Weapons of the Lebanese Civil War


The Lebanese Civil War was a multi-sided military conflict that pitted a variety of local irregular militias, both Muslim and Christian, against each other between 1975 and 1990. A wide variety of weapons were used by the different armies and factions operating in the Lebanese Civil War. Combatants included:

Weapons and equipment


The list below comprises all the weapons and equipment employed by the LNM, Lebanese Front, LAA, AFL, LF, IUM, Hezbollah, Al-Mourabitoun, NLA, Druze PLA, SLA, LAF, ISF, and lesser Lebanese groups (note: the Syrian Army, PLO, Palestinian PLA and IDF are not included on this list).

Pistols and revolvers

Colt M1911A1 pistol
Colt Cobra .38 Special snub-nose revolver
Tokarev TT-33 pistol
CZ 75 pistol
Makarov PM/PMM pistol

Submachine guns

MP 40 Submachine gun
MAT-49 Submachine gun
Škorpion vz. 61 Submachine gun
Socimi Type 821 Submachine gun
Crvena Zastava Automat M56 Submachine gun

Bolt action rifles

Semi-automatic rifles

M1 Garand rifle (Beretta Model 1952)
SKS semi-automatic rifle
M14 semi-automatic rifle

Carbines

SIG SG 543 carbine

Assault rifles

FN FAL assault rifle
vz. 58 assault rifle
M16A1 assault rifle
AR-18 assault rifle
SIG SG 540 assault rifle

Sniper rifles

Dragunov SVD-63 sniper rifle
PSL sniper rifle
M40 sniper rifle
Remington Model 700 sniper rifle

Shotguns

Light machine guns

Israeli Heavy Barrel MAKLEON FAL.
HK 21 light machine gun
M1918A2 BAR

General-purpose machine guns

MG 34 machine gun
MG 42 machine gun
M60 machine gun

Medium machine gun and Heavy machine guns

M2HB heavy machine gun

Grenade systems

Land mine systems

Anti-tank rocket and grenade launchers

RL-83 Blindicide
M72 LAW
M203 grenade launcher
M79 grenade launcher

Recoilless rifles

B-10 82mm recoilless rifle in Batey Ha-Osef Museum, Tel Aviv, Israel.
B-11 107mm recoilless rifle in Batey ha-Osef Museum, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Mortars

Soltam M-65 120mm heavy mortar in Beyt ha-Totchan Museum, Zikhron Ya'akov, Israel.
Soltam M-66 160mm heavy mortar in Beyt ha-Totchan Museum, Zikhron Ya'akov, Israel.

Rocket and missile systems

DKB Grad-P 122mm single tube rocket launcher system in Batey Ha-Osef Museum, Tel Aviv, Israel.
APR-40/RO-40 128mm 6-tube multiple rocket launcher mounted on a DAC chassis in Beyt ha-Totchan Museum, Zikhron Ya'akov, Israel.

Anti-tank guns

ZiS-2 57mm anti-tank gun in Batey Ha-Osef Museum, Tel Aviv, Israel, 2005.
D-44 85mm anti-tank gun in Beyt ha-Totchan Museum, Zikhron Ya'akov, Israel.

Anti-aircraft guns and Autocannons

AZP S-60 57mm anti-aircraft gun in Hatzerim Israel Airforce Museum, Beersheba, Israel.

Howitzers

Mle 1950 BF-50 155mm howitzer in Beyt ha-Totchan Museum, Zikhron Ya'akov, Israel.
M-30 122mm howitzer in Beyt ha-Totchan museum, Zikhron Ya'akov, Israel.

Armoured vehicles

AML-90 of the Lebanese Army in Beirut, 1982.
ex-PLO built UR-416 clone in Batey Ha-Osef Museum, Tel Aviv, Israel, 2005.
BTR-152 converted into an ARV by the South Lebanese Army in Yad La-Shiryon Museum, Latrun, Israel, 2005.
ex-Lebanese Army AMX-VCI in Yad La-Shiryon Museum, Latrun, Israel, 2005.
BTR-50PK converted into a Medevac vehicle by the South Lebanese Army in Yad La-Shiryon Museum, Latrun, Israel, 2005.
ex-Lebanese Army M41A3 light tank in Yad La-Shiryon Museum, Latrun, Israel, 2005.
ex-Lebanese Army AMX-13 light tank in Yad La-Shiryon Museum, Latrun, Israel, 2005.
Amal fighters manning a T-55A tank provided by Syria, Beirut 1980s.

