Visa policy of the United Kingdom


The visa policy of the United Kingdom is the policy by which Her Majesty's Government determines visa requirements for visitors to the United Kingdom, and the Crown dependencies of Guernsey, Jersey, and the Isle of Man and those seeking to work, study or reside there. All intended entrants must obtain a visa unless they are exempt.

The UK operates its own visa policy and maintains the Common Travel Area with the Republic of Ireland, the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man.[1] British Overseas Territories generally apply their own similar but legally distinct visa policies.

The United Kingdom was a member of the European Union until 31 January 2020, and EU/EEA/Swiss citizens enjoyed freedom of movement to the UK until the transition period ended on 31 December 2020.

Visa policy map


Visa policy of the United Kingdom
  United Kingdom
  Freedom of movement / Common Travel Area
  Visa-free entry for 6 months, subject to UK Visitor Rules (no UK jobs market work, no recourse to public funds)
  Electronic visa waiver countries
  Visa required for entry, and landside transit (unless holding exemption documents); visa-free airside transit
  Visa required for entry, and both landside and airside transit (unless holding exemption documents)

The following persons can enter the United Kingdom, the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man without a visa:

As of right

Non-visa nationals

British nationals and citizens of 87 countries and territories are visa-exempt for credibility-assessed stays in the UK of no longer than 6 months (or 3 months if they enter from the Republic of Ireland) in compliance with the Visitor Rules:[4][5][6]

British nationals:
Passport stamp with 6 months' leave to enter endorsed in the travel document of a non-visa national at the juxtaposed controls at the Port of Calais.

Non-visa nationals greeted by UK immigration officers arriving from outside the Common Travel Area are credibility-assessed as to grant of entry: "leave to enter". If granted for a regular visit they, excluding seven nations, receive a passport stamp in their passport at the UK Border Force entry checkpoint stating 'Leave to enter for six months: employment and recourse to public funds prohibited'. The exception covers nationals who are admitted, or admissible, by the ePassport gates system. These generally do not receive a passport stamp.[15][16] Those who entered using the Iris Recognition Immigration System (which was in operation from 2004 to 2013) did not receive a passport stamp.

Since 20 May 2019, Australian, Canadian, Japanese, New Zealand, Singaporean, South Korean and United States citizens seeking the above, most common, form of entry generally receive no passport stamp, regardless of whether they use an ePassport gate or a staffed control desk.[17][18] Three categories of their applicants for entry must go to a staffed control desk, for their passport will receive the relevant stamp(s): short-term student (for up to 6 months);[19] on a permitted paid engagement;[20] with a Tier 5 (Temporary Worker - Creative and Sporting) Certificate of Sponsorship (for up to 3 months);[21] or to accompany or join an EU/EEA/Swiss citizen family member (which case is mentioned in their passport entry clearance).[22][23]

Instead of endorsing a passport stamp, UK Border Force officers are permitted to grant leave to enter by fax or e-mail. They may also grant this orally (including by telephone) to a non-visa national seeking to stay as a visitor for up to 6 months. They, in general, have no power to do so where it has been conferred by another Common Travel Area border official.[24]

In the case of certain general aviation flights travellers may sometimes not be inspected by the UK Border Force on arrival (depending on the risk assessment per the travellers' information submitted in advance via the General Aviation Report (GAR) form) and may be 'remotely cleared' instead. In this case, although leave to enter is granted by implication or process, no passport stamp is received.[25]

All people arriving in the UK directly from the Republic of Ireland (part of the Common Travel Area) are not subject to routine checks by the UK Border Force on arrival in the UK. By virtue of the Immigration (Control of Entry through Republic of Ireland) Order 1972, non-visa nationals are automatically deemed to receive leave to remain in the UK for 3 months (also known as 'deemed leave'). They are forbidden from gainful employment during this period.[26] In this situation, no passport stamp is received upon entry to the UK.[27]

Similarly, all persons travelling between the UK and the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man (parts of the Common Travel Area) are not subject to routine immigration checks and no passport stamps are endorsed (although customs checks are sometimes carried out on passengers travelling between the UK and the Channel Islands, as they are separate customs areas). By virtue of Schedule 4 to the Immigration Act 1971, any leave to enter that is granted by the Crown Dependencies has effect as if the leave to enter had been given by the UK (and vice versa) under the same conditions and for the same period of time.[28][29]

All travellers arriving in the Crown Dependencies (the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man) directly from the Republic of Ireland (i.e. from within the Common Travel Area) are not subject to routine immigration checks and do not receive a passport stamp on arrival. Non-visa nationals are automatically deemed to receive leave to enter for 3 months and are not permitted to engage in gainful employment during this period.[30][31][32]

Electronic visa waiver (EVW)

Citizens of the following countries routinely obtain an electronic visa waiver (EVW) online before travel to accompany their passport:[33][34]

School pupils resident in the European Economic Area and Switzerland
Gibraltar
British Irish Visa Scheme (BIVS)

Citizens of these countries can travel to the UK without a visa if they hold a valid Irish visa endorsed with BIVS:[39]

Non-ordinary passport holders

Holders of diplomatic or service category passports of the following countries do not require a visa:

D — diplomatic passports
Sp — special passports
S — service passports
S* — service passports and a printed Electronic Visa Waiver (EVW)
PA — public affairs passports
1 – only for accompanying a Minister or above for the purpose of an official visit

Visa waiver also applies to holders of United Nations laissez-passer when they travel to the United Kingdom on official business.[42]

Transit


There are two types of transit through the United Kingdom under the United Kingdom Transit Rules — airside transit and landside transit.[132][133][134] The Transit Without Visa facility for visa requiring nationals was abolished, effective 1 December 2014, and replaced with United Kingdom Transit Rules.[135][136] Notwithstanding the lists below, in general, even persons from 'Direct Airside transit visa-exempt nationalities' require a transit visa if transiting though the UK to other parts of the Common Travel Area including Ireland.

