William Henry Crossland


William Henry Crossland FRIBA (Yorkshire, 1835 – London, 14 November 1908),[2][3] known professionally as W.H. Crossland, was a 19th-century English architect and a pupil of George Gilbert Scott.[2] His architectural works included the design of three buildings that are now Grade I listed – Rochdale Town Hall, Holloway Sanatorium and Royal Holloway College.

William Henry Crossland
Born1835
Yorkshire, England
Died14 November 1908(1908-11-14) (aged 73)
London, England
NationalityEnglish
OccupationArchitect
Spouse(s)
Lavinia Cardwell Pigot
(m. 1859; died 1876)
Partner(s)Eliza Ruth Hatt (died 1892)
ChildrenTwo (one illegitimate)[1]
AwardsFellow of the Royal Institute of British Architects, 1867
Buildings

Early life and education


Crossland was born in 1835 to a family living in Huddersfield.[nb 1] He was the younger son of Henry Crossland, who is recorded in the 1851 census as being a farmer and quarry owner, and his wife, Ellen (née Wilkinson).[4] He had an elder brother, James, born in 1833.[5][6]

Crossland enrolled at Huddersfield College, where he excelled in writing and drawing.[7] In the early 1850s Crossland became a pupil of George Gilbert Scott at his architectural practice in London.[6] He worked with Scott on the design of the model village Akroydon, near Halifax, West Yorkshire, commissioned by the worsted manufacturer, Edward Akroyd.

Principal works


Crossland, who was elected a Fellow of the Royal Institute of British Architects in 1867,[8] developed his own architectural practice, with offices in Halifax and Leeds, before moving to London[9] and then, in 1879, opening an office in Egham, Surrey.[10] More than 25 of the buildings he designed are listed by Historic England.[11]

Crossland's three most important commissions, all now Grade I listed, were:

  • Holloway Sanatorium at Virginia Water, Surrey,[3] built 1873–85.[15] This was a project commissioned by the entrepreneur and philanthropist Thomas Holloway.[16] Historic England describe it as "the most elaborate and impressive Victorian lunatic asylum in England, because it was the most lavish to be built for private patients... The quality of the external design and the decoration of the principal spaces is exceptional". It is the only example of a Sanatorium to be listed at Grade I.[15] It was restored in 1997–98 and converted to luxury homes as part of a gated residential estate known as Virginia Park.[17]
  • Royal Holloway College, Egham, Surrey, built 1879–87. A short distance away from the Sanatorium, it was also commissioned by Thomas Holloway.[18] Now known as Founder's Building, it is the main building of a major college of the University of London; its cafe/bar is named "Crosslands".[19] Crossland's main floor plan for the college is on display in The Royal Holloway College Picture Gallery.[20]

The Holloway Sanatorium and Royal Holloway College were inspired by the Cloth Hall of Ypres in Belgium and the Château de Chambord[18] in the Loire Valley, France, respectively and are considered by some to be among the most remarkable buildings in the south of England.

Other significant works


In her biography of Crossland, published in 2020, Sheila Binns provides the most complete list yet of his architectural commissions, drawing on and supplementing earlier work by John Elliott,[21] itself based on a compilation by Edward Law.[3] Those that are listed by Historic England, many of them in Yorkshire, are included here.

Berkshire

LocationDescriptionDatesListingNotesRefsImages
SunninghillSt Michael and All Angels Church1887–89Grade IICrossland designed the memorial chapel to Thomas Holloway (whose funeral had taken place at the church) and also the rebuilding of the vestry and chancel.[22][23]

Greater Manchester

LocationDescriptionDatesListingNotesRefsImages
RochdaleChurch of St Chad1870–72Grade II*13th century and beyond; south aisle, porch and belfry by Crossland[24]

North Yorkshire

LocationDescriptionDatesListingNotesRefsImages
HawnbyAll Saints Church1863Grade II*This was Crossland's first known church restoration.[25][26]
KellingtonChurch of St Edmund King and Martyr12th century, restored by Crossland 1867–69Grade ICrossland's renovations included demolishing and rebuilding the north aisle and the south and east chancel walls and enlarging the chancel.[27][28]
MiddlesmoorChurch of St Chad1865–66, replacing a 14th-century churchGrade IISheila Binns quotes a contemporary account in The Ecclesiologist as saying that in basing his design on that of the 14th-century church Crossland treated it "with much dignity".[29][30]
Sutton-in-CravenChurch of St Thomas1868–69Grade IIThis was a new church building. It memorialises Thomas Bairstow, a local benefactor. The tower was designed to carry a spire that was never added.[31][32]

