Wildfire

A wildfire, bushfire, wild land fire or rural fire is an unplanned, unwanted, uncontrolled fire in an area of combustible vegetation starting in rural areas and urban areas.[1] Depending on the type of vegetation present, a wildfire can also be classified more specifically as a forest fire, brush fire, bushfire (in Australia), desert fire, grass fire, hill fire, peat fire, prairie fire, vegetation fire, or veld fire.[2] Many organizations consider wildfire to mean an unplanned and unwanted fire,[3] while wild land-fire is a broader term that includes prescribed fire as well as wildland fire use (WFU; these are also called monitored response fires).[3][4]

The Rim Fire burned more than 250,000 acres (1,000 km2) of forest near Yosemite National Park, in 2013

Fossil charcoal indicates that wildfires began soon after the appearance of terrestrial plants 420 million years ago.[5] The occurrence of wildfires throughout the history of terrestrial life invites conjecture that fire must have had pronounced evolutionary effects on most ecosystems' flora and fauna.[6] Earth is an intrinsically flammable planet owing to its cover of carbon-rich vegetation, seasonally dry climates, atmospheric oxygen, and widespread lightning and volcanic ignitions.[6]

Wildfires can be characterized in terms of the cause of ignition, their physical properties, the combustible material present, and the effect of weather on the fire.[7] Wildfires can cause damage to property and human life, although naturally occurring wildfires [8] may have beneficial effects on native vegetation, animals, and ecosystems that have evolved with fire.[9][10] Wildfire behavior and severity result from a combination of factors such as available fuels, physical setting, and weather.[11][12][13][14] Analyses of historical meteorological data and national fire records in western North America show the primacy of climate in driving large regional fires via wet periods that create substantial fuels, or drought and warming that extend conducive fire weather.[15] Analyses of meteorological variables on wildfire risk have shown that relative humidity or precipitation can be used as good predictors for wildfire forecasting over the past several years.[16]

High-severity wildfire creates complex early seral forest habitat (also called "snag forest habitat"), which often has higher species richness and diversity than an unburned old forest. Many plant species depend on the effects of fire for growth and reproduction.[17] Wildfires in ecosystems where wildfire is uncommon or where non-native vegetation has encroached may have strongly negative ecological effects.[7]

Wildfires are among the most common forms of natural disaster in some regions, including Siberia, California, and Australia.[18][19][20] Areas with Mediterranean climates or in the taiga biome are particularly susceptible.

In the United States and other countries, aggressive wildfire suppression aimed at minimizing fire has contributed to accumulation of fuel loads, increasing the risk of large, catastrophic fires.[21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29] In the United States especially, this wildfire suppression curtailed traditional land management methods practiced by Indigenous Peoples.[30][31][32] Modern forest management taking an ecological perspective engages in controlled burns to mitigate this risk and promote natural forest life cycles.