Poland, Romania and Slovakia for Ukrainian nationals, is being implemented or negotiated in Poland and Lithuania regarding Belarus and Russia (Kaliningrad area), and has also been implemented in a 30 km border zone between Norway and Russia in 2012. See Schengen Area#Local border traffic at external borders.
There is also a tendency to allow more and more one-year multiple-entry visas to Russians – especially by Finland. There are plans in the EU to allow up to 5 years validity on multiple-entry visas for Russians, partly to relieve the work load at embassies.
Holders of non-ordinary passports
There are no common visa lists for holders of diplomatic, service and other official passports. States may still maintain different policies on these.
In general, a passenger who transits through one single airport in the Schengen Area, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania while remaining airside in the international transit area less than one day will not require a visa (transit privilege). This only applies if the transfer is possible without leaving the international transit area, which depends on the connecting flight and airport layout.
However, on 5 April 2010, common visa requirements for airport transit were introduced by the European Union. Nationals of the following 12 countries are required to hold an airport transit visa (ATV) when transiting through any airport in the Schengen Area, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus or Romania, even if they remain airside:
However, nationals of the above countries are exempt from airport transit visas if they hold a visa or residence permit issued by an EU single market country, Andorra, Canada, Japan, Monaco, San Marino or the United States, are family members of an EU single market national, hold a diplomatic passport, or are flight crew members.
Additionally, individual Schengen countries can impose airport transit visa requirements for nationals of other countries in urgent cases of mass influx of illegal immigrants. For example, nationals of Syria need ATVs for many but not all Schengen countries.
Schengen visas can be issued by any member state of the Schengen Area. Travellers must apply to the embassy or consulate of the country which they intend to visit. In cases of travellers visiting multiple countries in the Schengen Area, travellers must apply to their main destination's embassy or consulate. If the main destination cannot be determined, the traveller should apply for the visa at the embassy of the Schengen member state of first entry. Often, external service providers are contracted by certain diplomatic missions to process, collect and return visa applications.
Schengen visa applications may not be submitted more than six months prior to the proposed date of entry into the Schengen Area. All countries' embassies may require applicants to provide biometric identifiers (ten fingerprints and a digital photograph) as part of the visa application process to be stored on the Visa Information System (VIS). Biometric identifiers are not collected from children under the age of 12. Travellers applying for a Schengen visa for the first time must apply in person and are subject to an interview by the consular officers. If biometric identifiers have been provided within the past 59 months, the applicant may not be required to provide biometric identifiers again. Providing that the visa application is admissible and there are no issues with the application, a decision must be given within 15 calendar days of the date on which the application was lodged.
The standard application fee for a Schengen visa is EUR 80. There is a reduced application fee of EUR 40 for children aged 6 to 12. The visa application fee may be waived or reduced in order to 'promote cultural or sporting interests, interests in the field of foreign policy, development policy and other areas of vital public interest, or for humanitarian reasons or because of international obligations'. Where an application is submitted to an external service provider, an additional service fee may have to be paid.
Schengen visas are valid for any country in the Schengen Area unless marked otherwise. Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania also accept Schengen visas (even if limited to a specific country), as well as visas issued by each other, for stays of up to 90 days in a 180-day period (except for nationals of Turkey and Azerbaijan travelling to Cyprus). However, visas issued by Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus or Romania are not valid for travel to the Schengen Area.
The Schengen Convention and Schengen Borders Code permit member states to require third-country nationals to report their presence to a police station within 3 working days of crossing an internal border. This requirement varies by country and can usually be performed by hotels instead.
Visa facilitation agreements
The EU has concluded visa facilitation agreements with several countries, which allow facilitated procedures for issuing visas for both EU citizens and nationals of partner countries. The facilitated procedures include faster visa processing times, reduced or no fees, and reduced list of supporting documents. These agreements are also linked to readmission agreements that allow the return of people irregularly residing in the EU.
|Visa facilitation agreements|
|Country||Entry into force|
|Belarus||2020, 1 July|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||2008|
At the border
In exceptional cases, single-entry Schengen visas valid for up to 15 days may be issued on arrival at the border. These visas are reserved for individuals who can prove that they were unable to apply for a visa in advance due to time constraints arising out of 'unforeseeable' and 'imperative' reasons as long as they fulfil the regular criteria for the issuing of a Schengen visa. However, if the individual requesting a Schengen visa at the border falls within a category of people for which it is necessary to consult one or more of the central authorities of other Schengen States, they may only be issued a visa at the border in exceptional cases on humanitarian grounds, on grounds of national interest or on account of international obligations (such as the death or sudden serious illness of a close relative or of another close person). In 2017, about 89,000 Schengen visas were issued to travellers on arrival at the border. People trying this way to travel to the Schengen Area can be denied boarding by the airline because of the carrier's responsibility, which penalises airlines if they carry passengers who do not have the correct documentation.
