White movement

The White movement (Russian: Бѣлое движеніе/Белое движение, tr. Beloye dvizheniye, IPA: [ˈbʲɛləɪ dvʲɪˈʐenʲɪɪ]) also known as the Whites (Бѣлые/Белые, Beliye), was a loose confederation of anti-communist forces that fought the communist Bolsheviks, also known as the Reds, in the Russian Civil War (1917–1922/1923) and that to a lesser extent continued operating as militarized associations of insurrectionists both outside and within Russian borders in Siberia until roughly World War II (1939–1945). The movement's military arm was the White Army (Бѣлая Армія/Белая Армия, Belaya Armiya), also known as the White Guard (Бѣлая Гвардія/Белая Гвардия, Belaya Gvardiya) or White Guardsmen (Бѣлогвардейцы/ Белогвардейцы, Belogvardeytsi).

White Movement
Бѣлое движенiе
Белое движение
Leaders Volunteer Army/AFSR:
Lavr Kornilov (1917–1918)
Anton Denikin (1918–1920)
Pyotr Wrangel (1920)
In Transbaikal:
Grigory Semyonov (1917–1921)
Alexander Kolchak (1918–1920)
North-West Army:
Nikolai Yudenich (1919–1920)
Mikhail Diterikhs (1922)
Anatoly Pepelyayev (1923)
Dates of operationIn Russia: 1917–1923
Abroad: until the 1960s [citation needed]


Size3,400,000 (Peak)
AlliesAllied interventionist states:
 British Empire
 United States
Serbia / Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes
Russian SFSR
 Far Eastern Republic
Soviet Ukraine
 Soviet Union

Latvian SSR
CWP of Estonia
Mongolian People's Party
Chinese communists

Green armies
Left SRs

Mountainous Republic
Battles and wars1917–1923: Russian Civil War 1921: Mongolian Revolution
1924: June Revolution in Albania[2]
1929: Sino-Soviet conflict
1934: Soviet invasion of Xinjiang[3]
1937: Islamic rebellion in Xinjiang[4]
Succeeded by
White émigrés

During the Russian Civil War the White movement functioned as a big-tent political movement representing an array of political opinions in Russia united in their opposition to the communist Bolsheviks—from the republican-minded liberals and Kerenskyite social-democrats on the left through monarchists and supporters of a united multinational Russia to the ultra-nationalist Black Hundreds on the right.

Following the military defeat of the Whites, remnants and continuations of the movement remained in several organizations, some of which only had narrow support, enduring within the wider White émigré overseas community until after the fall of the European communist states in the Eastern European Revolutions of 1989 and the subsequent dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1990–1991. This community-in-exile of anti-communists often divided into liberal and the more conservative segments, with some still hoping for the restoration of the Romanov dynasty. Two claimants to the empty throne emerged during the Civil War, Grand Duke Kirill Vladimirovich of Russia and Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich of Russia.