South Yorkshire

LocationDescriptionDatesListingNotesRefsImages
Hoylandswaine, near PenistoneChurch of St John the Evangelist1867–68Grade IIBinns describes it as a "small but substantial church, built to a high-quality of local stone for a small working class village".[33][34]
SheffieldChurch of St Mark, Broomhill1868–71Grade IIThe church building, except for the tower, was destroyed in the Second World War.[35][36]

West Yorkshire

LocationDescriptionDatesListingNotesRefsImages
AlmondburyAll Hallows ChurchDating from the 13th century, it was restored by Crossland 1872–76Grade IMuch of the work was funded by local landowner Sir John Ramsden.[37][38]
BirstallSt Peter's ChurchFounded c.1100 and rebuilt by Crossland 1863–70, except for the medieval towerGrade II*Historic England say that it "demonstrates well" Crossland's "preference for the Decorated style and taste for lavish decoration".[39]
CopleySt Stephen's Church1861–65Grade II*This church building, commissioned by Edward Akroyd, is now redundant and is under the care of the Churches Conservation Trust.[40][41] [42][43]
Elland Church of St MaryBuilt mainly in the 13th and 14th centuries and restored by Crossland 1865–66Grade IAs a child, Crossland had been baptised in this church.[44][45]
Far Headingley, Leeds St Chad's Church1864–68Grade II*Designed by Crossland and Edmund Beckett Denison (later 1st Baron Grimthorpe), the church was built on land given by the Beckett family of Kirkstall Grange who paid £10,000 towards it.[46][47]
FlocktonChurch of St James the Great1866–67Grade IIAccording to Binns, "the church was built largely due to the efforts and at the personal expense of the incumbent at the time, the Reverend Robert Jackson French".[48][49]
Huddersfield1–11 Railway Street and 20–26 Westgate (former Ramsden Estate Office)1868–74Grade IIThis was commissioned by Sir John Ramsden; the Ramsden family then owned much of Huddersfield.[50][51][52][53]
HuddersfieldByram Buildings (now known as Byram Arcade) 10–18 Westgate1875–81Grade IIThis was commissioned by Sir John Ramsden.[54][55][56][57]
HuddersfieldKirkgate Buildings1877–85Grade IICommissioned by Sir John Ramsden, this was a speculative development of office space and shops, originally called Bulstrode Buildings.[11][58]
HuddersfieldLongley New Hall1870–75Grade IIThis rebuilding of a property built in the 1860s was commissioned by Sir John Ramsden as a house for his family; it became a school in the 1920s. Crossland also drew up plans for alterations to Longley Old Hall, on a nearby site.[59][60]
HuddersfieldSt Andrew's Church, Leeds Road1869–70Grade IIThis church building was declared redundant in 1975. The Victorian Society included it on a list in 2017 of the top ten endangered Victorian or Edwardian buildings in England and Wales that have been neglected and are now at risk.[61][62]
Bradley, HuddersfieldSt Thomas's Church1859–68Grade IIOne of Crossland's earliest commissions, the church building was declared redundant in 1975. Historic England say that the church "is notable for the vitality of detail typical of the decade" and "is carefully sited on sloping ground, with asymmetrical south tower and spire placed so as to maximise the effect of its silhouette".[63][64][65]
HuddersfieldSomerset Buildings1881–83Grade IIHistoric England say that "its eclectic C19 Queen Anne styling displays a strong level of architectural flair, incorporating French and Flemish Renaissance influenced detailing to successful effect... it has strong group value with nearby listed buildings, a number of which were also designed by Crossland".[66]
HuddersfieldWaverley Chambers1881–83Grade IISoon after this commercial building was built, it became a temperance hotel and later was used as offices.[67]
Ossett, WakefieldChurch of the Holy Trinity1862–65Grade II*This was Crossland's first large church building.[68][69]
StaincliffeChrist Church1866–67Grade IIHistoric England describe the church building as "unfinished". Cuts to the budget meant that its exterior was not completed to Crossland's original designs.[70][71][72]

Later life


Crossland's last entry in the RIBA's records was in 1894–95. There is no record of him undertaking any work after 1900, when he ceased to be architectural adviser to Royal Holloway.[73]

