Visa requirements for Serbian citizens


Visa requirements for Serbian citizens are administrative entry restrictions by the authorities of other states placed on citizens of the Republic of Serbia. As of 13 April 2020, Serbian citizens had visa-free or visa on arrival access to 135 countries and territories, ranking the Serbian passport 37th overall in terms of travel freedom according to the Henley Passport Index.[1] The Serbian passport is one of 5 passports with the greatest improvement in rating since 2006.[2]

A Serbian passport

As of May 2019, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brunei, Grenada, Mauritius, Seychelles, Serbia and United Arab Emirates are the only countries whose citizens may travel without a visa to China, Russia and the Schengen Area.

Inside of Serbian passport

History


Before Serbia began issuing new biometric passports in 2008, its citizens travelled using old Federal Republic of Yugoslavia passport.

Until the 1990s, the Yugoslav passport has been described as highly sought-after commodity. As part of its non-aligned policies, the Yugoslav government signed numerous mutual agreements on visa-free entry from the mid-1960s. Eventually this applied to most states of the world, promoting the Yugoslav passport to "one of the most convenient in the world, as it was one of the few with which a person could travel freely through both the East and West" during the Cold War.[3] Passport holders only required visas for six countries: the United States, West Germany, Greece, Israel, Albania and the People's Republic of China.

With the subsequent dissolution of Yugoslavia in the 1990s, the period of difficulties related to travel bureaucracy started for all successor states, including Serbia. From the 2000s onward, the situation has been significantly and constantly improving.[2]

Recent


Serbia and Russia signed visa-free travel agreement in February 2009.[citation needed] Serbia signed a visa-free agreement with Israel in September 2009.[4] The European Union Schengen area countries lifted visas for Serbian citizens in December 2009.[5] Serbia and Turkey mutually abolished visa regime in July 2010.[6] Serbia signed an agreement on the abolishment of visas with Kazakhstan in August 2010.[7] Serbia and Ukraine mutually abolished visas in May 2011.[8] Japan abolished visas for Serbian citizens in May 2011.[9] Serbia and Albania mutually abolished visas in July 2011.[10] In August 2013 agreement on visa-free travel with Brazil came into force.[11] In July 2014 agreement on visa-free travel with Mongolia came into force.[12] In August 2015 agreement on visa-free travel with Moldova came into force.[13] In April 2016 Indonesia abolished visas for Serbian citizens for a maximum stay of 30 days.[14] In January 2017, agreement on mutual visa free travel between China and Serbia entered into force.[15] In November 2017 Iran abolished visas for Serbian citizens but reversed its decision in October 2018.[16][17] Colombia abolished visas for Serbian citizens in February 2018.[18] Serbia and Kyrgyzstan mutually abolished visas on 8 November 2018.[19] Uzbekistan abolished visas for Serbian citizens on 21 January 2019. United Arab Emirates abolished visas for Serbian citizens on 6 May 2019.[20] Barbados abolished visas for Serbian citizens in May 2019. Suriname abolished visas for holders of Serbian passport in September 2019. Armenia lifted visa requirements for Serbian citizens on 30 January 2020.[21]

Future


Possible inclusion of Serbia in the Visa Waiver Program of the United States was proposed by Serbia in 2009.[22] Serbian adjusted visa refusal rate remains above the threshold (3%).[23]

The British Embassy in Serbia announced that visas could be abolished for Serbian citizens in 2011.[24] However, in 2013, the Home Office announced it had no intention of abolishing visas for Serbian citizens.[25]

Serbian and Australian officials held talks on facilitation measures for the issuance of Australian visas for Serbian citizens in 2012.[26]

In June 2014 New Zealand announced an introduction of a facilitated visa regime for Serbian citizens.[27]

In November 2016 Serbian foreign minister held talks with Canadian officials on the beginning of visa liberalisation for Serbian citizens.[28]

Serbian authorities have also held talks with several countries on concluding visa abolition agreements in the future including with Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Guatemala, Iran, Jamaica, Kuwait, Oman, Panama, Paraguay, South Africa, Tajikistan, Venezuela and Vietnam but have not yet concluded them.[29][30][31][32][33][34][35] Serbia subsequently abolished visa requirements for some of those countries unilaterally.

