List of dynasties


This is a list of dynasties and dynastic regimes in the context of monarchy, both sovereign and non-sovereign, organized by geographic region. Extant dynasties are rendered in bold and highlighted.

Criteria for inclusion


This list includes defunct and extant monarchical dynasties of both sovereign and non-sovereign statuses. Monarchical regimes each ruled by a single family—that is, a dynasty, although not explicitly styled as such (e.g. Abbasid Caliphate, Golden Horde)—are included. Where possible, rival claimants to thrones and descendants of abolished thrones are also listed. Dynasties of micronations (e.g. Bertoleoni dynasty), political families (e.g. Roosevelt family, Chiang family), and family dictatorships (e.g. Mount Paektu bloodline, Duvalier dynasty) are not included.

This list is sorted by the territorial extent of dynasties. Listing a particular dynasty under a specific section need not necessarily denote affiliation—political, cultural, or otherwise—between the historical dynasty and the modern polity/polities existing in the region.

Some dynasties appear more than once in this list, because:

Extant dynasties


  Semi-constitutional monarchy
  Constitutional monarchy (Commonwealth realm)

List of extant dynasties ruling sovereign monarchies

There are 44 sovereign states with a monarch as head of state, of which 42 are ruled by dynasties.[lower-alpha 1] There are currently 26 sovereign dynasties, two of which rule more than one sovereign entity.

Dynasty Realm Reigning monarch Dynastic founder[lower-alpha 2] Dynastic place of origin[lower-alpha 3]
House of Windsor[lower-alpha 4][lower-alpha 5]  Antigua and Barbuda Queen Elizabeth II King-Emperor George V[lower-alpha 6] Thuringia and Bavaria
(in modern Germany)
 Commonwealth of Australia[lower-alpha 7]
 Commonwealth of The Bahamas
 Barbados[lower-alpha 8]
 Belize
 Canada
 Grenada
 Jamaica
New Zealand[lower-alpha 9]
 Independent State of Papua New Guinea
 Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis
 Saint Lucia
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
 Solomon Islands
 Tuvalu
 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland[lower-alpha 10]
House of Khalifa  Kingdom of Bahrain King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa Sheikh Khalifa bin Mohammed Najd
(in modern Saudi Arabia)
House of Belgium[lower-alpha 11]  Kingdom of Belgium King Philippe King Albert I[lower-alpha 12] Thuringia and Bavaria
(in modern Germany)
House of Wangchuck  Kingdom of Bhutan Druk Gyalpo Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck Druk Gyalpo Ugyen Wangchuck Bhutan
House of Bolkiah  Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Sultan Muhammad Shah Tarim[lower-alpha 13]
(in modern Yemen)
House of Norodom[lower-alpha 14]  Kingdom of Cambodia King Norodom Sihamoni King Norodom Prohmbarirak Cambodia
House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg[lower-alpha 15]  Kingdom of Denmark[lower-alpha 16] Queen Margrethe II Duke Friedrich Wilhelm Glücksburg
(in modern Germany)
 Kingdom of Norway King Harald V
House of Dlamini  Kingdom of Eswatini King Mswati III Chief Dlamini I East Africa
Imperial House of Japan[lower-alpha 17]  Japan Emperor Naruhito Emperor Jimmu Nara
(in modern Japan)
House of Hashim[lower-alpha 18]  Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan King Abdullah II King Hussein ibn Ali al-Hashimi Hejaz
(in modern Saudi Arabia)
House of Sabah  State of Kuwait Emir Nawaf Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah Sheikh Sabah I bin Jaber Najd
(in modern Saudi Arabia)
House of Moshesh  Kingdom of Lesotho King Letsie III Paramount Chief Moshoeshoe I Lesotho
House of Liechtenstein  Principality of Liechtenstein Prince Hans-Adam II Prince Karl I Lower Austria
(in modern Austria)
House of Luxembourg-Nassau[lower-alpha 19]  Grand Duchy of Luxembourg Grand Duke Henri Grand Duke Adolphe Nassau
(in modern Germany)
Bendahara dynasty[lower-alpha 20]  Malaysia[lower-alpha 21] Yang di-Pertuan Agong Abdullah Bendahara Tun Habib Abdul Majid Johor
(in modern Malaysia)
House of Grimaldi  Principality of Monaco Prince Albert II François Grimaldi Genoa
(in modern Italy)
Alaouite dynasty  Kingdom of Morocco King Mohammed VI Sultan Abul Amlak Sidi Muhammad as-Sharif ibn 'Ali Tafilalt
(in modern Morocco)
House of Orange-Nassau[lower-alpha 22]  Kingdom of the Netherlands[lower-alpha 23] King Willem-Alexander Prince William I Nassau
(in modern Germany)
House of Said  Sultanate of Oman Sultan Haitham bin Tariq Sultan Ahmad bin Said al-Busaidi Yemen
House of Thani  State of Qatar Emir Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani Sheikh Thani bin Mohammed Najd
(in modern Saudi Arabia)
House of Saud  Kingdom of Saudi Arabia King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud Emir Saud I Diriyah
(in modern Saudi Arabia)
House of Borbón-Anjou[lower-alpha 24]  Kingdom of Spain King Felipe VI King Philip V Bourbon-l'Archambault
(in modern France)
House of Bernadotte  Kingdom of Sweden King Carl XVI Gustaf King Charles XIV John Pau
(in modern France)
Chakri dynasty  Kingdom of Thailand King Vajiralongkorn King Rama I Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya
(in modern Thailand)
House of Tupou  Kingdom of Tonga King Tupou VI King George Tupou I Tonga
House of Nahyan[lower-alpha 25]  United Arab Emirates[lower-alpha 26] President Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan Sheikh Dhiyab bin Isa Al Nahyan Liwa Oasis
(in modern United Arab Emirates)