Technicals, transport and recovery vehicles

Vehicle-borne improvised explosive devices

Helicopters

Aircraft

Naval craft

See also


Notes


  1. Katz, Russel, and Volstad, Armies in Lebanon (1985), pp. 44-45, Plate G3.
  2. "The Weapons: Semi-auto Pistols". lebaneseforces.com. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 12 March 2015.[better source needed]
  3. Katz and Volstad, Arab Armies of the Middle East Wars 2 (1988), p. 47, Plate H3.
  4. Katz, Battleground Lebanon (1990), Plate D3.
  5. Katz and Volstad, Arab Armies of the Middle East Wars 2 (1988), p. 46, Plate H1.
  6. Katz, Battleground Lebanon (1990), Plate B2.
  7. McNab, Soviet Submachine Guns of World War II: PPD-40, PPSh-41 and PPS (2014), p. 68.
  8. Popenker, Maxim. "Sa. 23". Modern Firearms.
  9. Micheletti and Debay, Liban – dix jours aux cœur des combats (1989), p. 30.
  10. Katz, Battleground Lebanon (1990), Plate B1.
  11. Republic of Serbia: Ministry of Economy and of Regional Development. "Annual Report on the Transfers of Controlled Goods in 2008". p. 37. Archived from the original on 21 December 2014. Retrieved 25 October 2014 via Stockholm International Peace Research Institute.
  12. Katz, Battleground Lebanon (1990), Plate D3.
  13. "Post-WWII use of the MAS-36 rifle: Part II (export users)". wwiiafterwwii.wordpress.com. 2015-08-23. Retrieved 2017-06-15.
  14. http://world.guns.ru/rifle/autoloading-rifles/fr/mas-1949-and-4956-e.html
  15. Micheletti and Debay, Liban – dix jours aux cœur des combats (1989), p. 31.
  16. Scarlata, Paul (July 2009). "Military rifle cartridges of Lebanon Part 2: from independence to Hezbollah". Shotgun News.
  17. Katz and Volstad, Arab Armies of the Middle East Wars 2 (1988), p. 39.
  18. Huon, Un Siècle d'Armement Mondial: Armes à feu d'infanterie de petit calibre, tome 4 (1981), page unknown.
  19. http://www.bavarianm1carbines.com/carbinesnara.html
  20. Katz, Battleground Lebanon (1990), Plate B2.
  21. Katz, Russel, and Volstad, Armies in Lebanon (1985), p. 16.
  22. Katz, Battleground Lebanon (1990), p. 48; Plate B3.
  23. Katz and Volstad, Arab Armies of the Middle East Wars 2 (1988), p. 46, Plate G5.
  24. Katz, Battleground Lebanon (1990), Plate B4.
  25. Katz, Battleground Lebanon (1990), Plate B1.
  26. Jureidini, McLaurin, and Price, Military operations in selected Lebanese built-up areas (1979), Appendix A, table A-8.
  27. Jenzen-Jones & Spleeters, Identifying & Tracing the FN Herstal FAL Rifle: Documenting signs of diversion in Syria and beyond (2015), pp. 20-21.
  28. Jureidini, McLaurin, and Price, Military operations in selected Lebanese built-up areas (1979), Appendix A, table A-8.
  29. Laffin, The War of Desperation: Lebanon 1982-85 (1985), p. 40.
  30. Katz, Russel, and Volstad, Armies in Lebanon (1985), pp. 40-41, Plate D2.
  31. Katz and Volstad, Arab Armies of the Middle East Wars 2 (1988), p. 46, Plate H2.
  32. Katz, Russel, and Volstad, Armies in Lebanon (1985), p. 44, Plate G2.
  33. Katz and Volstad, Arab Armies of the Middle East Wars 2 (1988), p. 46, Plate G3.
  34. Hokayem, L'armée libanaise pendant la guerre: un instrument du pouvoir du président de la République (1975-1985) (2012), p. 106.
  35. Thompson, The G3 Battle Rifle (2019), pp. 29; 64.
  36. Katz, Russel, and Volstad, Armies in Lebanon (1985), p. 40, Plate D1.
  37. Jureidini, McLaurin, and Price, Military operations in selected Lebanese built-up areas (1979), p. 7; Appendix A, table A-8.
  38. Jureidini, McLaurin, and Price, Military operations in selected Lebanese built-up areas (1979), Appendix A, table A-3; A-8.
  39. Kassis, Invasion of Lebanon 1982 (2019), p. 355.
  40. Jureidini, McLaurin, and Price, Military operations in selected Lebanese built-up areas (1979), Appendix A, table A-3.
  41. Russell, Katz, and Volstad, Armies in Lebanon 1982–84 (1985), p. 43.
  42. Micheletti and Debay, Liban – dix jours aux cœur des combats (1989), p. 35.
  43. Katz, Battleground Lebanon (1990), Plate C3.
  44. El-Assad, Civil Wars Volume 1: The Gun Trucks (2008), p. 103.
  45. Kassis, Invasion of Lebanon 1982 (2019), p. 199.
