Women in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom


The representation of women in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom has been an issue in the politics of the United Kingdom at numerous points in the 20th and 21st centuries. Originally debate centred on whether women should be allowed to vote and stand for election as Members of Parliament. The Parliament (Qualification of Women) Act 1918 gave women over 21 the right to stand for election as a Member of Parliament. The United Kingdom has had two female Prime Ministers: Margaret Thatcher (1979–1990) and Theresa May (2016–2019). The publication of the book Women in the House by Elizabeth Vallance in 1979 highlighted the under-representation of women in Parliament.[1] In more modern times concerns about the under-representation of women led the Labour Party to introduce all-women short lists, something which was later held to breach discrimination laws.

Constance Markievicz was the first woman elected to the British Parliament

Between 1918 and 2021, a total of 554 women have been elected as Members of the House of Commons. As of May 2021 there are 220 women in the House of Commons, the highest ever. This is a new all-time high at 34% and is the first time that female representation in the House of Commons is at more than a third.[2] The previous number was 208, set in 2017, which accounted for 32% of members elected or re-elected that year.[3] Additionally, at the 2019 general election more female than male Labour MPs were elected or re-elected (104 women out of 202 MPs in total) – the first time in Labour's history that this has happened.[4][5] The female member of Parliament with the longest period of continuous service is currently informally known as the Mother of the House.

Suffrage


In 1832 Henry Hunt became the first MP to raise the issue of women's suffrage in the House of Commons,[6] followed in 1867 by John Stuart Mill. Following this attempts were made to widen the franchise in every Parliament.[7]

Women gained the right to vote with the passing of the Representation of the People Act 1918 after World War I. This gave the vote to women over the age of 30. However, the Speakers Conference which was charged with looking into giving women the vote did not have as its terms of reference, consideration to women standing as candidates for Parliament. However, Sir Herbert Samuel, the former Liberal Home Secretary, moved a separate motion on 23 October 1918 to allow women to be eligible as Members of Parliament. The vote was passed by 274 to 25 and the government rushed through a bill to make it law in time for the 1918 general election.[8] This bill did not specify any age restriction, unlike the voting bill.[9] This later led to a number of incidents of women under the age of 30, who were not allowed to vote, standing for Parliament, notably the 27-year-old Liberal Ursula Williams standing in 1923.[10]

Landmarks and records


Political firsts for women in House of Commons

Records

Margaret Beckett is the longest serving female MP in the history of the House of Commons. She was an MP for Lincoln from 10 October 1974 until 7 April 1979, and has served as MP for Derby South since 9 June 1983, most recently being re-elected on 12 December 2019.

Harriet Harman is the longest continuously serving female MP in the history of the House of Commons. She was MP for Peckham from 28 October 1982 until 1 May 1997, and has served as MP for Camberwell and Peckham since 1 May 1997, most recently having been re-elected on 12 December 2019. On 13 June 2017 Harman was dubbed "Mother of the House" by Prime Minister Theresa May, in recognition of her status as longest continuously serving woman MP (though she was not the longest serving MP overall, and would therefore not gain any official duties).