Personal and family life


Family vault of William Henry Crossland in Highgate Cemetery (east side)

On 1 October 1859,[3][74] Crossland married Lavinia Cardwell Pigot (who died in Boulogne, France on 17 January 1876).[75][nb 2] They had one child – a daughter, Maud, who was born on 10 July 1860[76] and died on 8 March 1900.[77] Crossland also had an illegitimate son, Cecil Henry Crossland Hatt (born 1877), with his second (common law) wife, (Eliza) Ruth Hatt (née Tilley; 1853–1892). She became a well-known actress, using the stage name Ruth Rutland,[78] and they lived together in a bungalow on the Royal Holloway site, designed by Crossland and built in 1878 as a home for himself and his family while he oversaw Holloway College's construction.[79][80]

Crossland died at 57 Albert Street, Camden, London on 14 November 1908 following a stroke.[2][3][81] His wife Lavinia, his brother James Crossland, his common-law wife Eliza Ruth Hatt,[nb 3] his daughter Maud Lart, his parents-in-law and his stepson Benjamin Tilley Hatt are buried in a family vault at Highgate Cemetery. Although Crossland's will specifically stated that he and his son should be interred there, neither of them is in the family vault.[82] Crossland's place of burial is unknown.[82][83]

Crossland was survived by his son Cecil (by then known as Cecil Hatt Crossland) and two grand-daughters – Maud and her husband William Lart's daughter Dorothea Maud (born 1881),[84] and Cecil and his wife Lucy's daughter Beryl Joan (born 1905).[85]

Notes


  1. Edward Law points out that as "despite extensive searches no record can be found of his baptism" his precise date and place of birth remains unknown.
    Law, Part 1. Retrieved 18 February 2021.
  2. Although other sources claim that Crosswell's wife Lavinia died in 1879, Sheila Binns' research demonstrates that this date cannot be correct. The family plot in Highgate Cemetery (at Grave no. 23287, Square 70) was not bought until 1879 and Binns concludes that she must have been interred temporarily elsewhere.
    Binns, p. 159.
  3. Although there is no evidence that Crossland married Hatt, the inscription on her grave reads "Ruth, wife, companion, friend of W H Crossland...".
    Law, Part 3. Retrieved 18 February 2021.

