Wallachia or Walachia (Romanian: Țara Românească, lit. 'The Romanian Land' or 'The Romanian Country', pronounced [ˈt͡sara romɨˈne̯askə]; archaic: Țeara Rumânească, Romanian Cyrillic alphabet: Цѣра Рꙋмѫнѣскъ) is a historical and geographical region of Romania. It is situated north of the Lower Danube and south of the Southern Carpathians. Wallachia is traditionally divided into two sections, Muntenia (Greater Wallachia) and Oltenia (Lesser Wallachia). Wallachia as a whole is sometimes referred to as Muntenia through identification with the larger of the two traditional sections.
Principality of Wallachia
Flag (c. 1593–1611)
|Motto: Dreptate, Frăție|
"Justice, Brotherhood" (1848)
|Status||Vassal of the Ottoman Empire (1417–1859, with interruptions)|
Under a protectorate of the Russian Empire (1829–1856)
Under international protection (1856–1859)
|Government||Elective absolute monarchy with hereditary lines|
• c. 1290 – c. 1310
|Radu Negru (first)|
|Alexandru Ioan Cuza (last)|
|Historical era||Middle Ages/Early modern period/Modern history|
• Ottoman suzerainty for the first time
|21 July [O.S. 10 July] 1774|
|14 September [O.S. 2 September] 1829|
|5 February [O.S. 24 January] 1859|
Wallachia was founded as a principality in the early 14th century by Basarab I, after a rebellion against Charles I of Hungary, although the first mention of the territory of Wallachia west of the river Olt dates to a charter given to the voivode Seneslau in 1246 by Béla IV of Hungary. In 1417, Wallachia was forced to accept the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire; this lasted until the 19th century, albeit with brief periods of Russian occupation between 1768 and 1854.
In 1859, Wallachia united with Moldavia to form the United Principalities, which adopted the name Romania in 1866 and officially became the Kingdom of Romania in 1881. Later, following the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the resolution of the elected representatives of Romanians in 1918, Bukovina, Transylvania as well as parts of Banat, Crișana, and Maramureș were allocated to the Kingdom of Romania, thereby forming the modern Romanian state.