Longest-serving female MPs

Party Name Constituency Year elected Year left Length of continuous term Length of cumulative term
Labour Diane Abbott[lower-alpha 1] Hackney North and Stoke Newington 1987 Still serving 33 years, 11 months
Labour Margaret Beckett[lower-alpha 2] Lincoln & Derby South 1974 & 1983 1979 & Still serving 37 years, 11 months 42 years, 5 months
Speaker[lower-alpha 3] Betty Boothroyd[lower-alpha 4] West Bromwich & West Bromwich West 1973 2000 27 years, 3 months
Labour Barbara Castle[lower-alpha 5] Blackburn 1945 1979 33 years, 9 months
Labour Ann Clwyd[lower-alpha 1] Cynon Valley 1984 2019 35 years, 6 months
Change UK [lower-alpha 6] Ann Coffey Stockport 1992 2019 27 years, 6 months
Labour Freda Corbet Camberwell North West & Peckham 1945 1974 28 years, 7 months
Labour Gwyneth Dunwoody[lower-alpha 7] Exeter, Crewe & Crewe and Nantwich 1966 & 1974 1970 & 2008 34 years, 1 month 38 years, 3 months
Labour Angela Eagle[lower-alpha 2] Wallasey 1992 Still serving 29 years, 1 month
Conservative Cheryl Gillan[lower-alpha 2] Chesham and Amersham 1992 2021 28 years, 11 months
Labour Harriet Harman[lower-alpha 8] Peckham & Camberwell and Peckham 1982 Still serving 38 years, 6 months
Labour Judith Hart[lower-alpha 9] Lanark & Clydesdale 1959 1987 27 years, 7 months
Labour Kate Hoey[lower-alpha 10] Vauxhall 1989 2019 30 years, 6 months
Conservative Jill Knight[lower-alpha 11] Birmingham Edgbaston 1966 1997 31 years
Labour Jennie Lee[lower-alpha 12] North Lanarkshire & Cannock 1929 & 1945 1931 & 1970 24 years, 10 months 27 years, 6 months
Labour[lower-alpha 13] Megan Lloyd George[lower-alpha 14] Anglesey & Carmarthen 1929 & 1957 1951 & 1966 22 years, 4 months 31 years, 6 months
Labour Dawn Primarolo[lower-alpha 15] Bristol South 1987 2015 27 years, 9 months
Conservative Margaret Thatcher[lower-alpha 16] Finchley 1959 1992 32 years, 5 months
Labour Joan Walley Stoke-on-Trent North 1987 2015 27 years, 9 months
Conservative Irene Ward[lower-alpha 17] Wallsend & Tynemouth 1931 & 1950 1945 & 1974 23 years, 11 months 37 years, 7 months

Current representation


As of May 2021, there are 220 female MPs in the House of Commons.

Political party
Number of MPs Number of female MPs Percentage of party's MPs Percentage of female MPs
House of Commons[2] 648 220 34% 100%
Conservative 365 87 24% 40%
Labour 198 102 52% 47%
SNP 45 16 36% 7%
Liberal Democrats 11 7 64% 3%
DUP 8 1 13% <1%
Sinn Féin 7 2 29% 1%
Plaid Cymru 3 1 33% <1%
SDLP 2 1 50% <1%
Alba 2 0 0% 0%
Green 1 1 100% <1%
Alliance 1 0 0% 0%
Independent 4 1 25% <1%
  Speaker
1 0 0% 0%


In February 2018 the Electoral Reform Society reported that hundreds of seats were being effectively 'reserved' by men, holding back women’s representation. Their report states that 170 seats are being held by men first elected in 2005 or before – with few opportunities for women to take those seats or selections. Broadly speaking, the longer an MP has been in Parliament, the more likely they are to be male.[16][17]

Winner's gender by number of MPs[16][17]
MP for this seat since:TotalFemaleMale% F% M
2001 or before 1432112214.7%85.3%
2005 or before 2124217019.8%80.2%
2010 or before 3809328724.5%75.5%
2015 or before 54516737830.6%69.4%
2018 or before 65020844232.0%68.0%
2019 (all MPs)[2] 65022043033.9%66.1%

Current female Cabinet members (Conservative Party)

Historic representation


2019 election

In the 2019 general election, 220 women were elected, making up 34% of the House of Commons, up from 208 and 32% before the election.[18]

As elected in the 2019 general election[18]
Political party
Number of MPs Number of female MPs Percentage of party's MPs Percentage of female MPs
House of Commons 650 220 34% 100%
Conservative 365 87 24% 40%
Labour 202 104 51% 47%
SNP 48 16 33% 7%
Liberal Democrats 11 7 64% 3%
DUP 8 1 13% <1%
Sinn Féin 7 2 29% <1%
Plaid Cymru 4 1 25% <1%
SDLP 2 1 50% <1%
Alliance 1 0 0% 0%
Green 1 1 100% <1%
  Speaker
1 0 0% 0%
By-elections following the 2019 election
By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause
Hartlepool 6 May 2021[19] Mike Hill Labour Jill Mortimer Conservative Resignation following allegations of sexual harassment and victimisation.[20]
Airdrie and Shotts 13 May 2021[21] Neil Gray SNP Anum Qaisar-Javed[22] SNP Resignation to contest the seat of Airdrie and Shotts in the Scottish Parliament.
Defections and suspensions following the 2019 election
Name Date From To Constituency Reason
Claudia Webbe 28 September 2020 Labour Independent Leicester East Whip withdrawn after being charged with harassing a woman.[23]
Margaret Ferrier 1 October 2020 SNP Independent Rutherglen and Hamilton West Whip withdrawn after breaching COVID-19 rules.[24]
Female Cabinet members appointed after the 2019 election