Airside transit
  • available only at London Heathrow Airport, Gatwick Airport and Manchester Airport.
  • available only to those passengers arriving and departing by air to an international destination other than Ireland on the same day.
  • available only to those passengers not leaving the airside zone of the airport and not passing through immigration control.
  • concerns those passengers that would normally require a visitor visa to enter the United Kingdom but who either hold a Direct Airside Transit visa, a passport of a transit visa exempt country or who hold direct airside transit visa exemption documents.
Landside transit
  • available only to those passengers arriving and departing by air by 23:59 the next day who require passing through immigration control and leaving the airport building only for transit purposes.
  • concerns those passengers that would normally require a visitor visa to enter the United Kingdom but who hold a Visitor in Transit visa or landside visa exemption documents.
Direct Airside transit visa-exempt nationalities
  • Stateless persons holding UN Convention 1954 travel documents and refugees whose original nationality is exempt.
Direct Airside transit visa required
Direct Airside Transit visa exemption documents

The exemption applies where travellers:

  • arrive and depart by air, and
  • the onward flight must be confirmed, and must depart the same day, and
  • have proper documentation for their destination (including a visa for the destination country if necessary), and
  • fulfil any one of the below conditions:
  1. have a valid visa for Australia, Canada, New Zealand or the US, whether or not travelling to or from those countries, or
  2. have a valid Australian or New Zealand residence visa; or
  3. have a valid Canadian permanent resident card issued on or after 28 June 2002; or
  4. have a valid uniform format residence permit issued by an EEA state under Council Regulation (EC) number 1030/2002; or
  5. have a valid Irish biometric visa endorsed BC or BC BIVS; or
  6. have a valid uniform format category D visa for entry to a state in the European Economic Area (EEA); or
  7. have a valid US I-551 permanent resident card issued on or after 21 April 1998; or
  8. have an expired I-551 permanent resident card issued on or after 21 April 1998, accompanied by an I-797 extension letter; or
  9. have a standalone US Immigration Form 155A/155B attached to an envelope; or
  10. have a valid Schengen Approved destination Scheme (ADS) group tourism visa where the holder is travelling to the country that issued it or holds a valid airline ticket from the Schengen area, provided the holder can demonstrate they entered there no more than 30 days previously on the basis of a valid Schengen ADS visa;

E-visas or e-residence permits are not acceptable for airside transit unless the airline is able to verify it with the issuing country. Nationals of Syria who are holders of US B1/B2 visas are not exempt.

Visitor in Transit visa exemption documents

The exemption applies where travellers:

  • arrive and depart by air, and
  • the onward flight must be confirmed, and must depart by 23:59 the following day, and
  • have proper documentation for their destination (including a visa for the destination country if necessary), and
  • fulfil any one of the below conditions:
  1. have a valid entry visa for Australia, Canada, New Zealand or the US, and a valid airline ticket for travel via the UK, as part of a reasonable journey to or from one of those countries, or
  2. have a valid airline ticket for travel via the UK as part of a reasonable journey from Australia, Canada, New Zealand or the US, if they are transiting the UK no more than 6 months after the date when they last entered Australia, Canada, New Zealand or the US with a valid entry visa for that country; or
  3. have a valid Australian or New Zealand residence visa; or
  4. have a valid Canadian permanent resident card issued on or after 28 June 2002; or
  5. have a valid uniform format residence permit issued by an EEA state under Council Regulation (EC) number 1030/2002; or
  6. have a valid Irish biometric visa endorsed BC or BC BIVS; or
  7. have a valid uniform format category D visa for entry to a state in the European Economic Area (EEA); or
  8. have a valid US I-551 permanent resident card issued on or after 21 April 1998; or
  9. have an expired I-551 permanent resident card issued on or after 21 April 1998, accompanied by an I-797 extension letter; or
  10. have a standalone US Immigration Form 155A/155B attached to an envelope;

E-visas such as those regularly issued by Australia or e-residence permits are not acceptable for landside transit.

Obtaining an entry visa


Mandatory tuberculosis testing for a long term UK visa

Visitors entering the UK, the Channel Islands and/or the Isle of Man who do not qualify for one of the visa exemptions listed above have to apply for a visa in advance through the UK Visas and Immigration at a visa application centre.

The UK visa in a Russian student's passport

All visitors must apply by registering an online account (except citizens of North Korea who must apply in person at the British Embassy), fill in the application form, pay the fee and attend an appointment at a visa application centre.[137]

A visitor's visa for a single stay or multiple stays of up to 6 months costs £95. A multiple-entry visitor's visa valid for 2 years costs £361, 5 years £655, and 10 years £822.[138][139] Chinese citizens in can, for certain common forms of travel, obtain a 2-year, multiple-entry visitor's visa at a cost of £95.[140][141]

Family members of EU, EEA and Swiss citizens who are not covered by one of the visa exemptions above can apply for an EEA Family Permit free of charge (instead of a visa).[142]

Visitors applying for most types of UK visas (including a visitor's visa and an EEA Family Permit) are required to submit biometric identifiers (all fingerprints and a digital facial image) as part of the visa application process.[143] However, diplomats, foreign government ministers and officials and members of Commonwealth Forces are exempt from the requirement to submit biometric identifiers. Applicants who have obtained a new passport and are merely requesting a transfer of their visa vignette from their old passport to their new passport are not required to re-submit biometric identifiers.[144] In addition, applicants who are travelling directly to the Channel Islands or Gibraltar without passing through the UK or the Isle of Man are exempt from providing biometric information.[145] Children must be accompanied by an adult when their biometric identifiers are taken. Biometric identifiers may be shared with foreign governments. Biometric identifiers are destroyed 10 years after the last date a person's fingerprints and digital facial image were captured.[146]

Most visa applications are decided within 3 weeks.[139]

Applicants resident in the following countries and territories who wish to enter the UK for 6 months or more are required to be tested for tuberculosis as part of the visa application process:[147]

After a person has successfully obtained a UK visa, if they subsequently obtain a new passport, but the UK visa in their old passport still has remaining validity, they are not required to have the UK visa vignette affixed in the old passport transferred to the new passport, but must be able to present both the new and old passports at passport control when entering the UK.[148]

If a person who has successfully obtained a UK visa subsequently loses the passport in which the visa vignette is affixed (or if it is stolen), they have to pay the original visa fee in full again and may be required to show that their circumstances have not changed when applying for a replacement visa. However, a new 'confirmation of acceptance for studies' (CAS)/'certificate of sponsorship' (COS) is not required when applying for a replacement Tier 4/Tier 2 visa.[144]

Visa types


These are correct as of April 2015.