List of sovereign states and territories with extant non-sovereign dynasties

The following is a list of sovereign states and territories with existing dynasties ruling non-sovereign polities. Such dynasties usually possess and exercise authority over subnational divisions or people groups. Although non-sovereign dynasties may be conferred official status through constitutional arrangement or government recognition (like the dynasties ruling Botswana's subnational chiefdoms), there are also those that are not officially recognized (such as the Te Wherowhero dynasty of the Māori King Movement in New Zealand).

Continent Sovereign state or territory
Africa  Republic of Benin
 Republic of Botswana
 Republic of Chad
 Republic of Equatorial Guinea
 Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
 Republic of Malawi
 Islamic Republic of Mauritania
 Republic of Namibia
 Republic of the Niger
 Federal Republic of Nigeria
 Republic of Senegal
 Republic of South Africa
 Republic of South Sudan
 Republic of the Sudan
 United Republic of Tanzania
 Togolese Republic
 Republic of Uganda
 Republic of Zambia
Asia  People's Republic of Bangladesh
 Republic of India
 Republic of Indonesia
 Malaysia
 Republic of the Philippines
 Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste
 United Arab Emirates
Europe  Montenegro[lower-alpha 27]
North America  Republic of Panama
Oceania  Cook Islands
 Republic of the Marshall Islands
 Federated States of Micronesia
 New Caledonia
 New Zealand
 Republic of Palau
 Independent State of Samoa
 Tuvalu
Territory of the Wallis and Futuna Islands

List of dynasties in Africa


Legend
  Extant sovereign dynasties
  Extant non-sovereign dynasties

Algeria

Benin

Cabo Verde (Cape Verde)

Central African Republic

Chad

Congo

Egypt

Eswatini (Swaziland)

Ethiopia

Guinea

Libya

Lesotho

Madagascar

Mali

Mauritius

Morocco (+ Mauritania)

Niger

Nigeria

São Tomé and Príncipe

  • House of Aviz (AD 1470–1580) – São Tomé and Príncipe under Portuguese rule
    • House of Aviz-Beja (AD 1495–1580) – São Tomé and Príncipe under Portuguese rule
    • House of Braganza (AD 1640–1910) – São Tomé and Príncipe under Portuguese rule
  • Philippine dynasty (AD 1581–1640) – São Tomé and Príncipe under Portuguese rule

Senegambia

Seychelles

Somalia

Somaliland

South Africa

Sudan

Tunisia

Western Sahara

Zimbabwe

List of dynasties in Asia


Legend
  Extant sovereign dynasties
  Extant non-sovereign dynasties
  Extant dynasties ruling both sovereign and non-sovereign polities

Afghanistan

Armenia

Azerbaijan

Bahrain

Bhutan

  • House of Wangchuck (དབང་ཕྱུག་རྒྱལ་བརྒྱུད་) (1907–present)