2017 election

In the 2017 general election, 208 women were elected, making up 32% of the House of Commons, up from 191 and 29% before the election.[3]

As elected in the 2017 general election[25][26]
Political party
Number of MPs Number of female MPs Percentage of party's MPs Percentage of female MPs
House of Commons 650 208 32% 100%
Conservative 317 67 21% 32%
Labour 262 119 45% 57%
SNP 35 12 34% 6%
Liberal Democrats 12 4 33% 2%
DUP 10 1 10% <1%
Sinn Féin 7 2 29% <1%
Plaid Cymru 4 1 25% <1%
Green 1 1 100% <1%
Independent 1 1 100% <1%
  Speaker
1 0 0% 0%
By-elections following the 2017 election
By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause
West Tyrone 3 May 2018 Barry McElduff Sinn Féin Órfhlaith Begley Sinn Féin Resignation after a social media post he made caused controversy.[27][28]
Lewisham East 14 June 2018 Heidi Alexander Labour Janet Daby Labour Resignation on appointment as Deputy Mayor of London.[29][30]
Newport West 4 April 2019 Paul Flynn Labour Ruth Jones Labour Death (long illness).[31][32]
Peterborough 6 June 2019 Fiona Onasanya Labour Lisa Forbes Labour Successful recall petition via the provisions of the Recall of MPs Act 2015, after Onasanya's conviction for perverting the course of justice, in relation to a motoring offence.[33][34]
Brecon and Radnorshire 1 August 2019 Chris Davies Conservative Jane Dodds Liberal Democrats Successful recall petition via the provisions of the Recall of MPs Act 2015, after Davies' conviction for false expenses claims, pursuant to the Parliamentary Standards Act 2009.[35][36]
Defections and suspensions following the 2017 election
Name Date From To Constituency Reason
Anne Marie Morris 10 July 2017 Conservative Independent Newton Abbot Suspended from the Conservatives, pending investigation over using the remark "nigger in the woodpile".[37] Later reinstated.[38]
12 December 2017 Independent Conservative
Fiona Onasanya 19 December 2018 Labour Independent Peterborough Suspended from Labour after being convicted of perverting the course of justice.[39] Expelled from Labour in January 2019.[40] Removed from office on 1 May 2019 by a recall petition.[41]
Luciana Berger 18 February 2019 Labour Co-op Change UK Liverpool Wavertree Resigned from Labour, citing party's approach to Brexit and antisemitism.[42]
4 June 2019 Change UK Independent Left Change UK following in order to "work cross party" and "respond flexibly".[43]
10 July 2019 Independent The Independents Formed new political grouping.
5 September 2019 The Independents Liberal Democrats Joined the Liberal Democrats, citing the "moment of national crisis", as the most effective party to stop Brexit.[44]
Ann Coffey 18 February 2019 Labour Change UK Stockport Resigned from Labour, citing party's approach to Brexit and antisemitism.[42]
Angela Smith 18 February 2019 Labour Change UK Penistone and Stocksbridge Resigned from Labour, citing party's approach to Brexit and antisemitism.[42]
4 June 2019 Change UK Independent Left Change UK following in order to "work cross party" and "respond flexibly".[43]
10 July 2019 Independent The Independents Formed new political grouping.
7 September 2019 The Independents Liberal Democrats Defected to the Liberal Democrats.[45]
Joan Ryan 19 February 2019 Labour Change UK Enfield North Resigned from Labour, citing party's approach to Brexit and antisemitism.[42]
Anna Soubry 20 February 2019 Conservative Change UK Broxtowe Resigned from the Conservatives in response to its perceived move to the political right, such as "Hard Brexit" policies.[46]
Heidi Allen 20 February 2019 Conservative Change UK South Cambridgeshire
4 June 2019 Change UK Independent Wanted to "work cross party" and "respond flexibly".[43]
10 July 2019 Independent The Independents Formed new political grouping.
7 October 2019 The Independents Liberal Democrats Joined the Lib Dems, citing effectiveness as part of a team, rejecting the status quo, and stopping Brexit.[47]
Sarah Wollaston 20 February 2019 Conservative Change UK Totnes Resigned from the Conservatives in response to its perceived move to the political right, such as "Hard Brexit" policies.[46]
4 June 2019 Change UK Independent Wanted to "work cross party" and "respond flexibly".[43]
14 August 2019 Independent Liberal Democrats Joined the Lib Dems to make the case for the UK to "remain at the heart of Europe".[48]
Justine Greening 3 September 2019 Conservative Independent Putney Suspended from the Conservatives after voting against the Government, on a motion to allow Parliament to control the order paper in order to introduce a bill to prevent a no-deal Brexit.[49][50]
Anne Milton Conservative Independent Guildford
Antoinette Sandbach Conservative Independent Eddisbury
31 October 2019 Independent Liberal Democrats Joined the Lib Dems, citing progressive centre-ground liberal values and the two main parties "floating off to two extremes".[51]
Margot James 3 September 2019 Conservative Independent Stourbridge Suspended from the Conservatives on 3 September (see above). Whip restored 29 October alongside after meeting with the Prime Minister; standing down at the next election or agreed to support his Withdrawal Agreement if re-elected.[52]
29 October 2019 Independent Conservative
Caroline Nokes 3 September 2019 Conservative Independent Romsey and Southampton North
29 October 2019 Independent Conservative
Amber Rudd 7 September 2019 Conservative Independent Hastings and Rye Resigned, saying leaving the EU with a deal was no longer HM Government's main objective and objecting to deselection of "The 21".[53]
Louise Ellman 17 October 2019 Labour Co-op Independent Liverpool Riverside Resigned from Labour over antisemitism in the party, saying that Jeremy Corbyn is "not fit" to become prime minister.[54]
Female Cabinet members appointed after the 2017 election
  • Theresa May – Prime Minister
  • Liz Truss – Secretary of State for International Trade/President of the Board of Trade
  • Thérèse Coffey – Secretary of State for Work and Pensions (2019)
  • Baroness Evans of Bowes Park – Leader of the House of Lords
  • Penny Mordaunt – Secretary of State for Defence
  • Karen Bradley – Secretary of State for Northern Ireland
  • Andrea Leadsom – Secretary of State for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy
  • Priti Patel – Secretary of State for the Home Department
  • Theresa Villiers – Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs
  • Nicky Morgan – Secretary of State for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport
  • Esther McVey – Secretary of State for Work and Pensions (2018)
  • Amber Rudd – Secretary of State for Work and Pensions (2018–19)