Visitor visas

  • Standard Visitor visa[149][150]
  • Marriage Visitor visa[151]
  • Permitted Paid Engagement visa[152]
  • Parent of a Tier 4 child visa[153]
  • Visa to pass through the UK in transit[132]
    • Direct Airside Transit visa
    • Visitor in Transit visa

Work visas

  • Tier 1 visa
    • Entrepreneur (minimum £200,000 investment or £50,000 if qualified)
    • Exceptional Talent (recognised leader in fields of science, humanities, engineering, medicine, digital technology or the arts)
    • General (highly skilled workers, writers, composers or artists and self-employed lawyers)
    • Graduate Entrepreneur
    • Investor (minimum £2,000,000 investment)
  • Tier 2 visa (sponsored workers)
    • General
    • Intra-company Transfer (foreign company workers in a UK branch)
    • Minister of Religion
    • Sportsperson
  • Tier 5 visa (temporary work for sponsored workers)
    • Charity Worker (unpaid voluntary work)
    • Creative and sporting
    • Government Authorised Exchange
    • International Agreement
    • Religious Worker
    • Youth Mobility Scheme
  • Domestic Workers in a Private Household visa (cleaners, chauffeurs, cooks, personal care providers and nannies)
  • Representative of an Overseas Business visa (head of a UK branch or a foreign journalist on a long-term posting)
  • Turkish Businessperson visa
  • Turkish Worker visa
  • UK Ancestry visa (Commonwealth citizens with UK born parents or grandparents)
  • Croatian national registration certificates

Student visas

  • Short-term study visa
  • Tier 4 visa
    • General
    • Child

Review of visa exemptions


By early 1917, all aliens (i.e. persons who were not British subjects) were required to obtain visas from a British consul before embarking for the United Kingdom.[154] Visa requirements would then be maintained for aliens under the peacetime regime of immigration control retained after 1918.

Visa policy of the UK from 1960 to the present
  United Kingdom
  Visa-free access (subject to UK arrival with credible presentation as a visitor)

In March 2007, the Home Office announced that it would carry out its first Visa Waiver Test to review the list of countries and territories outside the European Union, European Economic Area and Switzerland whose nationals are exempt from holding a visa for the UK.

After carrying out the review, in July 2008, Jacqui Smith, the Home Secretary, and David Miliband, the Foreign Secretary, announced to Parliament that the results of the test showed a 'strong case' for introducing visa regimes for 11 countries (Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Lesotho, Malaysia, Mauritius, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Trinidad and Tobago and Venezuela) having taken into account the following factors (including the extent to which they were being addressed by the countries' authorities):[155][156][157]

  • Passport security and integrity
  • The degree of co-operation over deportation or removal of the countries' nationals from the UK
  • Levels of illegal working in the UK and other immigration abuse (such as fraudulent asylum claims)
  • Levels of crime and terrorism risk posed to the UK

Following the July 2008 announcement, the UK Government entered into a 6-month period of 'detailed dialogue' with the governments of the 11 countries 'to examine how risks can be reduced in a way that obviates the need for a visa regime to be introduced'. In order to maintain visa-free access to the UK, the 11 countries had to 'demonstrate a genuine commitment to put into effect credible and realistic plans, with clear timetables, to reduce the risks to the UK, and begin real implementation of these plans by the end of the dialogue period'.[155]

On 9 January 2009, the new visa rules announced required citizens of Bolivia, Lesotho, South Africa and Swaziland to obtain a visa, and only Venezuelan nationals travelling on biometric passports with an electronic chip issued since 2007 could continue to enter the UK without a visa.[158] The existing visa-free status for citizens of Botswana, Brazil, Malaysia, Mauritius, Namibia and Trinidad and Tobago was maintained.[159]

Starting from 3 March 2009, a transitional regime was put in place until 30 June 2009 for South African citizens - those who held a valid South African passport and had previously entered the UK lawfully using that passport could continue to enter the UK without a visa, whilst all other South African citizens were required to apply for a visa. On the same day, Taiwan citizens were able to enter the UK without a visa.[160][161] On 18 May 2009, Bolivian citizens were no longer able to enter the UK without a visa and Venezuelan citizens were required to present a biometric passport to enter the UK without a visa.[162] On 1 July 2009, all South African citizens were required to apply for a visa to enter the UK. On the same day, citizens of Lesotho and Swaziland were required to apply for a visa to enter the UK.

On 30 March 2010, Alan Johnson, the Home Secretary, and David Miliband, the Foreign Secretary, announced to Parliament that, having carried out a review of visa regimes in relation to Eastern Caribbean countries, 5 countries (Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Grenada, St Kitts and Nevis and St Vincent and the Grenadines) would have their visa-free status maintained. At the same time, the UK Government would enter a six-month period of 'detailed dialogue' with the governments of 2 countries (Dominica and St Lucia), who would have to 'demonstrate a genuine commitment to put into effect credible and realistic plans, with clear timetables, to reduce the risks to the UK, and begin implementing these plans by the end of the dialogue period' to maintain their visa-free status.[163] On 2 March 2011, Theresa May, the Home Secretary, and William Hague, the Foreign Secretary, announced to Parliament that the governments of Dominica and St Lucia 'have made concrete improvements to the immigration, border control and identity systems which would not have happened without the test', and so the visa-free status for the 2 countries would be maintained.[164]

On 13 June 2011, new Immigration Rules were laid before Parliament that came into force on 4 July 2011 introducing a new streamlined application procedure (waiving the normal requirements to provide documentary evidence of maintenance and qualifications at the time of application) for some non-visa nationals from 'low-risk countries' who wish to study in the UK for more than 6 months and apply for Tier 4 entry clearance. The following 15 countries and territories were categorised as 'low-risk' and included in 'Appendix H' of the Immigration Rules: Argentina, Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Croatia, Hong Kong, Japan, New Zealand, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Trinidad and Tobago and the United States.[165][166][167] Although the announcement did not relate to a Visa Waiver Test per se, it showed that the UK Border Agency considers some countries and territories in the list of visa-free nationalities to be lower risk than others. In particular, Trinidad and Tobago, which was considered to be a high-risk country from a visa regime perspective in 2008 when the Visa Waiver Test was carried out, was now viewed by the UK Border Agency as a low-risk country. On 5 September 2012, two more countries (Botswana and Malaysia) were added to the list of 'low-risk' nationalities for the purpose of Tier 4 entry clearance applications, i.e. 'Appendix H', (taking effect on 1 October 2012),[168] whilst on 6 September 2013, Barbados was also added to 'Appendix H' (taking effect on 1 October 2013).[169] Again, although the announcement did not relate to a Visa Waiver Test per se, it showed that Botswana, Malaysia and Barbados (countries which were considered to be a high-risk countries from a visa regime perspective when the Visa Waiver Test was carried out in 2008 in the case of Botswana and Malaysia, and in 2010 in the case of Barbados) were now viewed by the UK Border Agency as low-risk countries.[170][171]