Visas with limited territorial validity
In exceptional cases, Schengen states may issue visas with limited territorial validity (LTV), either specifically naming the state(s) for which it is valid or, inversely, the state(s) for which it is not valid. Holders of LTV visas are only permitted to travel to Schengen states for which it is valid, as well as to Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania.
According to the Schengen Visa Code, member states may issue LTV visas when a consulate deems it justifiable to overcome the three-month limitation in six months, when a member state considers it necessary due to pressing circumstances to derogate from entry conditions as set by Schengen Borders Code, to overcome objections of other member states, or in cases of urgency.
Unrecognised travel documents
Schengen visas are only issued on travel documents of UN member states, Kosovo, Palestine, Taiwan, Vatican City, the Order of Malta, and certain international organisations (Council of Europe, EU, NATO, Red Cross, UN). Belgium and France also accept the passport of Somaliland. Passports of Abkhazia, Artsakh, Northern Cyprus, South Ossetia, Transnistria and Western Sahara are not accepted.
Most Schengen visas were issued to applicants located in the countries listed below (listed if more than 100,000 visas issued in most recent year). Applicants were not necessarily nationals of these countries.
|Visas issued||Refusal rate||Share of multiple-entry visas||Visas issued||Refusal rate||Share of multiple-entry visas||Visas issued||Refusal rate||Share of multiple-entry visas||Visas issued||Refusal rate||Share of multiple-entry visas|
|United Arab Emirates||174,059||17.9%||55.5%||167,685||16.5%||54.3%||172,822||12.1%||57.9%||192,812||12.0%||46.2%|
|Applications||Visas issued||Refusal rate||Applications||Visas issued||Refusal rate||Applications||Visas issued||Refusal rate||Applications||Visas issued||Refusal rate|
- Armenia – In 2018, EU and Armenian officials announced plans for visa liberalisation following the signing of a new Comprehensive and Enhanced Partnership Agreement.
- Ecuador – In 2018, Spain submitted a request for visa exemption for nationals of Ecuador.
- Indonesia – In 2015, EU and Indonesian officials started discussing possibilities for nationals of Indonesia to obtain visa-free access to the Schengen Area.
- Kosovo – In 2018, an EU report concluded that Kosovo had met all of the conditions required for visa liberalisation.
- Nauru – In 2012, the EU proposed introducing visa-free travel for nationals of several island countries, all of which concluded the required agreements by 2016 except Nauru.
- Russia – In 2014, the EU suspended talks for visa-free travel with Russia as a result of the situation in Ukraine, but from 2016 a number of EU politicians and officials stated that they would be interested in restarting the process.
- Turkey – In 2016, the EU presented a legislative proposal to include Turkey in the list of countries whose nationals are exempt from visas for short stays in the Schengen Area.
In 2017, the EU adopted a regulation to establish an Entry/Exit System (EES) to record electronically the entry and exit of third-country nationals to and from the Schengen Area in a central database, replacing the manual stamping of passports. The goals are to increase automation of border control and to identify overstayers. As of March 2020, EES is expected to enter into operation in the first quarter of 2022.
In 2018, the EU approved regulations to establish a system for electronic authorisation of visa-exempt visitors, named ETIAS (European Travel Information and Authorisation System). It is similar to other electronic travel authorisation systems implemented by Australia, United States, Canada, New Zealand and United Kingdom. The ETIAS travel authorization will be required for travel to the Schengen Area, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania, and it is expected the ETIAS visa waiver to enter into operation at the end of 2022, but ETIAS travel authorization will not be mandatory until 2023. A 6-month grace period is planned to allow eligible travellers to become familiarized with the new regulation. Moreover, the ETIAS travel authorization will not be needed to visit Ireland.
ETIAS will be required from nationals of visa-exempt third countries (Annex II) except the European microstates of Andorra, Monaco, San Marino and Vatican City. ETIAS will also be required from family members of EU single market nationals not holding a residence card indicating that status. However, it will not be required from family members holding such a card, from holders of visas, residence permits, local border traffic permits, refugee or stateless travel documents issued by an EU single market country, or from crew members or holders of diplomatic or official passports.
Prospective visitors will need to complete an online application, and a €7 fee will be required from those between ages 18 and 70. The system is expected to process the vast majority of applications automatically by searching in electronic databases and provide an immediate response, but in some cases it may take up to four days if manual processing is needed. If approved, the authorisation will be valid for three years, or until the expiration date of the travel document if earlier.
The EU requires that all Annex II countries and territories provide visa-free access for 90 days to nationals of all Schengen states and other EU countries implementing the common visa rules (Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania, but not Ireland). If an Annex II country is found to not provide full reciprocity, the EU may decide to suspend the visa exemption for certain categories or later all nationals of that country.
Since the adoption of this policy, full reciprocity has been achieved with all Annex II countries except the United States, which still requires visas from nationals of Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania. In November 2014, the Bulgarian government announced that it would not ratify the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership unless the United States lifted visa requirements for its nationals. Since the United States failed to lift the requirements, on 3 March 2017 the European Parliament approved a non-binding resolution calling on the European Commission to revoke the visa-free travel for US nationals to the Schengen Area.
