World population

In demographics, the world population is the total number of humans currently living, and was estimated to have exceeded 7.9 billion people as of November 2021.[2] It took over 2 million years of human prehistory and history for the world's population to reach 1 billion[3] and only 200 years more to grow to 7 billion.[4]

High, medium, and low projections of the future human world population[1]

The world population has experienced continuous growth following the Great Famine of 1315–1317 and the end of the Black Death in 1350, when it was near 370 million.[5] The highest global population growth rates, with increases of over 1.8% per year, occurred between 1955 and 1975  peaking at 2.1% between 1965 and 1970.[6] The growth rate declined to 1.2% between 2010 and 2015 and is projected to decline further in the course of the 21st century.[6] The global population is still increasing, but there is significant uncertainty about its long-term trajectory due to changing rates of fertility and mortality.[7] The UN Department of Economics and Social Affairs projects between 9–10 billion people by 2050, and gives an 80% confidence interval of 10–12 billion by the end of the 21st century.[8] Other demographers predict that world population will begin to decline in the second half of the 21st century.[9]

World population estimate and projection from 10,000 BCE to 2100, by OurWorldInData, from various sources - The population grows from 2.43 million to 10.9 billion people.[10]

Birth rates were highest in the late 1980s at about 139 million,[11] and as of 2011 were expected to remain essentially constant at a level of 135 million,[12] while the mortality rate numbered 56 million per year and were expected to increase to 80 million per year by 2040.[13] The median age of human beings as of 2020 is 31 years.[14]


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