In March 2013, it was revealed that Theresa May, the Home Secretary, was considering removing Brazil from the list of visa-exempt nationalities due to concerns about illegal immigration, since Brazil was fifth in the top 10 of illegal immigrant nationalities in the UK according to Home Office figures for 2011, and was the only country on the list for which short-term visitors do not need a visa. However, the UK Government later decided to retain the visa exemption for Brazilian citizens, a decision which was seen as attempting to develop closer trading links with Brazil.[172]

On 1 January 2014, an electronic visa waiver (EVW) scheme was introduced, enabling citizens of Oman, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates who have obtained an EVW authorisation online to visit and/or study in the UK for up to 6 months without a visa;[33] with Kuwait added to the EVW scheme during February 2016.[173]

After 'assessing countries against a list of risk and compliance criteria', the UK Government added Kuwait, Oman, Qatar and the UAE to 'Appendix H' (the list of 'low-risk' nationalities for the purpose of Tier 4 student visa applications) at various periods between 2014 and 2018 but according to the Cambridge Education Group, Oman was to be removed from this Appendix.[174] However, it doesn't seem like this may have occurred.

These two changes reflect the UK Government's view that Kuwait, Oman, Qatar and the UAE should now be regarded as low-risk countries from a visa regime perspective and it is possible that, in future, nationals of these four countries will be classified as non-visa nationals (enabling them to visit and/or study in the UK without a visa for up to 6 months without having to obtain an EVW authorisation online every time they wish to enter the UK).

On 13 March 2014, the UK Government announced that, with effect from 5 May 2014, Venezuelan citizens (including those with biometric passports) would require a visa to enter the UK.[175][176]

At present, although citizens of Argentina, Brazil, Israel, holders of Hong Kong SAR passports and Macao SAR passports are able to visit and/or study in the UK without a visa for up to 6 months, and although citizens of Kuwait, Oman, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates with an EVW can visit and/or study in the UK without a visa for up to 6 months, if they decide to stay for more than 6 months and have been granted entry clearance permitting them to do so, they are required to register with the police at a cost of £34 within 7 days of arriving in the UK (or within 7 days of obtaining their visa if they apply within the UK).[177][178]

In January 2020, British ambassador to Ukraine announced that there would be no visa-free arrangements for Ukrainian citizens.[179]

On April 9, 2020, the Home Office issued a new immigration rule imposing visa restriction on low-skilled people workers with effect from January 2021. The restriction introduced a new point-based immigration system, allotting points for certain skills, salaries, qualification and shortage occupations. Any worker with points falling below the given threshold will be restricted from applying for UK work visa, as per the new immigration rule.[180][181] Free Movement, a UK-based website updating, commenting, training and advising on immigration and asylum laws, claims that nurses, hospital porters, cleaners, postal workers, etc., are to be worst affected by the new immigration law.[182]

In February 2021, the UK's new visa scheme stated that Hong Kong residents with a British National (Overseas) passport can stay in the UK for five years and get full citizenship.[183]

Reciprocity


Of the 87 countries and territories whose citizens are granted 6 months' visa-free access to the UK:

Beyond reciprocity (recent legacy arrangements)

Five South American legacy arrangements remain, and one recent other, as at 2020: (standard visitor grants of entry obtainable to, for duration stated)

No reciprocity
  • Papua New Guinea requires British citizens to apply for a visa on arrival, valid for up to 60 days, for PGK100 (tourist) or PGK500 (business)
  • Timor-Leste requires British citizens to apply for a visa on arrival valid for up to 30 days, for US$30.

Visitor statistics


Most visitors arriving to United Kingdom were from the following countries of nationality. Note the statistics for Ireland are fluid; no visitor conditions attach and visits across the land border are not counted.[185]

