Vitamin C

Vitamin C (also known as ascorbic acid and ascorbate) is a vitamin found in various foods and sold as a dietary supplement.[8] It is used to prevent and treat scurvy.[8] Vitamin C is an essential nutrient involved in the repair of tissue and the enzymatic production of certain neurotransmitters.[8][9] It is required for the functioning of several enzymes and is important for immune system function.[9][10] It also functions as an antioxidant.[11] Most animals are able to synthesize their own vitamin C, although humans, the other great and lesser apes, monkeys (but not all primates), most bats, some rodents, and certain other animals must acquire it from dietary sources.

Vitamin C
Clinical data
Pronunciation/əˈskɔːrbɪk/, /əˈskɔːrbt, -bɪt/
Trade namesAscor, Cevalin, others
Other namesl-ascorbic acid, ascorbic acid, ascorbate
License data
Routes of
By mouth, intramuscular (IM), intravenous (IV), subcutaneous
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
BioavailabilityRapid and complete
Protein bindingNegligible
Elimination half-lifeVaries according to plasma concentration
  • l-threo-Hex-2-enono-1,4-lactone
    (R)-3,4-Dihydroxy-5-((S)- 1,2-dihydroxyethyl)furan-2(5H)-one
CAS Number
PubChem CID
PDB ligand
E numberE300 (antioxidants, ...)
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
ECHA InfoCard100.000.061
Chemical and physical data
Molar mass176.124 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
Density1.694 g/cm3
Melting point190 to 192 °C (374 to 378 °F) (some decomposition)[6]
Boiling point552.7 °C (1,026.9 °F) [7]
  • InChI=1S/C6H8O6/c7-1-2(8)5-3(9)4(10)6(11)12-5/h2,5,7-10H,1H2/t2-,5+/m0/s1 Y

There is some evidence that regular use of supplements may reduce the duration of the common cold, but it does not appear to prevent infection.[11][12][13] It is unclear whether supplementation affects the risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease, or dementia.[14][15] It may be taken by mouth or by injection.[8]

Vitamin C is generally well tolerated.[8] Large doses may cause gastrointestinal discomfort, headache, trouble sleeping, and flushing of the skin.[8][12] Normal doses are safe during pregnancy.[16] The United States Institute of Medicine recommends against taking large doses.[9]

Vitamin C was discovered in 1912, isolated in 1928, and, in 1933, was the first vitamin to be chemically produced.[17] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines.[18] Vitamin C is available as an inexpensive generic and over-the-counter medication.[8][19] Partly for its discovery, Albert Szent-Györgyi and Walter Norman Haworth were awarded the 1937 Nobel Prizes in Physiology and Medicine and Chemistry, respectively.[20][21] Foods containing vitamin C include citrus fruits, kiwifruit, guava, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, bell peppers and strawberries.[11] Prolonged storage or cooking may reduce vitamin C content in foods.[11]