Visa requirements map


Visa requirements for Serbian citizens
  Serbia
  Visa free access
  Visa on arrival
  eVisa
  Visa available both on arrival or online
  Visa required prior to arrival

Visa requirements


Country Visa requirement Allowed stay Notes (excluding departure fees) Reciprocity
 Afghanistan Visa required[36]
 Albania Visa not required[37] 90 days
 Algeria Visa required[38]
 Andorra Visa not required[39]
 Angola Visa required[40]
 Antigua and Barbuda Electronic Entry Visa[41]
  • Permanent residents of the United States and Canada and holders of valid visas of the United States, Canada, Schengen Area and the United Kingdom do not require a visa.
X
 Argentina Visa not required[42] 90 days
 Armenia Visa not required[43] 180 days
 Australia Visa required[44][45]
  • May apply online (Online Visitor e600 visa).
X
 Austria Visa not required[46] 90 days
 Azerbaijan eVisa[47] 30 days[48] X
 Bahamas Visa required[49] X
 Bahrain Visa required[52] X
 Bangladesh Visa on arrival[53] 30 days
  • Not available at all entry points.[54]
X
 Barbados Visa not required[55] 90 days
 Belarus Visa not required[56] 30 days
 Belgium Visa not required[57] 90 days
 Belize Visa required[58]
 Benin eVisa / Visa on arrival[59][60] 30 days / 8 days
  • Must have an international vaccination certificate.
X
 Bhutan Visa required[61]
  • Pre-approved visa can be picked up on arrival.
 Bolivia Visa on arrival[62][63] 90 days X
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Visa not required[64] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 6-month period
  • ID card valid
 Botswana Visa required[65]
 Brazil Visa not required[66] 90 days
 Brunei Visa required[67]
 Bulgaria Visa not required[68] 90 days
 Burkina Faso Visa required[69]
 Burundi Visa required[70] X
 Cambodia eVisa / Visa on arrival[71] 30 days
  • Visa is also obtainable online.[72]
X
 Cameroon Visa required[73]
  • Pre-approved visa can be picked up on arrival.
 Canada Visa required[74] X
 Cape Verde Visa on arrival[76]
  • Not available at all entry points.[77]
X
 Central African Republic Visa required[78]
 Chad Visa required[79]
 Chile Visa not required[80] 90 days
 China Visa not required[81] 30 days[82]
 Colombia Visa not required[18] 90 days
 Comoros Visa on arrival[83] X
 Republic of the Congo Visa required[84]
 Democratic Republic of the Congo Visa required[85]
 Costa Rica Visa not required[86] 90 days
 Côte d'Ivoire eVisa[87] 3 months X
 Croatia Visa not required[88] 90 days
 Cuba Visa not required[89] 90 days
 Cyprus Visa not required[90] 90 days
 Czech Republic Visa not required[91] 90 days
 Denmark Visa not required[92] 90 days
 Djibouti eVisa[93] 31 days X
 Dominica Visa not required[94] 21 days
 Dominican Republic Visa not required[95] 90 days X
 Ecuador Visa not required[96] 90 days X
 Egypt eVisa / Visa on arrival[97][98] 30 days X
 El Salvador Visa required[99]
  • Not required for holders of a valid visa issued by Canada, the USA or a Schengen Member State.
 Equatorial Guinea Visa required[100]
 Eritrea Visa required[101]
  • Pre-approved visa can be picked up on arrival.
 Estonia Visa not required[102] 90 days
 Eswatini Visa not required[103] 30 days X
 Ethiopia eVisa[104] up to 90 days X
 Fiji Visa not required[105] 4 months X
 Finland Visa not required[106] 90 days
 France Visa not required[107] 90 days
 Gabon eVisa[108] X
 Gambia Visa not required[109] 90 days X
 Georgia Visa not required[110] 1 year
 Germany Visa not required[111] 90 days
 Ghana Visa on arrival[112]
  • Pre-approved visa can be picked up on arrival. As part of the Year of Return, Ghana 2019, all visitors to Ghana are able to obtain a visa on arrival during December 2019 and January 2020.[113]
X
 Greece Visa not required[114] 90 days
 Grenada Visa not required[115] 3 months
 Guatemala Visa required[116]
