Warp and weft

Warp and weft are the two basic components used in weaving to turn thread or yarn into fabric. The lengthwise or longitudinal warp yarns are held stationary in tension on a frame or loom while the transverse weft (sometimes woof) is drawn through and inserted over and under the warp.[1] A single thread of the weft crossing the warp is called a pick. Terms vary (for instance, in North America, the weft is sometimes referred to as the fill or the filling yarn).[2][3] Each individual warp thread in a fabric is called a warp end or end.[2][3]

Warp and weft in plain weaving
The yellow yarn is the pile, the vertical the warp, and the horizontal the weft
A satin weave, common for silk; each warp thread floats over 16 weft threads.
Warp and weft of a bed sheet.
A 3/1 twill, as used in denim

Inventions during the 18th century spurred the Industrial Revolution, with the "picking stick"[4] and the "flying shuttle" (John Kay, 1733) speeding up the production of cloth. The power loom patented by Edmund Cartwright in 1785 allowed sixty picks per minute.[4]

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