2015 election

In the 2015 general election, 191 women were elected, making up 29% of the House of Commons, up from 141 and 23% before the election.[25]

Political party
Number of MPs Number of female MPs Percentage of party's MPs Percentage of female MPs
House of Commons 650 191 29% 100%
Conservative 330 68 21% 36%
Labour 232 99 43% 52%
SNP 56 20 36% 10%
Liberal Democrats 8 0 0% 0%
DUP 8 0 0% 0%
Sinn Féin 4 0 0% 0%
Plaid Cymru 3 1 33% <1%
SDLP 3 1 33% <1%
UUP 2 0 0% 0%
UKIP 1 0 0% 0%
Green 1 1 100% <1%
Independent 1 1 100% <1%
  Speaker
1 0 0% 0%
By-elections following the 2015 election
By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause
Sheffield Brightside and Hillsborough 5 May 2016 Harry Harpham Labour Gill Furniss Labour Death.[55]
Tooting 16 June 2016 Sadiq Khan Labour Rosena Allin-Khan Labour Resignation to become Mayor of London.[56]
Batley and Spen 20 October 2016 Jo Cox Labour Tracy Brabin Labour Assassination.
Richmond Park 1 December 2016 Zac Goldsmith Conservative Sarah Olney Liberal Democrats Resignation over third Heathrow runway.[57]
Sleaford and North Hykeham 8 December 2016 Stephen Phillips Conservative Caroline Johnson Conservative Resignation due to policy differences over Brexit.[58]
Copeland 23 February 2017 Jamie Reed Labour Trudy Harrison Conservative Resignation to take job in nuclear industry.[59]
Defections and suspensions following the 2015 election
Name Date From To Constituency Reason
Michelle Thomson 29 September 2015 SNP Independent Edinburgh West Resigned the SNP whip after her business became the subject of a police investigation into alleged irregularities regarding property deals.[60]
Natalie McGarry 24 November 2015 SNP Independent Glasgow East Resigned the SNP whip after police investigation over financial discrepancies within Women for Independence, an organisation of which she is a founder.[61]
Naz Shah 27 April 2016 Labour Independent Bradford West Suspended from Labour, pending investigation into social media comments which she made, including proposing the relocation of Israel to North America.[62]
5 July 2016 Independent Labour Reinstated.[63]
Female Cabinet members appointed after the 2015 election

2010 election

As elected in the 2010 general election.