Some Annex II countries and territories also impose minor restrictions on nationals of EU or Schengen states that are not considered a breach of reciprocity by the EU. Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States require an electronic authorisation before travel by air or sea, similar to the EU's own planned ETIAS. Canada also requires a visa from nationals of Romania not holding electronic passports. Israel requires a visa from nationals of Germany born before 1928, which is issued free of charge if they were not involved with the Nazi Party. Montserrat requires an electronic visa from nationals of Croatia.
Stays exceeding 90 days
In general, third-country nationals staying more than 90 days in the Schengen Area as a whole or in Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus or Romania require either a long-stay visa for less than a year or a residence permit for longer periods.
Although long-stay visas issued by these countries have a uniform design, the procedures and conditions for issuing them are usually determined by each individual country. For example, some Schengen countries require applications for long-stay visas to be made in the applicant's home country, while other Schengen countries permit them after arrival. Some procedures may vary depending on the applicant's country as well. In some situations, such as for study, the procedures and conditions for long-stay visas have been harmonised among all issuing states. Each country is also free to establish its own conditions for residence permits.
Third-country nationals who are long-term residents of an EU or Schengen state (except Ireland and Denmark) may also acquire the right to move to and settle in another of these states without losing their legal status and social benefits. The Van Der Elst visa rule allows third-country nationals employed in the EU single market to work temporarily in another EU single market country for the same employer under certain conditions.
Some third-country nationals are permitted to stay in the Schengen Area for more than 90 days without the need to apply for a long-stay visa. For example, France does not require nationals of the European microstates to apply for a long-stay visa. Nationals of countries (such as Australia, Canada, Malaysia, New Zealand, Singapore and the United States) that had entered into visa waiver agreements with individual Schengen states before they implemented the Schengen agreement are permitted to stay for up to 90 days in each of those Schengen states without a long-stay visa (see the 'Rules for Annex II nationals' section above).
Means of subsistence
In addition to general requirements, Schengen states also set entry conditions for foreign nationals of countries outside the EU single market called the "reference amounts required for the crossing of the external border fixed by national authorities" regarding means of subsistence during their stay.
|Means of subsistence requirements|
|Belgium||€45 per day for aliens staying with a private individual; €95 per day for aliens staying at a hotel.|
|Bulgaria||€50 per day; minimum €500 per stay|
|Croatia||€100 per day; but €50 for aliens possessing a certified guarantee letter, a proof of paid travel arrangements, etc.|
|Czech Republic||€40 per day up to 30 days|
|Denmark||DKK350 per day|
|Estonia||€78 per day or a letter of invitation|
|Finland||€30 per day|
|France||€120 per day if holding no proof of accommodation; €65 per day if staying at a hotel; €32.50 per day if holding proof of accommodation.|
|Germany||€45 per day in the form of cash, credit cards and cheques but alternatively a letter of guarantee from the host.|
|Greece||€50 per day; minimum total amount of €300 for a stay of up to 5 days reduced by 50% for minors|
|Hungary||HUF1000 per entry or letter of invitation, confirmation of accommodation or any other credible proof.|
|Iceland||ISK4,000 per day + ISK20,000 per each entry|
|Italy||€269.60 fixed sum for stays up to 5 days (€212.81 per person for groups of two and more); 6–10 days: €44.93 per day (€26.33); 11–20 days: €51.64 fixed sum + €36.67 per day (€25.82 + €22.21); 20+ days €206.58 fixed sum + €27.89 per day (€118.79 + €17.04).|
|Latvia||€14 per day or certified invitation letter|
|Liechtenstein||CHF100 per day; CHF30 for students|
|Lithuania||€40 per day|
|Malta||€48 per day|
|Netherlands||€34 per day|
|Norway||NOK500 per day (indicative for those not staying with friends or relatives)|
|Poland||PLN300 for stay not exceeding 3 days; PLN100 per day by stay exceeding 3 days; PLN20 per day if cost of the stay were paid.|
|Portugal||€40 per day + €75 per entry|
|Romania||€50 per day; minimum €500 per stay|
|Slovakia||€56 per day (€30 for accommodation, €4 for breakfast, €7.5 for lunch, €7.5 for dinner, €7 for spending) or a certified invitation letter|
|Slovenia||€70; €35 for minors accompanied by parents|
|Spain||€855.00 minimum amount (for stays of up to 9 days); €95.00 per day in excess of 9 days.|
|Sweden||SEK450 per day. Needed proof is a copy of three months of bank statements, or of two years of income tax declaration, if there is no official sponsor with proof of that.|
|Switzerland||CHF100 per day; CHF30 for students|
|Authorities of Austria, Cyprus and Luxembourg decide on a case-by-case basis.
The Netherlands exempts visitors from Australia, Canada, Japan, New Zealand, South Korea, United States and Vatican City from holding proof of sufficient funds and return tickets. Romania requires visitors from Moldova, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Russia, Serbia and Ukraine to hold a medical insurance covering the period of stay. Romania also exempts visitors from Australia, Canada, South Korea and the United States from holding proof of sufficient funds and return tickets.