  • Not required for holders of a valid visa issued by Canada, the USA or a Schengen Member State.
 Guinea eVisa[117] 90 days X
 Guinea-Bissau eVisa / Visa on arrival[118] 90 days X
 Guyana Visa required[119] 30 days
  • Conditional visa granted on arrival.
 Haiti Visa not required[120] 90 days X
 Honduras Visa required[121]
  • Not required for holders of a valid visa issued by Canada, the USA or a Schengen Member State.
 Hungary Visa not required[122] 90 days
 Iceland Visa not required[123] 90 days
 India Visa not Required[124] 30 days
  • e-Visa holders must arrive via 26 designated airports[Note 3] or 3 designated seaports.[Note 4][125]
  • An Indian e-Tourist Visa can only be obtained twice in one calendar year.
X
 Indonesia Visa not required[126][127] 30 days
 Iran Visa on arrival[128][129] 30 days X
 Iraq Visa required[130]
 Ireland Visa required[131]
  • Visa is issued free of charge.[132]
  • Visa waiver for UK 'C' visa holders until October 2021. Entry permitted only if first point of entry to the Common Travel Area is in the UK.[133]
X
 Israel Visa not required[134] 3 months
 Italy Visa not required[135] 90 days
 Jamaica Visa on arrival[136] 30 days X
 Japan Visa not required[137] 90 days
 Jordan Visa on arrival[138]
  • Conditions apply.[139]
  • Not available at all entry points.[140]
X
 Kazakhstan Visa not required[141] 30 days
 Kenya eVisa / Visa on arrival[142] 3 months X
 Kiribati Visa required[143]
 North Korea Visa required[144]
 South Korea Visa not required[145] 90 days[146]
 Kuwait eVisa / Visa on arrival[147] 3 months X
 Kyrgyzstan Visa not required[148] 90 days
  • 90 days within 180 days
 Laos eVisa / Visa on arrival[149][150] 30 days
  • Visa on arrival is available at international airports Luangphabang, Pakse, Savannakhet and Vientiane, and at 4 land borders Friendship Bridge,[Note 5] and at 13 border crossings[Note 6] as well as Tanalaeng train station in Vientiane, which connects to the train station in Nongkai, Thailand.[151] Visa on arrival facility will be gradually phased out at various border crossings starting January 2020.[152]
  • eVisa may be used to enter Laos through the following entry points — Wattay International Airport and the First Thai–Lao Friendship Bridge
  • Entry points Lalai, Lantui, Meuang mom, Pakxan, and Phoudou are open only to visa holders.
  • Visa on arrival is extendable up to 60 days.
X
 Latvia Visa not required[153] 90 days
 Lebanon Visa on arrival[154] 1 month
  • Extendable for 2 additional months.
  • Granted free of charge at Beirut International Airport or any other port of entry if there is no Israeli visa or seal, holding a telephone number, an address in Lebanon, and a non refundable return or circle trip ticket.
X
 Lesotho eVisa[155][156] X
 Liberia Visa required[157]
  • Pre-approved visa can be picked up on arrival.
 Libya Visa required[158]
  • Pre-approved visa can be picked up on arrival.
 Liechtenstein Visa not required[159] 90 days
 Lithuania Visa not required[160] 90 days
 Luxembourg Visa not required[161] 90 days
 Madagascar eVisa / Visa on arrival[162] 90 days X
 Malawi eVisa / Visa on arrival[163][164] 90 days X
 Malaysia eVisa[165][166] 30 days X
 Maldives Visa on arrival[167] 30 days X
 Mali Visa required[168]
 Malta Visa not required[169] 90 days
 Marshall Islands Visa required[170] X
 Mauritania Visa on arrival[171] X
 Mauritius Visa on arrival[172] 60 days X
 Mexico Visa required[173]
  • Visa not required for holders of valid visa or permanent residence issued by the US, Canada, Japan, United Kingdom, or Schengen area.[174]
  • Visa is also issued free of charge for Serbian citizens.
X
 Micronesia Visa not required[175] 30 days X
 Moldova Visa not required[176] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180 day period
 Monaco Visa not required[177]
 Mongolia Visa not required[178] 90 days
