Zambia

Zambia (/ˈzæmbiə, ˈzɑːm-/), officially the Republic of Zambia, is a landlocked country at the crossroads of Central, Southern and East Africa,[7] although it is typically referred to as being in Southern Africa at its most central point.[8] Its neighbours are the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the northeast, Malawi to the east, Mozambique to the southeast, Zimbabwe and Botswana to the south, Namibia to the southwest, and Angola to the west. The capital city of Zambia is Lusaka, located in the south-central part of Zambia. The nation's population of around 19.5 million is concentrated mainly around Lusaka in the south and the Copperbelt Province to the north, the core economic hubs of the country.

Republic of Zambia
Motto: 
"One Zambia, One Nation"
Anthem: "Stand and Sing of Zambia, Proud and Free"
Capital
and largest city
Lusaka
15°25′S 28°17′E
Official languagesEnglish
Recognised regional languages
List
Ethnic groups
(2010[1])
List
Religion
Christianity (official)
Demonym(s)Zambian
GovernmentUnitary presidential republic
 President
Hakainde Hichilema
Mutale Nalumango
 Speaker
Nelly Mutti
Mumba Malila
LegislatureNational Assembly
Independence 
27 June 1890
28 November 1899
29 January 1900
17 August 1911
1 August 1953
24 October 1964
5 January 2016
Area
 Total
752,617 km2 (290,587 sq mi)[2] (38th)
 Water (%)
1
Population
 2022 estimate
19,610,769[3] (63rd)
 Density
26.1/km2 (67.6/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
 Total
$76.33 billion[4]
 Per capita
$3,810[4]
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
 Total
$27.03 billion[4]
 Per capita
$1,350[4]
Gini (2015)57.1[5]
high
HDI (2021) 0.565[6]
medium · 154th
CurrencyZambian kwacha (ZMW)
Time zoneUTC+2 (CAT)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideleft
Calling code+260
ISO 3166 codeZM
Internet TLD.zm

Originally inhabited by Khoisan peoples, the region was affected by the Bantu expansion of the thirteenth century. Following the arrival of European explorers in the eighteenth century, the British colonised the region into the British protectorates of Barotseland-North-Western Rhodesia and North-Eastern Rhodesia comprising 73 tribes, towards the end of the nineteenth century. These were merged in 1911 to form Northern Rhodesia. For most of the colonial period, Zambia was governed by an administration appointed from London with the advice of the British South Africa Company.[9]

On 24 October 1964, Zambia became independent of the United Kingdom and prime minister Kenneth Kaunda became the inaugural president. Kaunda's socialist United National Independence Party (UNIP) maintained power from 1964 until 1991. Kaunda played a key role in regional diplomacy, cooperating closely with the United States in search of solutions to conflicts in Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe), Angola, and Namibia.[10] From 1972 to 1991 Zambia was a one-party state with UNIP as the sole legal political party under the motto "One Zambia, One Nation" coined by Kaunda. Kaunda was succeeded by Frederick Chiluba of the social-democratic Movement for Multi-Party Democracy in 1991, beginning a period of socio-economic development and government decentralisation. Zambia has since become a multi-party state and has experienced several peaceful transitions of power.

Zambia contains abundant natural resources, including minerals, wildlife, forestry, freshwater and arable land.[11] In 2010, the World Bank named Zambia one of the world's fastest economically reformed countries.[12] The Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) is headquartered in Lusaka.


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