Visa policies of Ireland and overseas territories
Ireland has an independent visa policy. It grants visa-free entry to all Schengen Annex II nationalities, except for Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Colombia, East Timor, Georgia, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Micronesia, Moldova, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Palau, Peru, Serbia, Ukraine and Venezuela. It also grants visa-free entry to several additional countries – Belize, Bolivia, Botswana, Eswatini, Fiji, Guyana, Lesotho, Maldives, Nauru and South Africa. Visas for Ireland and for the Schengen Area are not valid for each other.
In addition, Ireland as an EU member state maintains the Freedom of movement for workers in the European Union with the other European Union member states and also with the United Kingdom's Northern Ireland.
After the Brexit, The British overseas territory of Akrotiri and Dhekelia still open borders with Cyprus and follows the visa policy of the Schengen Area, but requires permits for stays longer than 28 days per 12-month period.
Overseas France and the Caribbean part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands have individual visa policies that are mostly aligned with the Schengen Area, with some exceptions regarding countries recently added to Annex II and some additions.
The Faroe Islands and Greenland have the same list of nationalities exempt from visas as the Schengen Area, and arrivals from the Schengen Area are not subject to border checks. However, Schengen visas are not valid there, so nationalities that are not exempt need separate visas for these territories. These regulations are due to a special agreement because Greenland and Faroe Islands are included in the travel solution within the framework of the Nordic Passport Union.
Svalbard is an entirely visa-free zone. Those traveling to and from Svalbard must present a passports or national ID-card. Travelers who have a visa requirement to enter mainland Norway/the Schengen area must have a Schengen visa if they travel via mainland Norway/the Schengen Area. This must be a double-entry visa so they can return to mainland Norway/the Schengen area.
Visa policies of candidate and applicant states
Countries applying to join the European Union are obliged to adopt the EU's visa policy no later than three months before they formally join the Union. Schengen countries give visa-free access to nationals of all European Union candidate and applicant states except Turkey. Candidate states Albania, Montenegro, North Macedonia and Serbia maintain similar visa policies to the Schengen Area with some notable exceptions regarding countries that were added to the Annex II more recently and additional nationalities not listed in Schengen Annex II, while Turkey still requires visas from nationals of Cyprus. Bosnia and Herzegovina as an applicant country also has its visa policy mostly aligned with the Schengen Area.
Validity for other countries
Schengen visas that are valid for further travel are accepted as substitute visas for national visas in several other countries.
|Validity of Schengen visas for other countries|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Europe.|
- Common Travel Area
- Central America-4 Border Control Agreement
- Foreign relations of the European Union
- Long-term resident (European Union)
- Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement
- Visa Information System
- Visa policy of Ireland
- Visa policy of Northern Cyprus
- Visa policies of Overseas France
- Visa policy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in the Caribbean
- Visa policy of Svalbard
- Visa requirements for European Union citizens
- Österreich, Außenministerium der Republik. "Schengen Visa – BMEIA, Außenministerium Österreich".
- "Visa policy". European Commission. Retrieved 6 January 2014.
- "Directive 2004/38/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the right of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States". 29 April 2004. Retrieved 17 December 2008.
- Summary of the Directive 2004/38/EC "Right of Union citizens and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States". 2 May 2006. Retrieved 17 December 2008.
- "Decision of the EEA Joint Committee No 158/2007 of 7 December 2007 amending Annex V (Free movement of workers) and Annex VIII (Right of establishment) to the EEA Agreement". 7 December 2007. Retrieved 22 December 2008.
- "Short Overview of the EFTA Convention". Retrieved 29 November 2017.
- Article 6.3.2 of the Practical Handbook for Border Guards (C (2006) 5186)
- Judgement of the European Court of Justice of 17 February 2005, Case C 215/03, Salah Oulane vs. Minister voor Vreemdelingenzaken en Integratie
- Article 27 of Directive 2004/38/EC (Directive 2004/38/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the right of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States).
- Article 28 of Directive 2004/38/EC (Directive 2004/38/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the right of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States).
- Article 29 of Directive 2004/38/EC (Directive 2004/38/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the right of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States).
- COVID-19: Temporary Restriction on Non-Essential Travel to the EU (COM (2020) 115, 16 March 2020)
- "Temporary non-essential travel restrictions". European Commission.
- Guidance on the implementation of the temporary restriction on non-essential travel to the EU, on the facilitation of transit arrangements for the repatriation of EU citizens, and on the effects on visa policy' in order to provide 'advice and practical instructions (C (2020) 2050, 30 March 2020)
- Communication on assessment of state of play of the Communication on non-essential travel (COM (2020) 148, 8 April 2020)
- Communication on the second assessment of the application of the temporary restriction on non-essential travel to the EU (COM (2020) 222, 8 May 2020)
- Communication on the third assessment of the application of the temporary restriction on non-essential travel to the EU (COM (2020) 399, 11 June 2020)
- Regulation (EU) 2018/1806 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 November 2018 listing the third countries whose nationals must be in possession of visas when crossing the external borders and those whose nationals are exempt from that requirement OJ L 303, 28 November 2018, pp. 39–58
- Visa for Bulgaria, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Bulgaria.