 Montenegro Visa not required[179] 3 months
 Morocco Visa required[180]
 Mozambique Visa on arrival[181] 30 days X
 Myanmar eVisa[182] 28 days X
 Namibia Visa required[183]
 Nauru Visa required[184]
   Nepal Visa on arrival[185] 90 days X
 Netherlands Visa not required[186] 90 days
 New Zealand Visa required[187] X
 Nicaragua Visa on arrival[190] 90 days
  • Not required for holders of a valid visa issued by Canada, the USA or a Schengen Member State.
X
 Niger Visa required[191]
 Nigeria Visa required[192]
  • Pre-approved visa can be picked up on arrival.
 North Macedonia Visa not required[193] 60 days
 Norway Visa not required[194] 90 days
 Oman Visa not required[195] 10 days X
 Pakistan Online Visa[196] X
 Palau Visa on arrival[197] 30 days X
 Panama Visa not required[198] 180 days X
 Papua New Guinea Visa required[199]
 Paraguay Visa required[200] X
 Peru Visa not required[201] 183 days
 Philippines Visa required[202]
 Poland Visa not required[203] 90 days
 Portugal Visa not required[204] 90 days
 Qatar Visa not required[205] 90 days
 Romania Visa not required[206] 90 days
 Russia Visa not required[207] 30 days
  • Visa free for holders of biometric passport only[208]
  • eVisa for 16 days
    • e-Visa holders must arrive and departure via 29 checkpoints[209]
 Rwanda eVisa / Visa on arrival[210] 30 days X
 Saint Kitts and Nevis Visa not required[211] 90 days X
 Saint Lucia Visa required[212]
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Visa not required[213] 1 month
 Samoa Entry Permit on arrival[214] 60 days X
 San Marino Visa not required[215]
 São Tomé and Príncipe eVisa[216] X
 Saudi Arabia Visa required[217]
 Senegal Visa on arrival[218] 1 month X
 Seychelles Visa not required[219][220] 90 days
 Sierra Leone Visa required[221]
  • Pre-approved visa can be picked up on arrival.
 Singapore Visa not required[222] 30 days
 Slovakia Visa not required[223] 90 days
 Slovenia Visa not required[224] 90 days
 Solomon Islands Visa required[225]
 Somalia Visa on arrival[226] 30 days
 South Africa Visa required[227]
 South Sudan Electronic Visa[228]
  • Obtainable online[229]
  • Printed visa authorization must be presented at the time of travel[229]
X
 Spain Visa not required[230] 90 days
 Sri Lanka eVisa / Visa on arrival[231] 30 days X
 Sudan Visa required[232]
 Suriname Visa not required[233] 30 days
  • For single entry stay up to 90 days a tourist card may be obtained online.[234]
  • For multiple entries up to 90 days an E-Visa is available.[235]
 Sweden Visa not required[236] 90 days
  Switzerland Visa not required[237] 90 days
 Syria Visa required[238]
 Tajikistan eVisa[239][240] 45 days X
 Tanzania eVisa / Visa on arrival[241][242] 3 months X
 Thailand Visa required[243]
 Timor-Leste Visa on arrival[244] 30 days
  • Not available at all entry points.[245]
X
 Togo Visa on arrival[246] 7 days X
 Tonga Visa required[247]
 Trinidad and Tobago Visa not required[248] 30 days
 Tunisia Visa not required[249] 3 months
 Turkey Visa not required[250] 3 months
 Turkmenistan Visa required[251]
  • Pre-approved visa can be picked up on arrival.
 Tuvalu Visa on arrival[252] 1 month X
 Uganda eVisa / Visa on arrival[253]
  • Determined at the port of entry.
  • May apply online.[254]
X
 Ukraine Visa not required[255] 30 days
  • 30 days within any 60 day period (a bilateral, reciprocal agreement has been signed to extend this to 90 days [256]
 United Arab Emirates Visa not required[257] 90 days
 United Kingdom Visa required[258] X
 United States Visa required[260] X
 Uruguay Visa not required[261] 90 days
 Uzbekistan Visa not required[262] 30 days X
 Vanuatu Visa not required[263] 30 days X
  Vatican City Visa not required[264]
 Venezuela Visa required[265]
 Vietnam eVisa[266] 30 days X
 Yemen Visa required[267]
 Zambia Visa not required[268] 90 days X
 Zimbabwe Visa on arrival[269] 3 months X