Nationality Total
2019 2018 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011
 United States 4,499,000 3,877,000 3,910,000 3,455,000 3,266,000 2,976,000 2,778,000 2,840,000 2,846,000
 France 3,561,000 3,693,000 3,956,000 4,064,000 4,171,000 4,114,000 3,974,000 3,787,000 3,633,000
 Germany 3,233,000 3,262,000 3,380,000 3,341,000 3,249,000 3,220,000 3,048,000 2,967,000 2,947,000
 Ireland 2,851,000 2,782,000 3,029,000 2,897,000 2,632,000 2,486,000 2,350,000 2,453,000 2,574,000
 Spain 2,319,000 2,530,000 2,413,000 2,397,000 2,197,000 1,986,000 1,746,000 1,716,000 1,836,000
 Italy 2,197,000 1,808,000 1,779,000 1,990,000 1,794,000 1,757,000 1,636,000 1,521,000 1,526,000
 Netherlands 1,987,000 1,954,000 2,136,000 2,062,000 1,897,000 1,972,000 1,891,000 1,735,000 1,789,000
 Poland 1,651,000 1,817,000 1,807,000 1,921,000 1,707,000 1,494,000 1,339,000 1,222,000 1,057,000
 Belgium 1,135,000 1,116,000 1,148,000 1,048,000 1,175,000 1,122,000 1,174,000 1,113,000 984,000
 Australia 1,063,000 1,003,000 1,092,000 982,000 1,043,000 1,057,000 1,058,000 993,000 1,093,000
 China 1,010,000 472,000 406,000 307,000 325,000 233,000 237,000 215,000 181,000
  Switzerland 926,000 808,000 989,000 940,000 872,000 864,000 807,000 832,000 768,000
 Romania 902,000 987,000 944,000 891,000 693,000 471,000 377,000 267,000 259,000
 Canada 874,000 850,000 835,000 828,000 708,000 649,000 731,000 704,000 740,000
 Sweden 789,000 827,000 831,000 821,000 850,000 869,000 784,000 777,000 794,000
 India 692,000 511,000 562,000 415,000 422,000 390,000 373,000 339,000 355,000
 Denmark 691,000 735,000 730,000 730,000 756,000 662,000 696,000 636,000 614,000
 Norway 647,000 673,000 712,000 700,000 771,000 874,000 838,000 771,000 739,000
 Portugal 613,000 431,000 482,000 492,000 392,000 395,000 285,000 292,000 283,000
 United Arab Emirates 553,000 392,000 374,000 365,000 347,000 260,000 304,000 256,000 241,000
 Czech Republic 414,000 412,000 375,000 414,000 465,000 352,000 356,000 325,000 286,000
 Hong Kong 409,000 243,000 230,000 218,000 204,000 159,000 163,000 135,000 149,000
 Japan 389,000 247,000 247,000 246,000 194,000 222,000 225,000 243,000 237,000
 Austria 342,000 322,000 307,000 302,000 277,000 263,000 275,000 268,000 271,000
 Hungary 334,000 437,000 415,000 397,000 328,000 323,000 276,000 262,000 210,000
 Turkey 334,000 177,000 230,000 196,000 192,000 196,000 154,000 145,000 126,000
 Brazil 291,000 240,000 244,000 187,000 324,000 293,000 258,000 260,000 276,000
 Israel 265,000 278,000 265,000 209,000 205,000 185,000 179,000 138,000 164,000
 Greece 250,000 200,000 213,000 227,000 225,000 238,000 181,000 159,000 225,000
 Lithuania 236,000 372,000 327,000 242,000 271,000 198,000 202,000 171,000 178,000
 Bulgaria 235,000 266,000 262,000 248,000 173,000 184,000 125,000 138,000 97,000
 South Africa 217,000 224,000 230,000 188,000 231,000 217,000 225,000 211,000 194,000
 Finland 215,000 214,000 258,000 261,000 245,000 255,000 212,000 208,000 233,000
 Nigeria 208,000 107,000 119,000 101,000 128,000 134,000 157,000 154,000 142,000
 Russia 199,000 181,000 227,000 147,000 164,000 249,000 214,000 227,000 211,000
 Malta 190,000 72,000 104,000 87,000 74,000 100,000 85,000 65,000 64,000
 New Zealand 188,000 216,000 220,000 213,000 207,000 196,000 165,000 175,000 — 187,000
 Thailand 184,000 93,000 94,000 77,000 79,000 76,000 74,000 75,000 65,000
 Mexico 166,000 153,000 155,000 106,000 102,000 92,000 109,000 84,000 78,000
 Luxembourg 146,000 76,000 83,000 104,000 122,000 97,000 90,000 83,000 73,000
 Cyprus 128,000 96,000 163,000 135,000 136,000 119,000 123,000 111,000 124,000
 Slovakia 113,000 142,000 179,000 156,000 175,000 132,000 146,000 120,000 117,000
 Pakistan 90,000 102,000 69,000 66,000 58,000 75,000 63,000 73,000 65,000
 Egypt 52,000 43,000 43,000 42,000 47,000 59,000 54,000 50,000 41,000
 Morocco 33,000 32,000 33,000 33,000 29,000 35,000 31,000 26,000 19,000
 Sri Lanka 29,000 20,000 17,000 22,000 16,000 17,000 24,000 20,000 20,000
 Barbados 27,000 22,000 11,000 11,000 16,000 9,000 10,000 6,000 11,000
 Tunisia 9,000 5,000 7,000 12,000 14,000 9,000 10,000 9,000 9,000
 Jamaica 8,000 15,000 8,000 4,000 14,000 10,000 10,000 7,000 7,000
Total 40,857,000 37,905,000 39,214,000 37,609,000 36,115,000 34,377,000 32,692,000 31,084,000 30,798,000

See also


Notes


  1. Irish Citizens under the Common Travel Area arrangements can freely cross the land border and if asked to evidence their identity any independently issued photographic identity card will be sufficient, unless other facts or circumstances bring Irish citizenship into question. To enable Carriers to meet Carrier Regulations they are required to bear a valid Irish passport or passport card if entering the United Kingdom from a third country.
  2. Rights of BN(O) since changes in 2020 include a presumption, though not guarantee, of grant on application on arrival for a grant of leave (permission to enter) outside of the rules. This will typically imply a 5-year limited leave to remain and the right to work and study, according to an individual's circumstances.
  3. Persons holding a Hong Kong Special Administrative Region passport. See also British National (Overseas) for persons residing in Hong Kong holding a form of British nationality.
  4. Persons holding a Macau Special Administrative Region passport.
  5. Only for holders with their personal ID numbers stipulated in their respective passports. Taiwan issues passports without ID numbers to some persons not having the right to reside in Taiwan, including nationals without household registration and certain persons from Hong Kong, Macau, and mainland China.[10][11] The visa waiver granted by the United Kingdom to Taiwan passport holders has not altered its non-recognition of Taiwan as a sovereign country.
  6. Passports that do not contain a Personal ID Number
  7. Biometric passports only
  8. Non-biometric passports only

