Warmia (pronounced: VAR-mya, Polish: Warmia, Latin: Warmia, Varmia, German: Ermland , Old Prussian: Wārmi, Lithuanian: Varmė) is a historical region in northern Poland. Its historic capitals were Frombork (Frauenburg) and Lidzbark (Heilsberg) and the largest city is Olsztyn (Allenstein).

Historical region
The historical region of Warmia (shown in pink) within the borders of present-day Poland
Country Poland
SeatFrombork, Lidzbark
CitiesOlsztyn, Braniewo, Reszel, Frombork
  Total4,500 km2 (1,700 sq mi)
  Density78/km2 (200/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)

Warmia is currently the core of the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship (province). The region, a historic German-Polish borderland,[1] covers an area of around 4,500 km2 (1,700 sq mi) and has approximately 350,000 inhabitants. Important landmarks include the Cathedral Hill in Frombork, the bishops' castles at Olsztyn and Lidzbark, the medieval town of Reszel (Rößel) and the sanctuary in Gietrzwałd (Dietrichswalde), a site of Marian apparitions. Geographically, it is an area of many lakes and lies at the upper Łyna river and on the right bank of Pasłęka, stretching in the northwest to the Vistula Bay. Warmia has a number of architectural monuments ranging from Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque to Classicism, Historicism and Art Nouveau.

Warmia is part of a larger historical region called Prussia, which was inhabited by the Old Prussians and later on was populated mainly by Germans and Poles.[2] Warmia has traditionally strong connections with neighbouring Masuria, but it remained Catholic and belonged to Poland between 1454/1466 and 1772, whereas Masuria became part of the Duchy of Prussia and became predominantly Protestant. Warmia has been under the dominion of various states over the course of its history, most notably the Old Prussians, the Teutonic Knights, the Kingdom of Poland and the Kingdom of Prussia. The history of the region is closely connected to that of the Archbishopric of Warmia (formerly, Duchy of Warmia). The region is associated with the Prussian tribe, the Warmians,[3] who settled in an approximate area. According to folk etymology, Warmia is named after the legendary Prussian chief Warmo, and Ermland derives from his widow Erma.

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