  46. Katz, Battleground Lebanon (1990), Plate A2.
  47. Laffin, The War of Desperation: Lebanon 1982-85 (1985), pp. 179–183.
  48. Kassis, Véhicules Militaires au Liban/Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2012), p. 22.
  49. Katz and Volstad, Arab Armies of the Middle East Wars 2 (1988), p. 47, Plate H4.
  50. Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), p. 43.
  51. Kassis, Véhicules Militaires au Liban/Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2012), p. 29.
  52. Neville, Technicals: Non-Standard Tactical Vehicles from the Great Toyota War to modern Special Forces (2018), p. 15.
  53. El-Assad, Civil Wars Volume 1: The Gun Trucks (2008), p. 117.
  54. Naud, La Guerre Civile Libanaise - 2e partie: Les combats israélo-Syriens au Liban, 1982, p. 15.
  55. Neville, Technicals: Non-Standard Tactical Vehicles from the Great Toyota War to modern Special Forces (2018), p. 9.
  56. http://www.lexpev.nl/grenades/middleeastasia/china/stickgrenadetype67.html
  57. Katz, Battleground Lebanon (1990), Plate C3.
  58. Katz, Battleground Lebanon (1990), Plate C3.
  59. Jureidini, McLaurin, and Price, Military operations in selected Lebanese built-up areas (1979), Introduction, p. 1.
  60. Kassis, Véhicules Militaires au Liban/Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2012), p. 41.
  61. Willey, Landmines and Explosive Remnants of War in Lebanon (2016), p. 7.
  62. Willey, Landmines and Explosive Remnants of War in Lebanon (2016), p. 9.
  63. Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), p. 26.
  64. Kassis, Véhicules Militaires au Liban/Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2012), p. 16.
  65. Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), p. 4.
  66. Jureidini, McLaurin, and Price, Military operations in selected Lebanese built-up areas (1979), Appendix A, table A-11.
  67. Rottman, The Rocket-propelled Grenade (2010), p. 63.
  68. Naud, La Guerre Civile Libanaise - 2e partie: Les combats israélo-Syriens au Liban, 1982, p. 10.
  69. Zaloga, Tank battles of the Mid-East Wars (2003), p. 63.
  70. Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), p. 35.
  71. Henson, Jason W."MGM-32 Entac ATGM." Archived 2 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine "Harpoon Head Quarters". Retrieved: 24 December 2009.
  72. Katz, Battleground Lebanon (1990), Plate B3.
  73. Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), p. 36.
  74. Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), pp. 15; 35.
  75. Rottman, US Grenade Launchers – M79, M203, and M320 (2017), p. 37.
  76. Rottman, US Grenade Launchers – M79, M203, and M320 (2017), p. 22.
  77. Kassis, Invasion of Lebanon 1982 (2019), p. 194.
  78. Jureidini, McLaurin, and Price, Military operations in selected Lebanese built-up areas (1979), Appendix A, table A-9; Appendix D, D-6.
  79. Kassis, Invasion of Lebanon 1982 (2019), p. 230.
  80. Kassis, Véhicules Militaires au Liban/Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2012), p. 58.
  81. Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), p. 31.
  82. Kassis, Invasion of Lebanon 1982 (2019), p. 199.
  83. A Toyota Land Cruiser BJ40/42 of the AMAL militia in 1984 armed with a Chinese made Type 56 75mm recoilless rifle.
  84. Jureidini, McLaurin, and Price, Military operations in selected Lebanese built-up areas (1979), Appendix A, table A-9.
  85. Zaloga, Tank battles of the Mid-East Wars (2003), p. 25.
  86. https://web.archive.org/web/20160728223823/http://www.inss.org.il/uploadimages/SystemFiles/lebanon.pdf
  87. Gander, Terry J. (22 November 2000). "National inventories, Lebanon". Jane's Infantry Weapons 2001-2002. p. 3087.
  88. Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), p. 21.
  89. Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), pp. 41-43.
  90. Kassis, Véhicules Militaires au Liban/Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2012), p. 82.
  91. Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), p. 98.
  92. Jureidini, McLaurin, and Price, Military operations in selected Lebanese built-up areas (1979), Appendix A, table A-6.