References


  1. Smith, Evan (20 July 2016). "Brexit and the history of policing the Irish border". History & Policy. History & Policy. Retrieved 21 July 2016.
  2. "Common travel area guidance". Home Office. 22 February 2019.
  3. https://www.citizensinformation.ie/en/moving_country/moving_abroad/freedom_of_movement_within_the_eu/common_travel_area_between_ireland_and_the_uk.html
  4. "Entering the UK - GOV.UK".
  5. UK Border Agency. "Visa and Direct Airside Transit Visa (DATV) nationals". Archived from the original on 26 August 2010. Retrieved 17 August 2010.
  6. "Country information (visa section)". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Gulf Air. Retrieved 1 April 2017.
  7. "Visiting the UK as an EU, EEA or Swiss citizen". GOV.UK. Retrieved 2021-01-30.
  8. Do I need a visa? Hong Kong Archived 2011-07-19 at the Wayback Machine. UK Border Agency. Retrieved 17 August 2010
  9. Do I need a visa? Macao Archived 2011-07-19 at the Wayback Machine. UK Border Agency. Retrieved 17 August 2010
  10. ROC (Taiwan) Immigration Reference Guide for Civil Carriers (PDF), National Immigration Agency, 18 March 2011, retrieved 21 December 2011
  11. "護照條例施行細則", Laws & Regulations Database of The Republic of China, Taipei: Ministry of Justice, 29 June 2011, retrieved 21 December 2011. English translation available from the Bureau of Consular Affairs.
  12. "Short-term study visa - GOV.UK".
  13. https://www.gov.uk/permitted-paid-engagement-visa
  14. "Standard Visitor visa - GOV.UK".
  15. "Entering the UK: At border control". UK Border Force. You cannot get a stamp if you use the ePassport gates.
  16. "Visit guidance" (PDF). Home Office. 22 August 2019. pp. 67–68.
  17. "B5JSSK - Processing nationals of Australia, Canada, Japan, New Zealand, Singapore, South Korea, and the United States (B5JSSK)" (PDF). Home Office. 7 May 2019. p. 7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 June 2021.
  18. "A short guide on right to rent" (PDF). Home Office. July 2019. p. 8. Since 20 May 2019, the majority of individuals from Australia, Canada, Japan, New Zealand, Singapore, South Korea and the USA (known as B5JSSK nationals) have been able to use the eGates at UK airports, sea ports and Brussels and Paris Eurostar terminals, to enter the UK. Those individuals wishing to do so must hold a biometric passport. Those individuals not in possession of a biometric passport will be processed by a Border Force Officer at the manned passport control point. They will not have their passports endorsed with a stamp, instead individuals will be informed of their leave and its associated conditions orally by a Border Force Officer.
  19. "Short-term students" (PDF). Home Office. 22 August 2019. p. 26.
  20. "Visit guidance" (PDF). Home Office. 22 August 2019. p. 58.
  21. "Temporary Worker - Creative and Sporting visa (Tier 5)". Gov.uk.
  22. "Entering the UK". Gov.uk.
  23. "Guide to faster travel through the UK border". UK Border Force. 20 May 2019.
  24. The Immigration (Leave to Enter and Remain) Order 2000, Articles 8 and 8ZA (as amended by "The Immigration (Leave to Enter and Remain) (Amendment) Order 2013", legislation.gov.uk, The National Archives, SI 2013/1749)
  25. "An inspection of General Aviation and General Maritime (February July 2015)" (PDF). Independent Chief Inspector of Borders and Immigration. January 2016. pp. 15–27.
  26. "The Immigration (Control of Entry through Republic of Ireland) Order 1972", legislation.gov.uk, The National Archives, SI 1972/1610
  27. "Common Travel Area" (PDF). Home Office. 22 October 2019. pp. 34–35.
  28. "Immigration Act 1971", legislation.gov.uk, The National Archives, 1971 c. 30
  29. "Common Travel Area" (PDF). Home Office. 22 October 2019. pp. 9, 39–40.
  30. The Immigration (Entry through Republic of Ireland) (Exclusions and Restrictions) (Bailiwick of Guernsey) Order, 2015, Article 4
  31. Immigration (Control of Entry through Republic of Ireland) (Jersey) Order 2018, Article 4
  32. Immigration (Control of Entry through Republic of Ireland) Order 2016, Article 6
  33. "UK electronic visa waiver introduced for Oman, Qatar and UAE - GOV.UK".
  34. "Welcome to Visa4UK". UK Visas and Immigration.
  35. "European nationals and schemes (entry clearance guidance) - GOV.UK".
  36. "Visas and Immigration - Government of Gibraltar".
  37. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-01-06. Retrieved 2014-05-03.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  38. http://www.chronicle.gi/headlines_details.php?id=28347
  39. "The British-Irish Visa Scheme" (PDF).
  40. "British-Irish visa scheme - GOV.UK".
  41. Leijen, Majorie van (26 October 2014). "Joint visit visa to UK and Ireland launched".
  42. "ECB08: what are acceptable travel documents for entry clearance - GOV.UK".
  43. "Exchange of Notes between His Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom and the Government of the French Republic concerning the Mutual Abolition of Visas" (PDF). UK Treaties Online, Treaty Section of the Foreign & Commonwealth Office.
  44. "Exchange of Notes between His Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom and the Belgian Government for the Reciprocal Abolition of Visas on British and Belgian Passports" (PDF). UK Treaties Online, Treaty Section of the Foreign & Commonwealth Office.
  45. "Exchange of Notes between His Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom and the Government of Luxembourg for the Reciprocal Abolition of Visas on British and Luxembourg Passports" (PDF). UK Treaties Online, Treaty Section of the Foreign & Commonwealth Office.
  46. "Exchange of Notes between His Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom and the Government of Norway concerning the Mutual Abolition of Visas" (PDF). UK Treaties Online, Treaty Section of the Foreign & Commonwealth Office.
  47. "Exchange of Notes between the Government of the United Kingdom and the Government of Denmark concerning the Reciprocal Abolition of Visas" (PDF). UK Treaties Online, Treaty Section of the Foreign & Commonwealth Office.
  48. "Exchange of Notes between the Government of the United Kingdom and the Government of Sweden regarding the Reciprocal Abolition of Visas" (PDF). UK Treaties Online, Treaty Section of the Foreign & Commonwealth Office.
  49. "Exchange of Notes between the Government of the United Kingdom and the Government of the Netherlands regarding the Reciprocal Abolition of Visas" (PDF). UK Treaties Online, Treaty Section of the Foreign & Commonwealth Office.
  50. "Exchange of Notes between the Government of the United Kingdom and the Swiss Government regarding the Reciprocal Abolition of Visas" (PDF). UK Treaties Online, Treaty Section of the Foreign & Commonwealth Office.
  51. "Exchange of Notes between the Government of the United Kingdom and the Government of Iceland regarding the Reciprocal Abolition of Visas" (PDF). UK Treaties Online, Treaty Section of the Foreign & Commonwealth Office.
  52. "UK Treaties Online".
  53. "UK Treaties Online".
  54. "UK Treaties Online".
  55. "UK Treaties Online".
  56. "UK Treaties Online".
  57. "UK Treaties Online".
  58. "UK Treaties Online".
  59. "UK Treaties Online".
  60. "UK Treaties Online".
  61. "Notes exchanged between the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of Uruguay concerning the Mutual Abolition of Visas". UK Treaties Online, Treaty Section of the Foreign & Commonwealth Office.
  62. Under unilateral decision of the UK Government