Territories and disputed areas


Visa requirements for Serbian citizens for visits to various territories, disputed areas, partially recognised countries and restricted zones:

Europe
Visitor toVisa requirementNotes (excluding departure fees)
 Abkhazia Visa required[270]
Mount Athos Special permit required Special permit required (4 days: 25 euro for Orthodox visitors, 35 euro for non-Orthodox visitors, 18 euro for students). There is a visitors' quota: maximum 100 Orthodox and 10 non-Orthodox per day and women are not allowed.[271][272]
Crimea Visa not required Territory accessed under Russian visa policy.[273]
 Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus Visa not required 3 months[274][275]
UN Buffer Zone in Cyprus Access Permit required[276] Access Permit is required for travelling inside the zone, except Civil Use Areas.
 Faroe Islands Visa not required[277] 90 days
 Gibraltar Visa required[278]
 Guernsey Visa required[279]
 Isle of Man Visa required[280]
Jan Mayen Permit required Permit issued by the local police required for staying for less than 24 hours[281] and permit issued by the Norwegian police for staying for more than 24 hours.[282]
 Jersey Visa required[283]
 Nagorno-Karabakh Republic Visa required[284][285] Travellers with Nagorno-Karabakh visa (expired or valid) or evidence of travel to Nagorno-Karabakh (stamps) will be permanently denied entry to Azerbaijan.[286]
 Russia Special authorization required Several closed cities and regions in Russia require special authorization.[287]
 South Ossetia Visa not required Multiple entry visa to Russia and three-day prior notification are required to enter South Ossetia.[288][289]
 Transnistria Visa not required Registration required after 24h.[290][291]
Africa
Visitor toVisa requirementNotes (excluding departure fees)
 British Indian Ocean Territory Special permit required Special permit required.[292]
 Eritrea outside Asmara Travel permit required To travel in the rest of the country, a Travel Permit for Foreigners is required (20 Eritrean nakfa).[293]
 Mayotte Visa not required[294] 90 days
 Réunion Visa not required[295] 90 days
 Ascension Island eVisa[296][297]
  • 3 months within any year period
 Saint Helena eVisa[298]
 Tristan da Cunha Permission required Permission to land required for 15/30 pounds sterling (yacht/ship passenger) for Tristan da Cunha Island or 20 pounds sterling for Gough Island, Inaccessible Island or Nightingale Islands.[299]
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Undefined visa regime in the Western Sahara controlled territory.
 Somaliland Visa on arrival 30 days for 30 US dollars, payable on arrival.[300][301]
 Sudan Travel permit required All foreigners traveling more than 25 kilometers outside of Khartoum must obtain a travel permit.
Darfur Travel permit required Separate travel permit is required.[302]
Asia
Visitor toVisa requirementNotes (excluding departure fees)
 Hong Kong Visa not required 14 days[303]
 India PAP/RAP PAP/RAP required Protected Area Permit (PAP) required for whole states of Nagaland and Sikkim and parts of states Manipur, Arunachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Jammu and Kashmir, Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh. Restricted Area Permit (RAP) required for all of Andaman and Nicobar Islands and parts of Sikkim. Some of these requirements are occasionally lifted for a year.[304][305][306][307][308][309]
 Kazakhstan Special permission required Special permission required for the town of Baikonur and surrounding areas in Kyzylorda Oblast, and the town of Gvardeyskiy near Almaty.[310]
Kish Island Visa not required Visitors to Kish Island do not require a visa.[311]
 Macao Visa not required 90 days[312]
Maldives Permission required With the exception of the capital Malé, tourists are generally prohibited from visiting non-resort islands without the express permission of the Government of Maldives.[313]
 North Korea outside Pyongyang Special permit required People are not allowed to leave the capital city, tourists can only leave the capital with a governmental tourist guide (no independent moving)
 Palestine Visa not required[314] Arrival by sea to Gaza Strip not allowed.[315]
 Taiwan Visa required[316]
Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province OIVR permit required OIVR permit required (15+5 Tajikistani Somoni) and another special permit (free of charge) is required for Lake Sarez.[317][318][319]
Tibet Autonomous Region TTP required Tibet Travel Permit required (10 US Dollars).[320][321][322]
 Turkmenistan Special permit required A special permit, issued prior to arrival by Ministry of Foreign Affairs, is required if visiting the following places: Atamurat, Cheleken, Dashoguz, Serakhs and Serhetabat.[323]
Korean Demilitarized Zone Restricted zone.
UNDOF Zone and Ghajar Restricted zone.
Phú Quốc Visa not required 30 days[324]
 Yemen Special permission required Special permission needed for travel outside Sana’a or Aden.[325]
Americas
Visitor toVisa requirementNotes (excluding departure fees)f
 Anguilla Visa required[326]
 Aruba Visa not required[327] 30 days
 Bermuda Visa required[328]
Bonaire, St. Eustatius and Saba Visa not required[329] 90 days
 British Virgin Islands Visa required[330]
 Cayman Islands Visa required[331] Transit visa required.
 Curaçao Visa not required[332] 90 days
 French Guiana Visa not required[333] 90 days
French West Indies Visa not required 90 days; includes overseas departments of Guadeloupe and Martinique and overseas collectivities of Saint Martin and Saint Barthélemy
 Greenland Visa not required[334] 90 days
 Montserrat Electronic visa[335][336]
 Puerto Rico Visa required[337]
 Saint Pierre and Miquelon Visa not required 90 days
 Sint Maarten Visa not required[338] 90 days
 Turks and Caicos Islands Visa required[339]
 U.S. Virgin Islands Visa required[340]
Oceania
Visitor toVisa requirementNotes (excluding departure fees)
 American Samoa Entry permit required[341]
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Special authorisation required Special authorisation required.[342]
Clipperton Island Special permit required Special permit required.[343]
 Cook Islands Visa not required 31 days[344]
Lau Province Special permission required Special permission required.[345]
 French Polynesia Visa not required[346] 90 days
 Guam Visa required[347]
 New Caledonia Visa not required[348] 90 days
 Niue Visa on arrival 30 days[349]
 Northern Mariana Islands Visa required[350]
 Pitcairn Islands Visa not required 14 days visa-free and landing fee US$35 or tax of US$5 if not going ashore.[351][352][353]
 Tokelau Visa required
United States Minor Outlying Islands Special permits required Special permits required for Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Atoll, Palmyra Atoll and Wake Island.[354][355][356][357][358][359][360]
 Wallis and Futuna Visa not required 90 days
South America
Visitor toVisa requirementNotes (excluding departure fees)
Galápagos Pre-registration required Online pre-registration is required. Transit Control Card must also be obtained at the airport prior to departure.[361]
South Atlantic and Antarctica
Visitor toVisa requirementNotes (excluding departure fees)
 Falkland Islands Visa required[362]
 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Permit required Pre-arrival permit from the Commissioner required (72 hours/1 month for 110/160 pounds sterling).[363][364]
Antarctica Special permits required for  British Antarctic Territory,  French Southern and Antarctic Lands,  Argentine Antarctica, Australian Antarctic Territory, Chilean Antarctic Territory, Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Peter I Island, Queen Maud Land, Ross Dependency.[365][366][367][368][369][370][371][372][373][374][375][376]