  93. Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), p. 22.
  94. Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), p. 65.
  95. Mahé, La Guerre Civile Libanaise, un chaos indescriptible! (1975-1990), p. 81.
  96. Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), p. 56.
  97. Zaloga, Tank battles of the Mid-East Wars (2) (1998), p. 66.
  98. Katz, Battleground Lebanon (1990), Plate D3.
  99. Guest, Lebanon (1994), p. 106.
  100. Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), p. 37.
  101. Kassis, Invasion of Lebanon 1982 (2019), p. 196.
  102. Micheletti and Debay, Liban – dix jours aux cœur des combats (1989), p. 9.
  103. Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), p. 61.
  104. Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), p. 54.
  105. Jureidini, McLaurin, and Price, Military operations in selected Lebanese built-up areas (1979), pp. 16-21, 32-36, 52; Appendix A, A-10, table 3; Appendix D, D-5.
  106. Kassis, Véhicules Militaires au Liban/Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2012), p. 59.
  107. El-Assad, Civil Wars Volume 1: The Gun Trucks (2008), p. 95.
  108. http://www.warwheels.net/Model_M35A2wBoforsASSAD.html - 1/35 scale Model Photos of a Lebanese Special Forces AA QF Bofors 40mm gun mounted on a M35A2 Gun Truck.
  109. http://osw.zone/paint-weathering-diorama/vallejo-colors/135-btr-152-apc-armed-with-bofors-40-mm-gunnlp-tigers-militialebanon1976-by/ - 1/35 scale Model Photos of a Lebanese Tigers Militia AA QF Bofors 40mm gun mounted on a BTR-152 APC, c.1976.
  110. Jureidini, McLaurin, and Price, Military operations in selected Lebanese built-up areas (1979), Appendix A, table A-10; Appendix D, D-2.
  111. Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), p. 27.
  112. Kassis, Véhicules Militaires au Liban/Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2012), pp. 15; 53.
  113. Neville, Technicals: Non-Standard Tactical Vehicles from the Great Toyota War to modern Special Forces (2018), p. 15.
  114. Jureidini, McLaurin, and Price, Military operations in selected Lebanese built-up areas (1979), Appendix A, table A-10.
  115. Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), p. 46.
  116. Kassis, Véhicules Militaires au Liban/Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2012), pp. 60-61.
  117. Neville, Technicals: Non-Standard Tactical Vehicles from the Great Toyota War to modern Special Forces (2018), p. 5.
  118. Neville, Technicals: Non-Standard Tactical Vehicles from the Great Toyota War to modern Special Forces (2018), pp. 22-23, Plate C2.
  119. Guardians of the Cedars M35A1 gun-truck fitted with a ZU-23-2 AA autocannon, c.1976.
  120. 1/72 scale model of a Guardians of the Cedars M35A1 gun-truck with ZU-23-2 Anti-Aircraft autocannon.
  121. Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), p. 28.
  122. Jureidini, McLaurin, and Price, Military operations in selected Lebanese built-up areas (1979), p. 22.
  123. Kassis, Véhicules Militaires au Liban/Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2012), p. 52.
  124. Micheletti, Bataille d'Artillerie, RAIDS magazine (1989), p. 14.
  125. Guest, Lebanon (1994), p. 105.
  126. Kassis, Invasion of Lebanon 1982 (2019), p. 232.
  127. Kechichian, The Lebanese Army: Capabilities and Challenges in the 1980s (1985), p. 35.
  128. Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), p. 10.
  129. Naud, La Guerre Civile Libanaise - 1re partie: 1975-1978, p. 11.
  130. Kassis, Véhicules Militaires au Liban/Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2012), pp. 15; 21-22; 49.
  131. Zaloga, Armour of the Middle East Wars 1948-78 (1981), p. 33.
  132. Mesko, Greer and Manley, M41 Walker Bulldog in action (1991), p. 39.
  133. Kassis, Véhicules Militaires au Liban/Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2012), pp. 9; 50.
  134. Jureidini, McLaurin, and Price, Military operations in selected Lebanese built-up areas (1979), Appendix A, table A-10; Appendix D, D-3.
  135. Zaloga, Armour of the Middle East Wars 1948-78 (1981), pp. 33; 39-40, Plate H1.