  63. "UK Treaties Online".
  64. Was applied from 1 June 1961 under unilateral decision of the UK Government;
    from 19 December 1968 under Visa exemption agreement "UK Treaties Online".
  65. Was applied from 1 June 1961 under unilateral decision of the UK Government;
    from 19 September 1962 under Visa exemption agreement "UK Treaties Online".
  66. Was applied from 1 June 1961 under unilateral decision of the UK Government;
    from 30 May 1962 under Visa exemption agreement "UK Treaties Online".
  67. Was applied from 1 June 1961 under unilateral decision of the UK Government;
    from 7 March 1969 under Visa exemption agreement "UK Treaties Online".
  68. Was applied from 1 June 1961 under unilateral decision of the UK Government;
    from 6 February 1966 under Visa exemption agreement "UK Treaties Online".
  69. Was applied from 1 June 1961 under unilateral decision of the UK Government;
    from 27 November 1966 under Visa exemption agreement "UK Treaties Online".
  70. "UK Treaties Online".
  71. "UK Treaties Online".
  72. "UK Treaties Online".
  73. "UK Treaties Online".
  74. "UK Treaties Online".
  75. "UK Treaties Online".
  76. "UK Treaties Online".
  77. "UK Treaties Online".
  78. "United Kingdom | Ministry of Foreign Affairs".
  79. "UK Treaties Online".
  80. "Countries that Grant Visa-free Access to Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Passport Holders (as at 18 July 1997)". Hong Kong Immigration Department. Archived from the original on 1997-08-08. Retrieved 11 July 2019.
  81. "Statement of changes to the Immigration Rules: HC735, April 2002 - GOV.UK".
  82. "Statement of changes to the Immigration Rules: HC538, 26 November 2002 - GOV.UK".
  83. "Statement of changes to the Immigration Rules: HC95, December 2003 - GOV.UK".
  84. "Statement of changes to the Immigration Rules: HC949, 1 March 2006 - GOV.UK".
  85. "Statement of changes to the Immigration Rules: HC130, 11 December 2006 - GOV.UK".
  86. "Statement of changes to the Immigration Rules: HC227, 9 February 2009 - GOV.UK".
  87. "Statement of changes to the Immigration Rules: HC887, 9 December 2013 - GOV.UK".
  88. "Statement of changes to the Immigration Rules: HC877, 11 March 2016 - GOV.UK".
  89. "List of Mutual Visa-free Agreements between China and Foreign Countries" (PDF).
  90. "Statement of changes to the Immigration Rules: HC863, 16 March 2011" (PDF). Gov.UK. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
  91. "Statement of changes to the Immigration Rules: HC1719, 20 December 2011" (PDF). Gov.UK. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
  92. "Statement of changes to the Immigration Rules: HC 628, 6 September 2013" (PDF). Gov.UK. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
  93. Paragraph 7.5 “Holders of non-national travel documents currently require a visa before travel to the United Kingdom. This rule encapsulates holders of Holy See Service and Temporary Service passports issued by the Holy See. The Government has assessed the procedures for issuance of these documents and their security to be robust enough to merit an exemption from the visit visa requirement. Nationals, citizens and diplomatic passport holders of the Vatican City are already exempt from the visa requirement.” "Statement of changes to the Immigration Rules: HC887, 9 December 2013" (PDF). Gov.UK. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
  94. "Statement of changes to the Immigration Rules: HC1138, 13 March 2014" (PDF). Gov.UK. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
  95. "Statement of changes to the Immigration Rules: HC297, 13 July 2015" (PDF). Gov.UK. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
  96. "Statement of changes to the Immigration Rules: HC437, 17 September 2015" (PDF). Gov.UK. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
  97. "Statement of changes to the Immigration Rules: HC877, 11 March 2016" (PDF). Gov.UK. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
  98. Exchange of Notes between the United Kingdom and Austria constituting an Agreement relating to the Abolition of Passport Visas for the Nationals of the Two States
  99. Was applied under visa exemption agreement on 3 December 1927 from 1 January 1928 http://treaties.fco.gov.uk/treaties/treatyrecord.htm?tid=8098
  100. Was applied from 17 March 1951.
    "Exchange of Notes between the Government of the United Kingdom and the Government of Cuba for the Abolition of Visas" (PDF). UK Treaties Online, Treaty Section of the Foreign & Commonwealth Office. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  101. Was applied from 1 October 1973.
    "Exchange of Notes between the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Imperial Iranian Government concerning the Abolition of Visas" (PDF). UK Treaties Online, Treaty Section of the Foreign & Commonwealth Office. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  102. Was applied from 1 June 1961 under unilateral decision of the UK Government
    from 19 March 1968 under Visa exemption agreement Exchange of Notes between the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of the Argentine Republic concerning the Abolition of Visas
  103. Was applied from 1 June 1961 under unilateral decision of the UK Government
  104. Was applied from 1 April 1960.
    "Exchange of Notes between the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of Turkey constituting an Agreement for the Abolition of Visas" (PDF). UK Treaties Online, Treaty Section of the Foreign & Commonwealth Office. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
    Previous visa-free agreement was applied from 9 November 1952 to 1 April 1960.
    "Exchange of Notes between the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of Turkey constituting an Agreement for the Abolition of Visas" (PDF). UK Treaties Online, Treaty Section of the Foreign & Commonwealth Office. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  105. Also was applied as French Algeria under visa-free agreement with France from 1 January 1947 to July 1962.
  106. Was applied from 1 November 1958.
    "Exchange of Notes between the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of Morocco for the Mutual Abolition of Visas on Passports" (PDF). Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  107. Was applied from 7 August 1962.
    "Exchange of Notes between the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of the Tunisian Republic regarding the Abolition of Visas" (PDF). Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  108. "Statement of treaties and international agreements, October 1991, United Nations" (PDF). Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  109. Was applied under visa exemption agreement on 25 May 1990 from 8 June 1990
    "Exchange of Notes between the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of the German Democratic Republic concerning the Abolition of Visas" (PDF). UK Treaties Online, Treaty Section of the Foreign & Commonwealth Office.
  110. Was applied from 14 May 1969. Exchange of Notes between the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia concerning the Abolition of Visas
  111. Was applied 28 April 1965. Exchange of Notes between the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of the Republic of the Ivory Coast concerning the Abolition of Visas
  112. "Statement of changes to the Immigration Rules: CM2663, September 1994 - GOV.UK".
