Vitamin E

Vitamin E is a group of eight fat soluble compounds that include four tocopherols and four tocotrienols.[1][2] Vitamin E deficiency, which is rare and usually due to an underlying problem with digesting dietary fat rather than from a diet low in vitamin E,[3] can cause nerve problems.[4] Vitamin E is a fat-soluble antioxidant which may help protect cell membranes from reactive oxygen species.[2][4]

Vitamin E
Drug class
The RRR alpha-tocopherol form of vitamin E
Class identifiers
UseVitamin E deficiency, antioxidant
ATC codeA11HA03
Biological targetReactive oxygen species
Clinical data
Drugs.comMedFacts Natural Products
External links
MeSHD014810
In Wikidata

Worldwide, government organizations recommend adults consume in the range of 7 to 15 mg per day. As of 2016, consumption was below recommendations according to a worldwide summary of more than one hundred studies that reported a median dietary intake of 6.2 mg per day for alpha-tocopherol.[5] Research with alpha-tocopherol as a dietary supplement, with daily amounts as high as 2,000 mg per day, has had mixed results.[6] Population studies suggested that people who consumed foods with more vitamin E, or who chose on their own to consume a vitamin E dietary supplement, had lower incidence of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, dementia, and other diseases, but placebo-controlled clinical trials could not always replicate these findings.[2] As of 2017, vitamin E continues to be a topic of active clinical research.[7] There is no clinical evidence that use of vitamin E skincare products are effective.[8] Both natural and synthetic tocopherols are subject to oxidation, and so in dietary supplements are esterified, creating tocopheryl acetate for stability purposes.[2][9]

Both the tocopherols and tocotrienols occur in α (alpha), β (beta), γ (gamma) and δ (delta) forms, as determined by the number and position of methyl groups on the chromanol ring.[4][10] All eight of these vitamers feature a chromane double ring, with a hydroxyl group that can donate a hydrogen atom to reduce free radicals, and a hydrophobic side chain which allows for penetration into biological membranes. Of the many different forms of vitamin E, gamma-tocopherol (γ-tocopherol) is the most common form found in the North American diet, but alpha-tocopherol (α-tocopherol) is the most biologically active.[2][11] Palm oil is a source of tocotrienols.

Vitamin E was discovered in 1922, isolated in 1935 and first synthesized in 1938. Because the vitamin activity was first identified as essential for fertilized eggs to result in live births (in rats), it was given the name "tocopherol" from Greek words meaning birth and to bear or carry.[12][13][14] Alpha-tocopherol, either naturally extracted from plant oils or, most commonly, as the synthetic tocopheryl acetate, is sold as a popular dietary supplement, either by itself or incorporated into a multivitamin product, and in oils or lotions for use on skin.[2][8]