Year of the Four Emperors

The Year of the Four Emperors, AD 69, was a period of the Roman Empire in which four emperors ruled in succession: Galba, Otho, Vitellius, and Vespasian.[1] It is considered an important interval, highlighting the turmoil of the state of Rome following the reign and suicide of the emperor Nero.

On 9 June AD 68, Nero committed suicide, having fled to a villa outside Rome after being declared a public enemy by the senate. His tumultuous rule was followed by a period of civil war (the first Roman civil war since Mark Antony's death in 30 BC).

During June of AD 68 through December of AD 69, Galba, Otho, and Vitellius successively rose and fell from power. Finally, in July AD 69, the accession of Vespasian to the throne marked the start of the Flavian dynasty. The social, military and political upheavals of the period had Empire-wide repercussions, which included the outbreak of the Revolt of the Batavi.

The Roman Empire in 68-69