  113. "Statement of changes to the Immigration Rules: HC797, October 1995 - GOV.UK".
  114. "Statement of changes to the Immigration Rules: CM3073, January 1996 - GOV.UK".
  115. "Statement of changes to the Immigration Rules: HC274, March 1996 - GOV.UK".
  116. Was applied from 1 June 1961 under unilateral decision of the UK Government;
    from 20 July 1967 under Visa exemption agreement Exchange of Notes between the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of the Dominican Republic regarding the Abolition of Visas
  117. Was applied from 21 July 1976. Exchange of Notes between the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of the Republic of Niger concerning the Abolition of Visas
  118. "Statement of changes to the Immigration Rules: HC329, April 1996 - GOV.UK".
  119. Was applied from 1961. Exchange of Notes between the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of Colombia regarding the Reciprocal Abolition of Visas
  120. "Statement of changes to the Immigration Rules: CM3669, May 1997 - GOV.UK".
  121. Was applied from 1 June 1961 under unilateral decision of the UK Government;
    from 13 October 1963 under Visa exemption agreement Exchange of Notes between the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of Ecuador regarding the Abolition of Visas
  122. "Statement of changes to the Immigration Rules: HC161, July 1997 - GOV.UK".
  123. Was applied from 1 October 1990 (signed as Czechoslovakia) Exchange of Notes between the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic concerning the Abolition of Visas
  124. "Statement of changes to the Immigration Rules: CM4065, October 1998 - GOV.UK".
  125. "Statement of changes to the Immigration Rules: HC22, November 1999 - GOV.UK".
  126. "Statement of changes to the Immigration Rules: HC1301, 7 November 2002 - GOV.UK".
  127. "Statement of changes to the Immigration Rules: HC180, January 2003 - GOV.UK".
  128. Was applied from 17 April 1960. Exchange of Notes between the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of the Republic of Bolivia regarding the Reciprocal Abolition of Visas
  129. "Statement of changes to the Immigration Rules: HC413, 24 April 2009 - GOV.UK".
  130. "Statement of changes to the Immigration Rules: HC1138, 13 March 2014" (PDF).
  131. "Visa to pass through the UK in transit - GOV.UK".
  132. "Visa to pass through the UK in transit - GOV.UK".
  133. "Visa to pass through the UK in transit - GOV.UK".
  134. "Are you intending to transit via the UK? - GOV.UK".
  135. https://www.timaticweb.com/cgi-bin/tim_client.cgi?ExpertMode=TINEWS/N1&user=KLMB2C&subuser=KLMB2C
  136. "Apply for a UK visa - GOV.UK".
  137. "Standard Visitor visa - GOV.UK".
  138. "Standard Visitor visa - GOV.UK".
  139. "The Home Office launches new two-year Chinese visa pilot - GOV.UK".
  140. "Home Office immigration and nationality fees: 20 February 2020". UK Visas and Immigration.
  141. "Apply for an EEA family permit from outside the UK - GOV.UK".
  142. "The Immigration (Provision of Physical Data) Regulations 2006".
  143. "Entry clearance basics (entry clearance guidance) - GOV.UK".
  144. "Common travel area (entry clearance guidance) - GOV.UK".
  145. "Apply for a UK visa - GOV.UK".
  146. "Tuberculosis tests for visa applicants - GOV.UK".
  147. "Transfer your visa to a new passport - GOV.UK".
  148. "Standard Visitor visa - GOV.UK".
  149. The Standard Visitor visa has replaced the Family Visitor visa, General Visitor visa, Child Visitor visa, Business Visitor visa (including visas for academics, doctors and dentists), Sports Visitor visa, Entertainer Visitor visa, Prospective Entrepreneur visa, Private Medical Treatment Visitor visa, and Approved Destination Status (ADS) visa.
  150. "Marriage Visitor visa - GOV.UK".
  151. "Permitted Paid Engagement visa - GOV.UK".
  152. "Parent of a Tier 4 child visa - GOV.UK".
  153. "NEUTRALS LANDING IN UNITED KINGDOM. (Hansard, 19 March 1917)".
  154. http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20080806121433/http://www.ukba.homeoffice.gov.uk/sitecontent/documents/news/visawaivertest.pdf?view=Binary
  155. Foundation, Internet Memory. "[ARCHIVED CONTENT] UK Government Web Archive – The National Archives". Archived from the original on 2008-08-06.
  156. "Results of Britain's first global visa review". Foreign and Commonwealth Office. 14 July 2008. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
  157. "Important change for Venezuelan visitors to the UK". Foreign and Commonwealth Office. 2011. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
  158. BBC News (9 February 2009). "Countries face new UK visa rules". Retrieved 14 July 2010.
  159. Foundation, Internet Memory. "[ARCHIVED CONTENT] UK Government Web Archive – The National Archives". Archived from the original on 2009-04-14.
  160. http://www.ukba.homeoffice.gov.uk/sitecontent/documents/policyandlaw/statementsofchanges/2009/hc227.pdf?view=Binary
  161. http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20090414164007/http://www.ukba.homeoffice.gov.uk/sitecontent/documents/news/introofvisaregimes?view=Binary
  162. Westminster, Department of the Official Report (Hansard), House of Commons. "House of Commons Hansard Ministerial Statements for 30 Mar 2010 (pt 0004)".
  163. Westminster, Department of the Official Report (Hansard), House of Commons. "House of Commons Hansard Ministerial Statements for 02 Mar 2011 (pt 0001)".
  164. "Announcements - GOV.UK".
  165. "Announcements - GOV.UK".
  166. http://www.ukba.homeoffice.gov.uk/sitecontent/documents/policyandlaw/statementsofchanges/2011/hc1148.pdf?view=Binary
  167. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/268230/hc565.pdf
  168. "Statement of Changes in Immigration Rules - GOV.UK".
  169. http://www.ukba.homeoffice.gov.uk/sitecontent/documents/policyandlaw/statementsofchanges/2012/hc565.pdf?view=Binary
  170. "Announcements - GOV.UK".
  171. "UK puts Brazil visitor visa crackdown on hold". BBC News. 13 March 2013.
  172. "UK launches e-visa system for Kuwaitis". 21 February 2016.
  173. https://www.cambridgeeducationgroup.com/ugc-1/1/8/0/Important%20Update%20on%20UK%20Visa%20Regulati.pdf
  174. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/289857/HC_1138_EM_Web_Accessible.pdf
  175. "Changes to UK visa requirements for Venezuelan nationals - GOV.UK".
  176. http://www.ukba.homeoffice.gov.uk/sitecontent/documents/policyandlaw/modernised/cross-cut/police-registration/police-registration.pdf?view=Binary
  177. "Entry clearance basics (entry clearance guidance) - GOV.UK".
  178. "UK not to introduce visa-free travel for Ukrainians after Brexit – envoy".
  179. "New immigration system: what you need to know". UK Government. Retrieved 8 April 2020.
  180. "The UK's points-based immigration system: an introduction for employers". UK Government. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
  181. "Government: we don't want "low-skilled" workers after the pandemic". Free Movement. 9 April 2020. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
  182. "Nearly 5,000 Hong Kong citizens sign up for new UK visa: The Times". Reuters. Retrieved 18 February 2021.
  183. Electronic Travel Authority (NZD $9 on Immigration New Zealand's mobile app, NZD $12 if completed online), and an International Visitor Conservation and Tourism Levy (NZD $35), "Information about NZeTA". Immigration New Zealand.
  184. "Overseas Residents Visits to the UK - Office for National Statistics".