Wikipedia:Scientific citation guidelines

The no original research and verifiability policies are of paramount importance to Wikipedia. Inline citations, which link specific reliable sources with specific pieces of information in the article, provide practical support for these policies by making it possible for readers to verify the article content.

This page applies the advice in the policies, and in the citing sources guideline, to referencing science and mathematics articles. The goal is to achieve a reasonable balance between ease of verification, readability and editability. This page also describes some sensible guidelines for dealing with issues that are specific to writing Wikipedia articles (compared to writing for the academic press).

Footnotes (<ref> tags) are used in examples throughout this page. Parenthetical referencing was a different type of referencing used on Wikipedia until September 2020, when a community discussion reached a consensus to deprecate parenthetical referencing. Do not change any article's established citation style without discussing it first.


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This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Wikipedia:Scientific citation guidelines, and is written by contributors. Text is available under a CC BY-SA 4.0 International License; additional terms may apply. Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.