  136. Kassis, Véhicules Militaires au Liban/Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2012), pp. 62; 80-83.
  137. Naud, La Guerre Civile Libanaise - 2e partie: Les combats israélo-Syriens au Liban, 1982, p. 8.
  138. Zaloga, Kinnear and Sarson, T-34-85 Medium Tank 1944-94 (1996), pp. 39; 47.
  139. Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), p. 67.
  140. Kassis, Invasion of Lebanon 1982 (2019), p. 234.
  141. Dunord, Liban: Les milices rendent leurs armes, RAIDS magazine (1991), p. 31.
  142. Zaloga, Tank battles of the Mid-East Wars (2) (1998), pp. 64-65.
  143. Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), pp. 60-61; 65.
  144. El-Assad, Civil Wars Volume 1: The Gun Trucks (2008), p. 97.
  145. Kinnear, Sewell & Aksenov, Soviet T-54 Main Battle Tank (2018), Appendix eight: known customers and users of the T‑54 medium tank, p. 182.
  146. Kinnear, Sewell & Aksenov, Soviet T-55 Main Battle Tank (2019), Appendix six: known client users of the T‑55 medium tank, p. 160.
  147. Kassis, Les TIRAN 4 et 5, de Tsahal aux Milices Chrétiennes, p. 59.
  148. Menargues, Les Secrets de la guerre du Liban (2004), p. 85.
  149. Kechichian, The Lebanese Army: Capabilities and Challenges in the 1980s (1985), p. 35.
  150. Zaloga, Tank battles of the Mid-East Wars (2) (1998), pp. 63-64.
  151. Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), pp. 16-18.
  152. Naud, La Guerre Civile Libanaise - 1re partie: 1975-1978, p. 10.
  153. Zaloga, Armour of the Middle East Wars 1948-78 (1981), pp. 33; 40, Plate H3.
  154. Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), p. 8.
  155. Kassis, Véhicules Militaires au Liban/Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2012), pp. 38-39; 50.
  156. Jureidini, McLaurin, and Price, Military operations in selected Lebanese built-up areas (1979), p. 21; Appendix D, D-4.
  157. Mesko, Greer and Manley, M41 Walker Bulldog in action (1991), p. 27.
  158. El-Assad, Civil Wars Volume 1: The Gun Trucks (2008), p. 91.
  159. Kassis, Véhicules Militaires au Liban/Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2012), pp. 51; 53.
  160. Micheletti, Les véhicules de la Guerre du Liban, RAIDS magazine (1994), p. 9.
  161. http://forum.tayyar.org/f8/army-lebanon-36023/index7.html – information on al-Murabitoun Shilka vehicles.
  162. Naud, La Guerre Civile Libanaise - 2e partie: Les combats israélo-Syriens au Liban, 1982, p. 14.
  163. Zaloga, ZSU-23-4 Shilka & Soviet Air Defense Gun Vehicles (1993), pp. 35-36.
  164. Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), p. 16.
  165. Christopher F. Foss, Jane's Tank & Combat Vehicle recognition guide (2002), pp. 324-325.
  166. Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), p. 7.
  167. Lathrop, McDonald and Laurier, Cadillac Cage V-100 Commando 1960-71 (2002), p. 42.
  168. Kassis, Véhicules Militaires au Liban/Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2012), pp. 14; 45; 54-55.
  169. Zaloga and Bull, Staghound armored car 1942-62 (2000), pp. 42-45.
  170. El-Assad, Civil Wars Volume 1: The Gun Trucks (2008), pp. 83-89.
  171. Kassis, Véhicules Militaires au Liban/Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2012), pp. 46-48.
  172. Fortin, Ludovic. T17E1 Staghound Armoured Car – Le char sur roues, Trucks & Tracks Magazine, December 2007 - January 2008 issue, pp. 48-67.
  173. El-Assad, Civil Wars Volume 1: The Gun Trucks (2008), pp. 85-87.
  174. http://milinme.wordpress.com/category/staghound/ – Colonel Barakat's Army of Free Lebanon's Staghound Mk.III armoured car near Binayit el-Béton, East Beirut, March 1976.
  175. "WarWheels.Net -1/35 Bronco Lebanese T17E1 Staghound Car Mark 1 Model Photos". Archived from the original on 2011-07-24. Retrieved 2011-03-14. – 1/35 scale model of a Staghound armoured car on Al-Murabitoun service, c.1976.
  176. Hamizrachi, The Emergence of South Lebanon Security Belt (1984), pp. 55-89.
  177. Badran, Lebanon: Liberation, Conflict, and Crisis (2010), pp. 50-52.
  178. Kassis, Véhicules Militaires au Liban/Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2012), pp. 22; 24-25; 40; 56-58.