Political party
Number of MPs Number of female MPs Percentage of party's MPs Percentage of female MPs
House of Commons 650 143 22% 100%
Conservative 306 49 16% 34%
Labour 258 81 31% 57%
Liberal Democrats 57 7 12% 5%
DUP 8 0 0% 0%
SNP 6 1 17% 0.7%
Sinn Féin 5 1 20% 0.7%
Plaid Cymru 3 0 0% 0%
SDLP 3 1 33% 0.7%
Alliance 1 1 100% 0.7%
Green 1 1 100% 0.7%
Independent 1 1 100% <1%
  Speaker
1 0 0% 0%

[64]

By-elections following the 2010 election
By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause
Oldham East and Saddleworth 13 January 2011 Phil Woolas Labour Debbie Abrahams Labour General election result declared null and void due to illegal election practices during the campaign.[65][66]
Feltham and Heston 15 December 2011 Alan Keen Labour Seema Malhotra Labour Co-op Death (cancer).[67]
Manchester Central 15 November 2012 Tony Lloyd Labour Lucy Powell Labour Co-op Resigned to contest the Police and Crime Commissioner elections.
Rotherham 29 November 2012 Denis MacShane Labour Sarah Champion Labour Resigned after parliamentary inquiry into his falsification of expenses claims.[68]
South Shields 2 May 2013 David Miliband Labour Emma Lewell-Buck Labour Resigned to become head of the International Rescue Committee
Heywood and Middleton 9 October 2014 Jim Dobbin Labour Co-op Liz McInnes Labour Death (acute alcohol toxicity)
Defections and suspensions following the 2010 election
Name Date From To Constituency Reason
Nadine Dorries 6 November 2012 Conservative Independent Mid Bedfordshire Suspended from the Conservatives after her unauthorised participation in a TV programme.[69]
8 May 2013 Independent Conservative Reinstated.[70]
Female Cabinet members appointed after the 2010 election

A total of 46 female ministers have held Cabinet positions since the first, Margaret Bondfield, in 1929. Tony Blair’s 1997 Cabinet had five women and was the first to include more than two female ministers at one time. The highest number of concurrent women Cabinet ministers under Tony Blair was eight (36 per cent), under Tony Blair (then a record) from May 2006 – May 2007. Other women have attended Cabinet without being full members, including Caroline Flint, Anna Soubry and Caroline Nokes. Some who have attended Cabinet have subsequently, or previously been full Cabinet Ministers, including Tessa Jowell, Liz Truss and Andrea Leadsom.