References


  1. Binns, p. 162.
  2. Elliott, John. Crossland, William Henry. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  3. Elliott, John (1996). Palaces, Patronage & Pills – Thomas Holloway: His Sanatorium, College & Picture Gallery. Egham, Surrey: Royal Holloway, University of London. pp. 17–43. ISBN 0-900145-99-4.
  4. Law, Part 1. Retrieved 18 February 2021.
  5. Binns, p. 1.
  6. "William Henry Crossland (1835–1908)". Huddersfield Exposed. 17 September 2019. Retrieved 2 February 2021.
  7. Binns, pp. 3–4.
  8. Bull, Malcolm (22 December 2017). "Crossland, William Henry". Malcolm Bull's Calderdale Companion. Retrieved 8 February 2021.
  9. Binns, pp. 11, 32.
  10. Binns, p. 168.
  11. Historic England (29 March 2016). "Kirkgate Buildings (1415453)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 31 January 2021.
  12. Hartwell, Clare; Hyde, Matthew; Pevsner, Nikolaus (2004). Lancashire: Manchester and the South-East. The Buildings of England. Yale University Press. p. 59. ISBN 0-300-10583-5.
  13. Rochdale Metropolitan Borough Council. Metropolitan Rochdale Official Guide. Ed J Burrow & Co. p. 43.
  14. Historic England (25 October 1951). "Town Hall (1084275)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 31 January 2021.
  15. Historic England (17 November 1986). "Former Holloway Sanatorium at Virginia Water (1189632)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 31 January 2021.
  16. Binns, Sheila (13 October 2020). "Surrey Greats: Who was Royal Holloway architect William H Crossland?". Surrey Life. Retrieved 31 January 2021.
  17. Richardson, Harriet (5 March 2016). "Holloway Sanatorium – garish or gorgeous?". Historic Hospitals. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  18. Historic England (17 November 1986). "Royal Holloway College (1028946)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 31 January 2021.
  19. "Crosslands". Royal Holloway, University of London. Retrieved 2 February 2021.
  20. Wintour, Joan (July 2011). "The Royal Holloway College Picture Gallery". Royal Holloway, University of London. Retrieved 18 February 2021.
  21. Binns, pp. 239–242.
  22. Historic England (10 August 1951). "Church of St Michael and All Angels (1119826)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 6 February 2021.
  23. Binns, p. 217.
  24. Historic England (25 October 1951). "Church of St Chad (1045812)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 18 February 2021.
  25. Binns, p. 31.
  26. Historic England (4 January 1955). "Church of All Saints (1191164)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 18 February 2021.
  27. Binns, pp. 73–74.
  28. Historic England (11 December 1967). "Church of St Edmund (1148402)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 18 February 2021.
  29. Binns, pp. 51, 53.
  30. Historic England (6 March 1967). "Church of St Chad (1174129)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  31. Binns, pp. 84–86.
  32. Historic England (23 October 1984). "Church of St Thomas (1317021)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 8 February 2021.
  33. Historic England (27 April 1988). "Church of St John the Evangelist (1315075)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  34. Binns, p. 76.
  35. Pevsner, Nikolaus; Radcliffe, Enid (1967). Yorkshire: The West Riding. The Buildings of England. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. p. 458. ISBN 0-14-0710-17-5.
  36. Historic England (28 June 1973). "Church of St Mark (1247190)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 17 February 2021.
  37. Historic England (3 March 1952). "Church of All Hallows (1225096)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 18 February 2021.
  38. Binns, pp.121–129.
  39. Historic England (29 March 1963). "Church of St Peter (1134648)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 2 February 2021.
  40. Historic England (6 June 1983). "Church of St Stephen (1133985)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 31 January 2021.
  41. Binns, pp. 24–26.
  42. Law, Part 2. Retrieved 18 February 2021.
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  44. Historic England (24 January 1988). "Church of St Mary (1184393)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 2 February 2021.
  45. Binns, pp. 53–54.
  46. Wrathmell, Susan; Minnis, John (2005). Leeds. Pevsner Architectural Guides. Yale University Press. pp. 260–262. ISBN 0-300-10736-6.
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  48. Historic England (16 May 1984). "Church of St James the Great (1313327)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 17 February 2021.
  49. Binns, pp. 65–67.
  50. Historic England (29 September 1978). "1–11 Railway Street (1231474)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  51. Historic England (25 March 1977). "20–26 Westgate (1224850)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  52. "Railway Street: Ramsden Estate Office". Buildings of Huddersfield. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  53. Binns, p. 2.
  54. Historic England (29 September 1978). "The Byram Arcade (1224912)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  55. "Westgate: The Byram Arcade 10–18". Buildings of Huddersfield. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  56. Law, Part 6. Retrieved 18 February 2021.
  57. Binns, p. 241.
  58. Binns, pp. 180–186.
  59. Historic England (8 June 2004). "Longley New Hall (1390979)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 31 January 2021.
  60. Binns, pp. 129–131.
  61. Historic England (29 September 2018). "Former Church of St Andrew (1214957)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 31 January 2021.
  62. "Victorian Society marks 10 years of endangered buildings campaign with new top 10 list". The Victorian Society. 12 September 2017. Retrieved 17 February 2021.
  63. Binns, pp.10–11.
  64. Historic England (26 April 1976). "Former church of St Thomas (1273979)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 2 February 2021.
  65. "St. Thomas's Church, Bradley". Huddersfield Exposed. 3 November 2019. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  66. Historic England (29 March 2016). "Somerset Buildings (1415451)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  67. Historic England (9 October 2013). "Waverley Chambers (1415452)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  68. Historic England (6 May 1988). "Church of the Holy Trinity (1184049)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  69. Binns, pp. 28–29.
  70. Historic England (13 January 1984). "Christ Church (1134612)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  71. "Christ Church, Staincliffe Hall Road". Historic England. Retrieved 31 January 2021.
  72. Binns, pp. 74–76.
  73. Binns, p. 232.
  74. Binns, p. 11.
  75. Binns, p. 159.
  76. Binns p. 16.
  77. Binns, p. 233.
  78. Binns, pp. 219–225.
  79. Binns, pp. 169–170.
  80. "Crossland's Bungalow, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham". Surrey Archaeological Society. Retrieved 20 February 2021.
  81. Binns, pp. 235–236.
  82. Binns, p. 236.
  83. Law, Part 3. Retrieved 18 February 2021.
  84. Binns, p. 173.
  85. Binns, p. 234.

Sources