- Visa requirements overview, Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs of Croatia.
- Visa policy, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Cyprus.
- Do I need a visa?, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Romania.
- "Lists of third countries whose nationals must be in possession of a visa when crossing the external borders and of those whose nationals are exempt from that requirement" (PDF).
- "EUR-Lex - 32001R0539 - EN - EUR-Lex".
- "EUR-Lex - 32001R2414 - EN - EUR-Lex".
- "Council regulation 1932/2006".
- Ratified by the European Parliament (EP) on 15 December 2015
- Ratified by the EP on 15 December 2015
- Ratified by the EP on 8 June 2016
- Ratified by the EP on 5 July 2016
- Ratified by the EP on 1 December 2016
- "EUR-Lex - 41997D0032 - EN - EUR-Lex".
- "EUR-Lex - 41999D0013 - EN - EUR-Lex".
- "EUR-Lex - 32003R0453 - EN - EUR-Lex".
- "EUR-Lex - 32006R1932R(01) - EN - EUR-Lex".
- Article 6 of the Schengen Borders Code (OJ L 77, 23 March 2016, p. 1–52)
- Practical Handbook for Border Guards, Part II, Section I, Point 3.1 C (2019) 7131
- Article 1(5)(b) of Regulation (EU) No 610/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2013 amending Regulation (EC) No 562/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing a Community Code on the rules governing the movement of persons across borders (Schengen Borders Code), the Convention implementing the Schengen Agreement, Council Regulations (EC) No 1683/95 and (EC) No 539/2001 and Regulations (EC) No 767/2008 and (EC) No 810/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council (OJ L 182, 29 June 2013, p. 1. Prior to Regulation (EU) No 610/2013, in response to an Ad-hoc Query by the European Migration Network), the national agencies responsible for border control in 9 Member States confirmed that Annex II nationals holding residence permits or long-stay visas would be entitled to stay for a further period of three months without a visa upon the expiration of the residence permit/long-stay visa. However, following the entry in force of Article 1(5)(b) of Regulation (EU) No 610/2013 on 18 October 2013, all Annex II nationals holding residence permits or long-stay visas issued by a Schengen member state are entitled automatically to stay for a further period of three months without a visa upon the expiration of the residence permit/long-stay visa (the conditions of a visa-free stay would apply to this period of three months after the expiration of the residence permit/long-stay visa, rather than the conditions of stay associated with the residence permit/long-stay visa).
- "Border crossing". 6 December 2016.
- "Europe entry requirements: Schengen area". smartraveller.gov.au. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
- "European Union - EEAS (European External Action Service) - Travelling to the EU". Archived from the original on 18 January 2016.
- "NZ government travel advisory – travel tips to Europe". Safetravel.govt.nz. 13 September 2013. Archived from the original on 29 September 2013. Retrieved 12 October 2013.
- "Visa for New Zealand passport holders". Embassy of Switzerland in Wellington. 7 November 2017. Archived from the original on 13 April 2020. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
- "Visa". Embassy of Italy in Wellington. Archived from the original on 13 April 2020. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
- "Fact Sheet: Austria-New Zealand Bilateral Agreement on Visa Free Short Stays" (PDF). Austrian Embassy in Canberra. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 April 2020. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
- "Visa". Embassy of Hungary in Wellington. Archived from the original on 13 April 2020. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
- Border controls in Europe (PDF), Embassy of France in Wellington, archived (PDF) from the original on 1 January 2012, retrieved 1 January 2012
- Frequently Asked Questions, Embassy of Spain in Wellington, 29 April 2009, archived from the original on 1 January 2012, retrieved 1 January 2012
- "Entering the Czech Republic, duties, length of stay - Ministry of the interior of the Czech Republic".
- "Visa-free travel". Danish Immigration Service. 13 February 2019. Archived from the original on 13 April 2020. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
- "UDI 2010-080 Bortvisningspraksis for borgere fra stater Norge har inngått bilaterale visumfrihetsavtaler med" (in Norwegian). Norwegian Directorate of Immigration. 28 November 2019. Archived from the original on 13 April 2020.
- "UDI 2010-080V1 Liste over visumfrie borgere som er omfattet" (in Norwegian). Norwegian Directorate of Immigration. 28 November 2019. Archived from the original on 13 April 2020.
- "Do I need a visa". Urząd do Spraw Cudzoziemców (Office for Foreigners). Retrieved 13 April 2020.
- See The Council of the European Union: Replies to the questionnaire on the Presidency project for a system of electronic recording of entry and exit dates of third-country nationals in the Schengen area (PDF), pg 43.