Women Cabinet Ministers 1929–present
1929–31 Margaret Bondfield (Lab)
1945–47 Ellen Wilkinson (Lab)
1953–54 Florence Horsbrugh (Con)
1964–70/74–6 Barbara Castle (Lab)
1968–69 Judith Hart (Lab)
1970–74/79–90 Margaret Thatcher (Con)
1974–79 Shirley Williams (Lab)
1982–83 Baroness Young (Con)
1992–97 Gillian Shephard (Con)
1992–97 Virginia Bottomley (Con)
1997–2007
(attended Cabinet 2008–09)
Margaret Beckett (Lab)
1997–2001 Ann Taylor (Lab)
1997–98/2007–10 Harriet Harman (Lab)
1997–2001 Mo Mowlam (Lab)
1997–2003 Clare Short (Lab)
1998–2001 Baroness Jay of Paddington (Lab)
2001–03 Helen Liddell (Lab)
2001–02 Estelle Morris (Lab)
2001–07 Hilary Armstrong (Lab)
2001–07 Patricia Hewitt (Lab)
2001–07/09–10
(attended Cabinet 2007–09)
Tessa Jowell (Lab)
2003–07 Baroness Amos (Lab)
2004–08 Ruth Kelly (Lab)
2006–09 Hazel Blears (Lab)
2006–09 Jacqui Smith (Lab)
2007–08 Cathy Baroness Ashton of Upholland (Lab)
2008–10 Yvette Cooper (Lab)
2008–10 Baroness Royall of Blaisdon (Lab)
2010–12 Caroline Spelman (Con)
2010–12 Cheryl Gillan (Con)
2010–12 Baroness Warsi (Con)
2010–19 Theresa May (Con)
2011–18 Justine Greening (Con)
2012–14 Maria Miller (Con)
2012–16/19–20 Theresa Villiers (Con)
2014–16 (as Nicky Morgan)/19–20 Baroness Morgan of Cotes (Con)
2014–17/19–
(attended Cabinet 2017–19)
Elizabeth Truss (Con)
2014–16 Baroness Stowell of Beeston (Con)
2015–18/18–19 Amber Rudd (Con)
2016– Baroness Evans of Bowes Park (Con)
2016–19 Karen Bradley (Con)
2016–17/19–20
(attended Cabinet 2017–19)
Andrea Leadsom (Con)
2016–17/19– Priti Patel (Con)
2017–19 Penny Mordaunt (Con)
2018/19
(attended Cabinet 2019–20)
Esther McVey (Con)
2019– Thérèse Coffey (Con)
2020 Anne-Marie Trevelyan (Con)
2020– Amanda Milling (Con)
Women junior ministers in the Cabinet
1968–69 Judith Hart (Lab)
2007–09 Caroline Flint (Lab)
2007–09 Beverley Hughes (Lab)
2007–10 Baroness Scotland of Asthal (Lab)
2009–10 Dawn Primarolo (Lab)
2009–10 Rosie Winterton (Lab)
2014–16 Baroness Anelay of St Johns (Con)
2015–16 Anna Soubry (Con)
2018–19 Caroline Nokes (Con)
2018–19 Claire Perry (Con)
2020–21
(on leave)
Suella Braverman (Con)

All-women shortlists

All-women shortlists are a method of affirmative action which has been used by the Labour Party to increase the representation of women in Parliament. As of 2015, 117 Labour MPs have been elected to the House of Commons after being selected as candidates through an all-women shortlist.[71] In 2002 this method of selection was ruled to breach the Sex Discrimination Act 1975. In response to this ruling the Sex Discrimination (Election Candidates) Act 2002 legalised all-women short lists as a method of selection. The Equality Act 2010 extends this exemption from discrimination law to 2030.

See also


Notes


  1. PC
  2. DBE
  3. Served as a Labour MP, 1973–1992.
  4. OM, PC, Hon. FSLL. First female Speaker of the House of Commons. She was made a life peer as Baroness Boothroyd, of Sandwell in the County of West Midlands, in 2001.
  5. Wife of Edward Castle, Baron Castle. She was made a life peer as Baroness Castle of Blackburn, in 1990.
  6. Served as a Labour MP, 1992–February 2019, then as a Change UK MP until Parliament dissolved for the 2019 general election in November 2019.
  7. Daughter of Morgan Phillips & Norah Phillips, Baroness Phillips. Mother of Tamsin Dunwoody.
  8. QC
  9. DBE. She was made a life peer as Baroness Hart of South Lanark in 1988.
  10. She was made a life peer as Baroness Hoey, of Lylehill and Rathlin in the County of Antrim, in 2020.
  11. DBE. She was made a life peer as Baroness Knight of Collingtree in 1997.
  12. Elected in 1929 from the Independent Labour Party. Married to fellow MP Anuerin Bevan. She was made a life peer as Baroness Lee of Asheridge, of the City of Westminster in 1970.[15]
  13. Served as a Liberal MP for Anglesey, 1929-1951, then as a Labour MP for Carmarthen, 1957–1966.
  14. CM. Daughter of former Prime Minister David Lloyd George, himself an MP for 54 years, 10 months (continuous) and sister of Gwilym Lloyd George, Viscount Tenby (himself an MP for 27 years, 11 months combined).
  15. She was made a life peer as Baroness Primarolo, of Windmill Hill in the City of Bristol, in 2015.
  16. CH. First female Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. She was made a life peer as Baroness Thatcher, of Kesteven in the County of Lincolnshire, in 1992.
  17. CH, DBE. She was made a life peer as Baroness Ward of North Tyneside, of North Tyneside in the County of Tyne and Wear, in 1975.
  18. On leave from 2 March 2021
  19. Attends Cabinet meetings, but not official Cabinet minister

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Further reading