Wales

Wales (Welsh: Cymru [ˈkəm.rɨ] (listen)) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.[10] It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, and the Bristol Channel to the south. It had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2 (8,023 sq mi). Wales has over 1,680 miles (2,700 km) of coastline and is largely mountainous with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon (Yr Wyddfa), its highest summit. The country lies within the north temperate zone and has a changeable, maritime climate.

Wales
Cymru (Welsh)
Motto: "Cymru am byth"
"Wales Forever"[1]
Anthem: "Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau"
"Land of My Fathers"
Location of Wales (dark green)

 in Europe (green & dark grey)
 in the United Kingdom (green)

StatusCountry
Capital
and largest city
Cardiff
51°29′N 3°11′W
Official languages
Ethnic groups
(2011)
Religion
(2011)
Demonym(s)Welsh
GovernmentDevolved parliamentary legislature within parliamentary constitutional monarchy
 Monarch
Elizabeth II
Mark Drakeford
Parliament of the United Kingdom
 Secretary of StateSimon Hart
 House of Commons40 MPs (of 650)
LegislatureSenedd
Formation
 Unification by Gruffydd ap Llywelyn
1057[2]
3 March 1284
1543
31 July 1998
Area
 Total
20,779 km2 (8,023 sq mi)
Population
 2019 estimate
3,153,000[6]
 2011 census
3,063,456[7]
 Density
148/km2 (383.3/sq mi)
GVA2018[8] estimate
 • Total£75 billion
($97B)
 • Per capita£23,900
($31884)
HDI (2019) 0.901[9]
very high · 11th
CurrencyPound sterling (GBP; £)
Time zoneUTC (Greenwich Mean Time)
 Summer (DST)
UTC+1 (British Summer Time)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy (AD)
Driving sideleft
Calling code+44
ISO 3166 codeGB-WLS
Internet TLD.wales .cymru [a]
Website
wales.com
  1. ^ Both .wales and .cymru are not ccTLDs, but GeoTLDs, open to use by all people in Wales and related to Wales. .uk as part of the United Kingdom is also used. ISO 3166-1 is GB, but .gb is unused.

Welsh national identity emerged among the Britons after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, and Wales is regarded as one of the modern Celtic nations. Llywelyn ap Gruffudd's death in 1282 marked the completion of Edward I of England's conquest of Wales, though Owain Glyndŵr briefly restored independence to Wales in the early 15th century. The whole of Wales was annexed by England and incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. Distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century. Welsh Liberalism, exemplified in the early 20th century by David Lloyd George, was displaced by the growth of socialism and the Labour Party. Welsh national feeling grew over the century; a nationalist party, Plaid Cymru was formed in 1925 and the Welsh Language Society in 1962. Established under the Government of Wales Act 1998, the Senedd (the Welsh Parliament, formerly known as the National Assembly for Wales) is responsible for a range of devolved policy matters.

At the dawn of the Industrial Revolution, development of the mining and metallurgical industries transformed the country from an agricultural society into an industrial nation; the South Wales Coalfield's exploitation caused a rapid expansion of Wales' population. Two-thirds of the population live in South Wales, including Cardiff, Swansea, Newport and the nearby valleys. Now that the country's traditional extractive and heavy industries have gone or are in decline, the economy is based on the public sector, light and service industries, and tourism. In livestock farming, including dairy farming, Wales is a net exporter, contributing towards national agricultural self-sufficiency.

Wales closely shares its political and social history with the rest of Great Britain, and a majority of the population in most areas speaks English as a first language, but the country has retained a distinct cultural identity. Both Welsh and English are official languages; over 560,000 Welsh-speakers live in Wales, and the language is spoken by a majority of the population in parts of the north and west. From the late 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the "land of song", in part due to the eisteddfod tradition. At many international sporting events, such as the FIFA World Cup, Rugby World Cup and the Commonwealth Games, Wales has its own national team. At the Olympic Games, Welsh athletes compete for the UK as part of a Great Britain team. Rugby union is seen as a symbol of Welsh identity and an expression of national consciousness.