  179. Kechichian, The Lebanese Army: Capabilities and Challenges in the 1980s (1985), p. 35.
  180. Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), p. 9.
  181. Kassis, Véhicules Militaires au Liban/Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2012), pp. 6-7; 23; 26; 28-29; 30-31.
  182. Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), p. 79.
  183. http://milinme.wordpress.com/category/v-200-chaimite – An ex-ISF V-200 Chaimite employed by the Guardians of the Cedars pictured at Houche-el-Oumara during the Battle of Zahleh, April–June 1981.
  184. Monteiro, Berliet, Chaimite e UMM – Os Grandes Veículos Militares Nacionais (2018), pp. 41-43.
  185. Katz, Battleground Lebanon (1990), p. 38.
  186. Zaloga, Tank battles of the Mid-East Wars (2003), p. 56.
  187. Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), pp. 5; 72.
  188. El-Assad, Civil Wars Volume 1: The Gun Trucks (2008), pp. 125-127.
  189. Kassis, Invasion of Lebanon 1982 (2019), p. 185.
  190. Mahé, La Guerre Civile Libanaise, un chaos indescriptible! (1975-1990), p. 79.
  191. Kassis, Véhicules Militaires au Liban/Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2012), pp. 58-60.
  192. http://osw.zone/paint-weathering-diorama/vallejo-colors/135-btr-152-apc-armed-with-bofors-40-mm-gunnlp-tigers-militialebanon1976-by/ – 1/35 scale Model Photos of a Lebanese Tigers Militia AA QF Bofors 40mm gun mounted on a BTR-152 APC, c.1976.
  193. Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), p. 58.
  194. Kechichian, The Lebanese Army: Capabilities and Challenges in the 1980s (1985), p. 35.
  195. Zaloga, Tank battles of the Mid-East Wars (2003), pp. 53; 57-58.
  196. Kassis, Véhicules Militaires au Liban/Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2012), p. 21.
  197. Kassis, Véhicules Militaires au Liban/Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2012), pp. 30-31.
  198. Zaloga, Tank battles of the Mid-East Wars (2003), p. 54.
  199. Zaloga, Tank battles of the Mid-East Wars (2003), pp. 52; 60.
  200. Kassis, Véhicules Militaires au Liban/Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2012), pp. 14; 22; 44; 56-57.
  201. Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), p. 63.
  202. El-Assad, Blue Steel: M-3 Halftracks in South Lebanon (2006), p. 58.
  203. Kechichian, The Lebanese Army: Capabilities and Challenges in the 1980s (1985), p. 35.
  204. Zaloga, Armour of the Middle East Wars 1948-78 (1981), pp. 33; 39, Plate G1.
  205. Dunstam, Hadler and Smith, The M113 series (1983), p. 33.
  206. Christopher F. Foss, Jane's Tank & Combat Vehicle recognition guide (2002), p. 215.
  207. El-Assad, Blue Steel III: M-113 Carriers in South Lebanon (2007), p. 8.
  208. El-Assad, Civil Wars Volume 1: The Gun Trucks (2008), p. 117.
  209. Kassis, Véhicules Militaires au Liban/Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2012), pp. 49-50.
  210. Zaloga, Tank battles of the Mid-East Wars (2003), pp. 54; 56; 60.
  211. Kassis, Véhicules Militaires au Liban/Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2012), p. 66.
  212. Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), p. 39.
  213. Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), p. 40.
  214. O'Ballance, Civil War in Lebanon (1998), p. 32.
  215. Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), p. 30.
  216. El-Assad, Civil Wars Volume 1: The Gun Trucks (2008), p. 135.
  217. Kassis, Véhicules Militaires au Liban/Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2012), pp. 47; 51; 58; 60.
  218. Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), pp. 6; 63.
  219. El-Assad, Civil Wars Volume 1: The Gun Trucks (2008), pp. 37; 133.
  220. Kassis, Véhicules Militaires au Liban/Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2012), pp. 8; 51.
  221. Neville, Technicals: Non-Standard Tactical Vehicles from the Great Toyota War to modern Special Forces (2018), p. 14.
  222. Kassis, Invasion of Lebanon 1982 (2019), p. 197.
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