Yiddish

Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish or idish, pronounced [ˈ(j)ɪdɪʃ], lit.'Jewish'; ייִדיש-טײַטש, Yidish-Taytsh, lit.' Judeo-German')[9] is a West Germanic language historically spoken by Ashkenazi Jews. It originated during the 9th century[10] in Central Europe, providing the nascent Ashkenazi community with a High German-based vernacular fused with many elements taken from Hebrew (notably Mishnaic) and to some extent Aramaic; most varieties also have substantial influence from Slavic languages, and the vocabulary contains traces of influence from Romance languages.[11][12][13] Yiddish writing uses the Hebrew alphabet. In the 1990s, there were around 1.5–2 million speakers of Yiddish, mostly Hasidic and Haredi Jews.[citation needed] In 2012, the Center for Applied Linguistics estimated the number of speakers to have had a worldwide peak at 11 million (prior to World War II), with the number of speakers in the United States and Canada then totaling 150,000.[14] An estimate from Rutgers University gives 250,000 American speakers, 250,000 Israeli speakers, and 100,000 in the rest of the world (for a total of 600,000).[15]

Yiddish
ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish
Pronunciation[ˈ(j)ɪdɪʃ]
Native toCentral, Eastern, and Western Europe
RegionEurope, Israel, North America, South America, other regions with Jewish populations[1]
EthnicityAshkenazi Jews
Native speakers
(1.5 million cited 1986–1991 + half undated)[1]
Early form
Hebrew alphabet (Yiddish orthography)
occasionally Latin alphabet[4]
Official status
Official language in
 Russia* Jewish Autonomous Oblast[5][6][7]
Recognised minority
language in
Regulated byNo formal bodies
YIVO de facto
Language codes
ISO 639-1yi
ISO 639-2yid
ISO 639-3yid – inclusive code
Individual codes:
ydd  Eastern Yiddish
yih  Western Yiddish
Glottologyidd1255
ELP
Linguasphere52-ACB-g = 52-ACB-ga (West) + 52-ACB-gb (East); totalling 11 varieties
The opening page of the 1828 Yiddish-written Jewish Holiday of Purim play Esther, oder die belohnte Tugend from Fürth (by Nürnberg), Bavaria.

The earliest surviving references date from the 12th century and call the language לשון־אַשכּנז (loshn-ashknaz, "language of Ashkenaz") or טײַטש (taytsh), a variant of tiutsch, the contemporary name for Middle High German. Colloquially, the language is sometimes called מאַמע־לשון (mame-loshn, lit.'mother tongue'), distinguishing it from לשון־קודש (loshn koydesh, "holy tongue"), meaning Hebrew and Aramaic. The term "Yiddish", short for Yidish Taitsh ("Jewish German"), did not become the most frequently used designation in the literature until the 18th century. In the late 19th and into the 20th century, the language was more commonly called "Jewish", especially in non-Jewish contexts,[clarification needed] but "Yiddish" is again the more common designation today.[citation needed]

Modern Yiddish has two major forms. Eastern Yiddish is far more common today. It includes Southeastern (Ukrainian–Romanian), Mideastern (Polish–Galician–Eastern Hungarian) and Northeastern (Lithuanian–Belarusian) dialects. Eastern Yiddish differs from Western both by its far greater size and by the extensive inclusion of words of Slavic origin. Western Yiddish is divided into Southwestern (Swiss–Alsatian–Southern German), Midwestern (Central German), and Northwestern (Netherlandic–Northern German) dialects. Yiddish is used in a number of Haredi Jewish communities worldwide; it is the first language of the home, school, and in many social settings among many Haredi Jews, and is used in most Hasidic yeshivas.

The term "Yiddish" is also used in the adjectival sense, synonymously with "Jewish", to designate attributes of Yiddishkeit ("Ashkenazi culture"; for example, Yiddish cooking and "Yiddish music" – klezmer).[16]

Prior to the Holocaust, there were 11–13 million speakers of Yiddish among 17 million Jews worldwide.[17] 85% of the approximately 6 million Jews who were murdered in the Holocaust were Yiddish speakers,[18] leading to a massive decline in the use of the language. Assimilation following World War II and aliyah, immigration to Israel, further decreased the use of Yiddish among survivors and Yiddish-speakers from other countries (such as in the Americas). However, the number of Yiddish-speakers is increasing in Hasidic communities.