Diplomatic and official passports only


Countries allowed stay
 Azerbaijan[377] 90 days
 Bangladesh[378] 30 days
 Bolivia[379] 90 days
 China[380] 90 days
 El Salvador[381] 90 days
 Ethiopia[382] 90 days
 Guatemala[383] 90 days
 Honduras[384] 90 days
 India[385] 90 days
 Iran[386] 90 days
 Jordan[387] 90 days
 Kyrgyzstan[388] 90 days
 Laos[389] 90 days
 Lebanon[390] 90 days
 North Korea[391] 90 days
 Mali[392] 30 days
 Mexico[393] 180 days
 Morocco[394] 90 days
 Kuwait[395] 90 days
 Nicaragua[396] 90 days
 Pakistan[397] 30 days
 Russia[398] 90 days
 Thailand[399] 90 days
 Ukraine[400] 90 days
 United Arab Emirates[401] 90 days
 Vietnam[402] 90 days
 Zimbabwe[403] 90 days

Kosovo


The Constitution of Serbia recognises Kosovo as Serbian sovereign territory. Nevertheless, in reality, the Serbian authorities do not exercise effective control over the territory. In an agreement, facilitating visa free travel to the Schengen area, Serbia agreed with the EU to form the Serbian Coordination Directorate,[404] responsible for issuing Serbian passports to the Kosovo resident Serbian citizens. These passports are treated differently from the regular Serbian passports and their holders are required to obtain entry visas[405] for most territories and countries for which holders of the regular Serbian passport do not require a visa. All Serbian citizens resident in Kosovo, regardless of their ethnicity, are entitled to these special passports.

The UN administration in Kosovo UNMIK used to issue its own travel documents with the last ones being issued in July 2008.[406][407] This document was recognised by several countries, but was in general refused at borders.[408] The UNMIK travel documents were valid for two years, consequently there are no longer any valid UNMIK travel documents in circulation. Serbia didn't recognise the validity of the UN issued document nor does it recognise the Kosovan passport, which is officially recognised by 113 UN member states and is de facto accepted by other states.[409]

Serbian Government and the Kosovan Authorities are actively negotiating various issues of mutual importance among which is what travel documents can be used for crossing the Serbia-Kosovo Administrative Line[410]

Serbian ID as optional passport replacement


The front of a Lična karta

Serbian identity card can be used instead of a passport for travel to some neighboring countries of Serbia that have signed special agreements with the Serbian Government:

Countries (and territories) Agreement / Stay
 Albania[411] 90 days
 Bosnia and Herzegovina[412] 90 days
 Montenegro[413] 30 days
 North Macedonia[414] 90 days

Non-visa restrictions


Many countries have entry restrictions on foreigners that go beyond the common requirement of having either a valid visa or a visa exemption. Such restrictions may be health related or impose additional documentation requirements on certain classes of people for diplomatic or political purposes.