- ROC (Taiwan) Immigration Reference Guide for Civil Carriers (PDF), National Immigration Agency, 18 March 2011, retrieved 21 December 2011
- "護照條例施行細則", Laws & Regulations Database of The Republic of China, Taipei: Ministry of Justice, 29 June 2011, retrieved 21 December 2011. English translation available from the Bureau of Consular Affairs.
- "mae.ro" (PDF).
- "Regulation (EU) No 1211/2010 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 December 2010 amending Council Regulation (EC) No 539/2001 listing the third countries whose nationals must be in possession of visas when crossing the external borders and those whose nationals are exempt from that requirement". Council of the European Union. 22 December 2010. Retrieved 22 December 2010.
- Information on national derogations from the visa requirement, Directorate-General for Migration and Home Affairs, 31 December 2020.
- Frequently asked questions, Directorate-General for Migration and Home Affairs of the European Commission.
- Residence Permit, Government of Monaco, 5 October 2012.
- Travelling in the EU / Schengen, Ministry of the Interior of the Czech Republic, 11 December 2017.
- Handbook for the processing of visa applications and the modification of issued visas, European Commission, 14 May 2019. Example on p. 98: "As the Chinese spouse has a Romanian residence card issued under Article 10 of the Directive, he is exempted from the visa requirement under the Directive (but not under the Schengen Borders Code as Romania does not yet apply the Schengen acquis in full)."
- Articles 3(1) and 5(2) of the Directive 2004/38/EC (Directive 2004/38/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the right of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States).
- "Non-EU family members".
- Practical Handbook for Border Guards, Part II, Section I, Points 2.1.2 and 2.8 (C (2019) 7131, 8 October 2019)
- Practical Handbook for Border Guards, Part II, Section I, Point 2.8 (C (2019) 7131, 8 October 2019, p. 22)
- Administrator. "embassy - Visas".
- "High Commission of the Republic of Cyprus in London – Visa Information".
- "V. Do I need a visa? - Ministry of Foreign Affairs".
- "EUR-Lex - 31994D0795 - EN - EUR-Lex".
- Article 16 of the Visa Code (Regulation (EC) No 810/2009) (OJ L 243, 15 September 2009, p. 1–58)
- "List of notifications of bilateral agreements under Article 19 of Local Border Traffic Regulation" (PDF).
- "Польша временно останавливает действие соглашения о местном приграничном передвижении".
- "Польша не возобновила пограничное движение с Калининградом - ЦФО - РИА ФедералПресс".
- "Regulation (EC) No 1931/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 December 2006". 30 December 2006. Retrieved 2 March 2008.
- Judgement of the European Court of Justice of 21 March 2013, Case C‑254/11, Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg Megyei Rendőrkapitányság Záhony Határrendészeti Kirendeltsége v Oskar Shomodi: Judgement & Press release
- Countries requiring or not requiring a visa, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Greece, 30 April 2019.
- "FAQ - I'm planning a trip by air and have to transit at a German airport. Do I need a visa?". German Federal Foreign Office. Retrieved 13 December 2019.
The vast majority of foreign travellers benefit from the "transit privilege" - if during a stopover at a German airport, you do not leave the International Airport Area and if the destination is not in a Schengen country, you do not need a transit visa.
- Article 3 and Annex IV of the Visa Code (Regulation (EC) No 810/2009) (OJ L 243, 15 September 2009, p. 1–58)
- Common list of third countries listed in Annex I to Regulation (EC) no 539/2001, whose nationals are required to be in possession of an airport transit visa when passing through the international transit area of airports situated on the territory of the Member States, Directorate-General for Migration and Home Affairs of the European Union.
- Article 3(5) of the Visa Code (Regulation (EC) No 810/2009) (OJ L 243, 15 September 2009, p. 1–58)
- Article 3(2) of the Visa Code (Regulation (EC) No 810/2009) (OJ L 243, 15 September 2009, p. 1–58)
- List of third countries whose nationals are required to be in possession of an airport transit visa when passing through the international transit area of airports situated on the territory of one/some Member States, European Commission, December 2019.
- Regulation on the terms and procedures for issuing visas and determining the visa regime, Lex.bg, 28 July 2015. (in Bulgarian)
- Regulation on the visa regime, Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs of Croatia, 28 May 2015.
- List of countries whose nationals are required to be in possession of an airport transit visa, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Cyprus, 7 September 2016.
- Airport transit visa, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Romania.
- Article 12(2) of the Schengen Convention.
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark, Embassy of Denmark, New Delhi. "Visa requirements for Indians travelling to Denmark". Archived from the original on 14 May 2007. Retrieved 25 December 2007.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- New EU visa rules – Questions and answers, European Commission, 31 January 2020.
- Article 13 of the Visa Code (Regulation (EC) No 810/2009) (OJ L 243, 15 September 2009, p. 1–58)
- Article 23 of the Visa Code (Regulation (EC) No 810/2009) (OJ L 243, 15 September 2009, p. 1–58)
- Article 16 of the Schengen Visa Code, as amended by Regulation (EU) 2019/1155 (OJ L 188, 12 July 2019, p. 25–54)
- Article 22 of the Schengen Convention (OJ L 239, 22 September 2000, p. 19–62) and Article 23 of the Schengen Borders Code (Regulation (EU) 2016/399) (OJ L 77, 23 March 2016, p. 1–52).
