A volcanologist, or volcano scientist, is a geologist who focuses on understanding the formation and eruptive activity of volcanoes.[1] Volcanologists frequently visit volcanoes, sometimes active ones, to observe and monitor volcanic eruptions, collect eruptive products including tephra (such as ash or pumice), rock and lava samples. One major focus of inquiry in recent times is the prediction of eruptions to alleviate the impact on surrounding populations and monitor natural hazards associated with volcanic activity.[2][3] Geologists who research volcanic materials that make up the solid Earth are referred to as igneous petrologists.

A volcanologist sampling lava using a rock hammer and a bucket of water

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