Blank passport pages

Many countries require a minimum number of blank pages to be available in the passport being presented, typically one or two pages.[415] Endorsement pages, which often appear after the visa pages, are not counted as being available.

Vaccination

An International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis is required to prove that someone has been vaccinated against yellow fever

Many African countries, including Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Rwanda, São Tomé and Príncipe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Sudan, Uganda, and Zambia, require all incoming passengers to have a current International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis, as does the South American territory of French Guiana.[416]

Some other countries require vaccination only if the passenger is coming from an infected area or has visited one recently.[417]

An increasing number of countries have been imposing additional COVID-19 related health restrictions such as quarantine measures and testing requirements. Many countries will increasingly consider the vaccination status of travellers when deciding to allow them entry or not or require them to quarantine since recently published research shows that the Pfizer vaccine effect lasts for six months or so.[418]

Passport validity length

In the absence of specific bilateral agreements, countries requiring passports to be valid for at least 6 more months on arrival include Afghanistan, Algeria, Anguilla, Bahrain,[419] Bhutan, Botswana, British Virgin Islands, Brunei, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Curaçao, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Fiji, Gabon, Guinea Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel,[420] Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, Kuwait, Laos, Madagascar, Malaysia, Marshall Islands, Mongolia, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Oman, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Peru.[421] Philippines,[422] Qatar, Rwanda, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Tanzania, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Tokelau, Tonga, Turkey, Tuvalu, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, Vanuatu, Venezuela, and Vietnam.[423]

Countries requiring passports valid for at least 4 months on arrival include Micronesia and Zambia.

Countries requiring passports with a validity of at least 3 months beyond the date of intended departure include Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Nauru, Moldova and New Zealand. Similarly, the EEA countries of Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, all European Union countries (except the Republic of Ireland) together with Switzerland also require 3 months validity beyond the date of the bearer's intended departure unless the bearer is an EEA or Swiss national.

Countries requiring passports valid for at least 3 months on arrival include Albania, Honduras, North Macedonia, Panama, and Senegal.

Bermuda requires passports to be valid for at least 45 days upon entry.

Countries that require a passport validity of at least one month beyond the date of intended departure include Eritrea, Hong Kong, Lebanon, Macau, the Maldives[424] and South Africa.

Other countries, such as Japan,[425] Ireland and the United Kingdom,[426] require a passport valid throughout the period of the intended stay.

A very few countries, such as Paraguay, just require a passport valid on arrival.

Some countries have bilateral agreements with other countries to shorten the period of passport validity required for each other's citizens[427][428] or even accept passports that have already expired (but not been cancelled).[429]

Criminal record

Some countries, including Australia, Canada, Fiji, New Zealand and the United States,[430] routinely deny entry to non-citizens who have a criminal record while others impose restrictions depending on the type of conviction and the length of the sentence.

Persona non grata

The government of a country can declare a diplomat persona non grata, banning their entry into that country. In non-diplomatic use, the authorities of a country may also declare a foreigner persona non grata permanently or temporarily, usually because of unlawful activity.[431]

Israeli stamps

Israeli border control Entry Permit (issued as a stand-alone document rather than a stamp affixed in a passport)

Kuwait,[432] Lebanon,[433] Libya,[434] Sudan,[435] Syria,[436] and Yemen[437] do not allow entry to people with passport stamps from Israel or whose passports have either a used or an unused Israeli visa, or where there is evidence of previous travel to Israel such as entry or exit stamps from neighbouring border posts in transit countries such as Jordan and Egypt.

To circumvent this Arab League boycott of Israel, the Israeli immigration services have now mostly ceased to stamp foreign nationals' passports on either entry to or exit from Israel (unless the entry is for some work-related purposes). Since 15 January 2013, Israel no longer stamps foreign passports at Ben Gurion Airport. Passports are still (as of 22 June 2017) stamped at Erez when passing into and out of Gaza.[citation needed]

The Saudi Commission for Tourism and National Heritage claims that having an Israeli stamp does not disqualify someone from visiting Saudi Arabia.[438]

Iran refuses admission to holders of passports containing an Israeli visa or stamp that is less than 12 months old.