- Anonymous (6 December 2016). "Visa policy - Migration and Home Affairs - European Commission".
- "Cooperation with non-EU countries on readmission of irregular migrants".
- Visa Facilitation and Readmission: the European Union and Belarus sign agreements
- "Официально. С 1 июля "шенген" для белорусов – по 35 евро" (in Russian). Tut.By. 29 May 2020.
- Article 7.2 of the Practical Handbook for Border Guards (C (2006) 5186)
- Article 7.5 of the Practical Handbook for Border Guards (C (2006) 5186)
- "Schengen visa statistics, 2017".
- Article 25 of the Visa Code (Regulation (EC) No 810/2009) (OJ L 243, 15 September 2009, p. 1–58)
- Travel documents issued by third countries and territorial entities, Directorate-General for Migration and Home Affairs, 17 July 2018.
- Travel documents issued by member states, Directorate-General for Migration and Home Affairs, 27 April 2018.
- Travel documents issued by international organisations and other entities subject to international law, Directorate-General for Migration and Home Affairs, 27 April 2018.
- Travel: Countries that accept Somaliland passport, Maalmaha News, 2 April 2018.
- Information concerning the non-exhaustive list of known fantasy and camouflage passports, as stipulated by Article 6 of the Decision no. 1105/2011/EU, Directorate-General for Migration and Home Affairs, 15 March 2017.
- "Schengen visa statistics, 2015".
- "Schengen visa statistics, 2016".
- "Schengen visa statistics, 2018".
- "Armenia starts visa liberalization dialogue with EU member states". Public Radio of Armenia. 18 January 2019. Retrieved 11 October 2020.
- Spain presents the request for the Schengen visa exemption for Ecuadorian citizens to the European Union
- "Indonesian government proposes free Schengen visa".
- developer, metrotvnews. "Lithuania Siap Mendukung Bebas Visa ke Uni Eropa". metrotvnews.com (in Indonesian).
- "France to support RI's Schengen visa-free proposal". The Jakarta Post.
- "France Appreciate Indonesia's Commitment on Climate Change". 29 September 2015.
- Post, The Jakarta. "Kalla meets Luxembourg PM, Dutch Queen".
- "Indonesia, Finland to explore renewable energy cooperation".
- Saleh, Yudhistira Amran. "Hongaria Dukung Indonesia Dapatkan Bebas Visa Schengen".
- "Dubes Harapkan Jokowi Kunjungi Swiss – Waspada Online". 26 November 2015.
- "Indonesia usul bebas Visa Schengen untuk WNI - ANTARA News".
- Post, The Jakarta. "Indonesia proposes Schengen visa waiver".
- "Indonesia Proposes Schengen Visa Exemption to EU". 1 January 1970.
- VIVA.co.id, PT. VIVA MEDIA BARU -. "Indonesia Klaim Direstui UE Dapat Bebas Visa Schengen".
- Post, The Jakarta. "RI visa waiver on the cards, says envoy".
- "Visa Liberalisation: Commission confirms Kosovo fulfils all required benchmarks". European Commission. 18 July 2018. Retrieved 20 July 2018.
- "European Union opens doors to 16 island nations".
- "EU suspends talks on visa-free travel with Russia and threatens further sanctions". Euronews. 5 March 2014.
- Interview de l’Ambassadeur sur la chaîne «Dozhd» (RainTV)
- Casi toda América del Sur estará libre de visados para los rusos, El País
- ЕС поборется с Кремлем отменой виз [EU will fight Kremlin with visa abolishment] (in Russian). 6 May 2016.
- Президент Чехии высказался за упрощение визового режима ЕС с Россией [The Czech president spoke out in favor of visa liberalization between Russia and EU] (in Russian). 30 September 2016.
- The Russia Paradox, Der Spiegel
- "Wie soll Europa mit Russland umgehen?" [How should Europe deal with Russia?] (in German). 29 August 2017.
- "Russlandbeauftragter will Visumfreiheit für junge Russen" [Russia Commissioner wants visa waiver for young Russians] (in German). 9 October 2018.
- Глава "Петербургского диалога" выступил за отмену виз для молодежи из РФ [Chairman of the Petersburg Dialogue: We want visa-free regime for young Russians] (in Russian). 16 July 2019.
- "German FM Says EU May Soon Consider Visa-Free Policy For Russians". 26 July 2019.
- "European Commission opens way for decision by June on visa-free travel for citizens of Turkey". European Commission. 4 May 2016. Retrieved 7 May 2016.
- Regulation (EU) 2017/2226 of the European Parliament and of the Council, of 30 November 2017, EUR-Lex.
- Enhanced Security with the Entry/Exit System, EU-LISA.
