Vostok (rocket family)

Vostok (Russian: Восток, translated as "East") was a family of rockets derived from the Soviet R-7 Semyorka ICBM and was designed for the human spaceflight programme. This family of rockets launched the first artificial satellite (Sputnik 1) and the first crewed spacecraft (Vostok) in human history. It was a subset of the R-7 family of rockets.

Vostok 8K72K rocket on display in Moscow at the Exhibition of Achievements of National Economy
FunctionCarrier rocket
ManufacturerRKK Energia
Country of originSoviet Union
Mass280,000–290,000 kg (620,000–640,000 lb)
Payload to LEO
Mass4,725 kilograms (10,417 lb)
Associated rockets
Launch history
Launch sitesBaikonur: LC-1/5, 31/6
Plesetsk: LC-41/1, 43/3, 43/4
Total launchesVostok-L: 4
Vostok-K: 13
Vostok-2: 45
Vostok-2M: 94
Soyuz/Vostok: 2
Success(es)Vostok-L: 3
Vostok-K: 11
Vostok-2: 40
Vostok-2M: 92
Soyuz/Vostok: 2
Failure(s)Vostok-L: 1
Vostok-K: 2
Vostok-2: 5
Vostok-2M: 2
First flight15 May 1960 (Vostok-L)
Last flight29 August 1991 (Vostok-2M)
Type of passengers/cargoVostok
First stage (Block B, V, G, D)
Powered by1 RD-107-8D74-1959
Maximum thrust970.86 kN
Burn time118 seconds
Second stage (Block A)
Powered by1 RD-108-8D75-1959
Maximum thrust912 kN
Burn time301 seconds
Third stage (Block E)
Powered by1 RD-0109
Maximum thrust54.5 kN
Burn time365 seconds

On March 18, 1980, a Vostok-2M rocket exploded on its launch pad at Plesetsk during a fueling operation, killing 48 people. An investigation into a similar  but avoided  accident revealed that the substitution of lead-based for tin-based solder in hydrogen peroxide filters allowed the breakdown of the H2O2, thus causing the resultant explosion.

Share this article:

This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Vostok (rocket family), and is written by contributors. Text is available under a CC BY-SA 4.0 International License; additional terms may apply. Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.