Armenian ethnicity

Entry Permit to Nagorno-Karabakh issued in Yerevan as a stand-alone document rather than a visa affixed in a passport

Due to a state of war existing between Armenia and Azerbaijan,[439][440][441] Armenian citizens and other foreign nationals of Armenian descent are likely to encounter difficulties when attempting to enter the Republic of Azerbaijan.[442][443][444]

Azerbaijan bans visits by foreign citizens to the separatist region of Nagorno-Karabakh[444] (the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh), its surrounding territories, and the Azerbaijani exclaves of Karki, Yuxarı Əskipara, Barxudarlı, and Sofulu which are de jure part of Azerbaijan but under the control of Armenia, without the prior consent of the government of Azerbaijan. Foreign citizens who enter these territories will be permanently banned from entering the Republic of Azerbaijan[445] and will be included in their "list of personae non gratae".[446] As of 2 September 2019, the list mentioned 852 people.

Biometrics

A fingerprint scanner at Dulles International Airport collects biometric data on visitors, which can be used for confirming identities.

Several countries mandate that all travellers, or all foreign travellers, be fingerprinted on arrival and will refuse admission to or even arrest travellers who refuse to comply. In some countries, such as the United States, this may apply even to transit passengers who merely wish to quickly change planes rather than go landside.[447]

Fingerprinting countries include Afghanistan,[448][449] Argentina,[450] Brunei, Cambodia,[451] China,[452] Ethiopia,[453] Ghana, Guinea,[454] India, Japan,[455][456] Kenya (both fingerprints and a photo are taken),[457] Malaysia upon entry and departure,[458] Paraguay, Saudi Arabia,[459] Singapore, South Korea,[460] Taiwan, Thailand,[461] Uganda[462] and the United States.

Many countries also require a photo be taken of people entering the country. The United States, which does not fully implement exit control formalities at its land frontiers (although long mandated by its legislature),[463] [464] [465] intends to implement facial recognition for passengers departing from international airports to identify people who overstay their visa.[466]

Together with fingerprint and face recognition, iris scanning is one of three biometric identification technologies internationally standardised since 2006 by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) for use in e-passports[467] and the United Arab Emirates conducts iris scanning on visitors who need to apply for a visa.[468][469]

See also


References and Notes


References
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  461. Lipton, Eric (21 May 2013). "U.S. Quietly Monitors Foreigners' Departures at the Canadian Border". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 April 2019. Long demanded by lawmakers in Congress, it is considered a critical step to developing a coherent program to curb illegal immigration, as historically about 30 percent to 40 percent of illegal immigrants in the United States arrived on tourist visas or other legal means and then never left, according to estimates by Homeland Security officials.
  462. LIPTON, Eric (15 December 2006). "Administration to Drop Effort to Track if Visitors Leave". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 April 2019. Efforts to determine whether visitors actually leave have faltered. Departure monitoring would help officials hunt for foreigners who have not left, if necessary. Domestic security officials say, however, it would be too expensive to conduct fingerprint or facial recognition scans for land departures.
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  465. "Iris Scan Implemented at Doha International Airport". Archived from the original on 8 January 2012.
  466. "Iris Scanner Could Replace Emirates ID In UAE". SimplyDXB. 11 June 2017. Retrieved 7 July 2018. The breach of privacy is probably the biggest threat to the biometric technique of iris recognition. Secondly, a device error can false reject or false accept the identity which can also have some heinous consequences. Lastly, the method isn’t the most cost-effective one. It is complex and therefore expensive. Furthermore, the maintenance of devices and data can also be relatively burdensome. However, thanks to the oil money and spending ability of Dubai, they are economically equipped to effectively embrace this system.
Notes
  1. Holders of biometric passports only.
  2. Excluding holders of Serbian passports issued by the Serbian Coordination Directorate.
    • Vientiane
    • Savannakhet
    • Khammuan
    • Bokeo
    • Panghok - Taichang (Vietnam)
    • Samliemkham - (Thailand and Myanmar)
    • Nonghaed - Nam kanh (Vietnam)
    • Nam phao - Cau treo (Vietnam)
    • Na pao - Cha lo (Vietnam)
    • Daensavan - Lao bao (Vietnam)
    • Veunkham - Nong nok khian (Cambodia)
    • Vang tao - Chongmek (Thailand)
    • Boten - Bo han (China)
    • Nam ngeun - Huay konl (Thailand)
    • Namheuang - Nakaseng (Thailand)
    • Nam soy - Na meo (Vietnam)
    • Phoukeua - Kontoum (Vietnam)