- "Smart Borders". European Commission. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
- EU information systems, European Commission, February 2019.
- Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing a Registered Traveller Programme, European Commission, 2013.
- "ETIAS Visa Waiver | European Travel Authorisation System". ETIAS.info. Retrieved 31 December 2020.
- Regulations (EU) 2018/1240 and 2018/1241 of the European Parliament and of the Council, of 12 September 2018, EUR-Lex.
- Security union: A European Travel Information and Authorisation System - Questions & answers, European Commission, 5 July 2018.
- ETIAS Registration Will Not Become Mandatory Until the End of 2022, ETIAS Visa, March 2020.
- When Will ETIAS Be Implemented: Start Date and More
- Do I need ETIAS to visit Ireland?
- State of play and way forward as regards the situation of non-reciprocity in the area of visa policy, European Commission, 19 December 2018.
- "Bulgaria Will Not Sign TTIP Unless US Lifts Visa Requirements - Minister - Novinite.com - Sofia News Agency".
- Sharman, Jon (3 March 2016). "European Parliament votes to end visa-free travel for Americans". The Independent. Retrieved 4 March 2017.
- "Citizens of Romania now need a valid electronic passport for visa-free travel to Canada". Government of Canada. 5 June 2018. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
- Consular services, Israeli Embassy in Germany.
- German nationals who were born before 1928, Israeli Embassy in Germany. (in German)
- Statement, Israeli Embassy in Germany. (in German)
- Countries requiring a visa, Government of Montserrat.
- "Overview of visa requirements/exemptions for entry into the Federal Republic of Germany".
- "Consulate-General of the Republic of Hungary in New Zealand: General information for entering Hungary, a member of the Schengen Area".
- Zaken, Ministerie van Buitenlandse (2 August 2016). "Visas - Topic - Government.nl".
- "Federal Office of Migration: List 1: Overview of ID and visa provisions according to nationality (version of 4 December 2011)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 February 2012. Retrieved 30 January 2012.
- Council Directive 2004/114/EC of 13 December 2004 on the conditions of admission of third-country nationals for the purposes of studies, pupil exchange, unremunerated training or voluntary service (L 375/12, 23 December 2004)
- Report from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on the application of Directive 2004/114/EC
- Council Directive 2003/109/EC concerning the status of third-country nationals who are long-term residents (OJ L 16, 23 January 2004, p.44).
- "Accueil Particuliers - service-public.fr". Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- "Annex 25 – Reference amounts required for the crossing of the external border fixed by national authorities" (PDF).
- Article 19(5) of the Ordinance on the terms and the procedure for the issuing of visas, adopted by Council of Ministers Decree No 97/11.05.2002
- Act No 326/1999 Sb. on Residence of Aliens in the Territory of the Czech Republic and Amendments of Some Acts
- Aliens' Act (301/2004, paragraph 11)
- Minimum wage equivalent.
- Article 15(2) of the Residence Act of 30 July 2004
- Common Ministerial Decision No 3021/22/10- f of 24 December 2007
- Decree No 25/2001. (XI. 21.) of the Minister of Interior
- Regulation of the Minister for Internal Affairs and Administration of 22 December 2008 on the means of subsistence that an alien entering the territory of the Republic of Poland should possess and on the documentation confirming the ability to access such means (Journal of Laws 2008, No 235, item 1611)
- Article 4 of the Act No 48/2002 Coll. on Stay of Aliens and on amendment of certain acts as amended
- Instructions on refusing entry to aliens, conditions for issuing visas at border crossings, conditions for issuing visas for humanitarian reasons and procedure for revoking visas (Official Gazette of the Republic of Slovenia, No. 2/01)
- Order of the Ministry of the Presidency (PRE/1282/2007)
- "Entrada: requisitos y condiciones". Ministerio del Interior. Retrieved 28 July 2020.
- "TOURIST VISA CHECKLIST" (PDF). Embassy of Sweden. Retrieved 19 November 2018.
- "Country information (visa section)". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Olympic Air. Retrieved 1 April 2017.
- "Country information (visa section)". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Olympic Air. Retrieved 1 April 2017.
- Protocols No. 3 and 10 to the Treaty of Accession 2003, EUR-Lex, 23 September 2003.
- Control (entry, settlement and commercial enterprises) ordinance 1960, Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia Gazette, consolidated version as of 3 May 2016.
- Visa and Work Permit, Government of the Faroe Islands.
- Schengen and Tourists, Government of Greenland.
- "How to travel to Svalbard". Visit Svalbard. Retrieved 30 November 2020.
- "Visas and immigration". Governor of Svalbard. Retrieved 30 November 2020.
- "Russians, Ukrainians, Turks need visa for Croatia".
- "European Commission - PRESS RELEASES - Press release - Visa free travel for citizens of the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia before Christmas".
- "Visas for Bosnia and Herzegovina".
- "PAISES A LOS CUALES COLOMBIA EXIGE VISA" (PDF).
- Países y regiones que No requieren visa para viajar a México