Vladimir Putin

Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin[lower-alpha 3] (born 7 October 1952) is a Russian politician and former intelligence officer, serving as the current president of Russia. Putin has served continuously as president or prime minister since 1999:[lower-alpha 4] as prime minister from 1999 to 2000 and from 2008 to 2012, and as president from 2000 to 2008 and since 2012.[lower-alpha 5][7]

Vladimir Putin
Владимир Путин
Putin in 2021
President of Russia
Assumed office
7 May 2012
Prime Minister
Preceded byDmitry Medvedev
In office
7 May 2000  7 May 2008
Acting: 31 December 1999 – 7 May 2000
Prime Minister
Preceded byBoris Yeltsin
Succeeded byDmitry Medvedev
Prime Minister of Russia
In office
8 May 2008  7 May 2012
PresidentDmitry Medvedev
First Deputy
Preceded byViktor Zubkov
Succeeded byViktor Zubkov (acting)
In office
9 August 1999  7 May 2000
PresidentBoris Yeltsin
First Deputy
Preceded bySergei Stepashin
Succeeded byMikhail Kasyanov
Secretary of the Security Council
In office
9 March 1999  9 August 1999
PresidentBoris Yeltsin
Preceded byNikolay Bordyuzha
Succeeded bySergei Ivanov
Director of the Federal Security Service
In office
25 July 1998  29 March 1999
PresidentBoris Yeltsin
Preceded byNikolay Kovalyov
Succeeded byNikolai Patrushev
First Deputy Chief of the Presidential Administration
In office
25 May 1998  24 July 1998
PresidentBoris Yeltsin
Deputy Chief of the Presidential Administration — Head of the Main Supervisory Department
In office
26 March 1997  24 May 1998
PresidentBoris Yeltsin
Preceded byAlexei Kudrin
Succeeded byNikolai Patrushev
Additional positions
Leader of All-Russia People's Front
Assumed office
12 June 2013
Preceded byOffice established
Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Union State
In office
27 May 2008  18 July 2012
Chairman of the
Council of State
Alexander Lukashenko
General SecretaryPavel Borodin
Preceded byViktor Zubkov
Succeeded byDmitry Medvedev
Leader of United Russia
In office
7 May 2008  26 May 2012
Preceded byBoris Gryzlov
Succeeded byDmitry Medvedev
Personal details
Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin

(1952-10-07) 7 October 1952 (age 70)
Leningrad, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union (now Saint Petersburg, Russia)
Political partyIndependent
(1991–1995, 2001–2008, 2012–present)
Other political
(m. 1983; div. 2014)
[lower-alpha 1]
ChildrenAt least 2, Maria and Katerina[lower-alpha 2]
RelativesSpiridon Putin (grandfather)
Residence(s)Novo-Ogaryovo, Moscow
AwardsOrder of Honour
Military service
Allegiance Soviet Union
Years of service
  • 1975–1991
  • 1997–1999
  • 2000–present
CommandsSupreme Commander-in-Chief

Putin worked as a KGB foreign intelligence officer for 16 years, rising to the rank of lieutenant colonel before resigning in 1991 to begin a political career in Saint Petersburg. He moved to Moscow in 1996 to join the administration of president Boris Yeltsin. He briefly served as director of the Federal Security Service (FSB) and secretary of the Security Council of Russia, before being appointed prime minister in August 1999. After the resignation of Yeltsin, Putin became acting president and, less than four months later, was elected outright to his first term as president. He was reelected in 2004. Because he was constitutionally limited to two consecutive terms as president, Putin served as prime minister again from 2008 to 2012 under Dmitry Medvedev. He returned to the presidency in 2012, in an election marred by allegations of fraud and protests, and was reelected in 2018. In April 2021, after a referendum, he signed into law constitutional amendments including one that would allow him to run for reelection twice more, potentially extending his presidency to 2036.[8][9]

During Putin's first tenure as president, the Russian economy grew on average by seven percent per year,[10] after economic reforms and a fivefold increase in the price of oil and gas.[11][12] Putin also led Russia during a war against Chechen separatists, reestablishing federal control of the region.[13][14] As prime minister under Medvedev, he oversaw a war against Georgia and military and police reform. During his third term as president, Russia annexed Crimea and sponsored a war in eastern Ukraine with several military incursions made, resulting in international sanctions and a financial crisis in Russia. He also ordered a military intervention in Syria to support Russian ally Bashar al-Assad in the Syrian civil war, eventually securing a deal that granted permanent naval bases in the Eastern Mediterranean.[lower-alpha 6] During his fourth term as president, he launched a large invasion of Ukraine in February 2022, provoking international condemnation and significantly expanded sanctions. In September 2022, he announced a partial mobilisation and forcibly annexed four Ukrainian oblasts into Russia. In March 2023, the International Criminal Court issued an arrest warrant for Putin in connection to his alleged criminal responsibility for illegal child abductions during the war.

Under Putin's leadership, Russia has undergone democratic backsliding and a shift to authoritarianism. His rule has been characterised by endemic corruption and human-rights violations, including the imprisonment and repression of political opponents, the intimidation and suppression of independent media in Russia, and a lack of free and fair elections.[18][19][20] Putin's Russia has scored poorly on Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index, the Economist Intelligence Unit's Democracy Index, Freedom House's Freedom in the World index, and the Reporters Without Borders Press Freedom Index. Putin is the second-longest currently serving European president, after Alexander Lukashenko of Belarus.

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