Brunei

Cambodia

Central Asia

Chagos Archipelago

Champa

  • 1st dynasty (192–336)
  • 2nd dynasty (336–420)
  • 3rd dynasty (420–529)
  • 4th dynasty (529–758)
  • 5th dynasty (758–854)
  • 6th dynasty (854–989)
  • 7th dynasty (989–1044)
  • 8th dynasty (1044–1074)
  • 9th dynasty (1074–1139)
  • 10th dynasty (1139–1145)
  • 11th dynasty (1145–1190)
  • 12th dynasty (1190–1318)
  • 13th dynasty (1318–1390)
  • 14th dynasty (1390–1458)
  • 15th dynasty (1458–1471)
  • Dynasty of Po Saktiraidaputih (1695–1822)

China

  • Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors (三皇五帝ㄙㄢ ㄏㄨㄤˊ ㄨˇ ㄉㄧˋ) (?–2070 BC) – Legendary
    • Taotang-shi (陶唐氏ㄊㄠˊ ㄊㄤˊ ㄕˋ) (?–?) – Legendary
    • Youyu-shi (有虞氏ㄧㄡˇ ㄩˊ ㄕˋ) (?–?) – Legendary
  • Xia dynasty (夏朝ㄒㄧㄚˋ ㄔㄠˊ) (2070–1600 BC) – Semi-legendary; Ruled by the House of Si () of Huaxia descent
  • Shang dynasty (商朝ㄕㄤ ㄔㄠˊ) (1600–1046 BC) – Ruled by the House of Zi () of Huaxia descent
  • Jizi Chaoxian (箕子朝鮮ㄐㄧ ㄗˇ ㄔㄠˊ ㄒㄧㄢˇ) (1120–194 BC) – Ruled by the House of Zi () of Huaxia descent
  • Zhou dynasty (周朝ㄓㄡ ㄔㄠˊ) (1046–256 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
  • Zhangzhung (象雄ㄒㄧㄤˋ ㄒㄩㄥˊ) (500 BC–AD 625)
  • Minyue (閩越ㄇㄧㄣˇ ㄩㄝˋ) (334–111 BC) – Ruled by the House of Zou () of Baiyue descent
  • Dian Kingdom (滇國ㄉㄧㄢ ㄍㄨㄛˊ) (278–109 BC)
  • Fuyu (扶餘ㄈㄨˊ ㄩˊ) (239 BC–AD 494)
    • Northern Fuyu (北扶餘ㄅㄟˇ ㄈㄨˊ ㄩˊ) (239–58 BC)
    • Zuben Fuyu (卒本扶餘ㄗㄨˊ ㄅㄣˇ ㄈㄨˊ ㄩˊ) (86–37 BC)
    • Eastern Fuyu (東扶餘ㄉㄨㄥ ㄈㄨˊ ㄩˊ) (86 BC–AD 410)
  • Pre-Qin dynastic fiefs (先秦諸侯國ㄒㄧㄢ ㄑㄧㄣˊ ㄓㄨ ㄏㄡˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ) (?–221 BC)
    • Shu (ㄕㄨˇ) (2500–316 BC)
      • Cancong dynasty (蠶叢ㄘㄢˊ ㄘㄨㄥˊ) (2500 BC–?)
      • Boguan dynasty (柏灌ㄅㄛˊ ㄍㄨㄢˋ) (?–1700 BC)
      • Yufu dynasty (魚鳧ㄩˊ ㄈㄨˊ) (1700–1200 BC)
      • Duyu dynasty (杜宇ㄉㄨˋ ㄩˇ) (1200–600 BC)
      • Kaiming dynasty (開明ㄎㄞ ㄇㄧㄥˊ) (600–316 BC)
    • Yue (ㄩㄝˋ) (2032–222 BC) – Ruled by the House of Si () of Baiyue descent
    • Mixu (密須ㄇㄧˋ ㄒㄩ) (21st century–10th century BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Dong (ㄉㄨㄥˇ) (21st century–7th century BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Guzhu (孤竹ㄍㄨ ㄓㄨˊ) (1600–660 BC) – Ruled by the House of Zi () of Huaxia descent
    • Qi (ㄑㄧˇ) (16th century–445 BC) – Ruled by the House of Si () of Huaxia descent
    • Deng (ㄉㄥˋ) (1200–678 BC) – Ruled by the House of Man () of Huaxia descent
    • Xi (ㄒㄧ) (1122–680 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • E (ㄝˋ) (12th century–863 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Quan (ㄑㄩㄢˊ) (12th century–704 BC) – Ruled by the House of Zi () of Huaxia descent
    • Wu (ㄨˊ) (1096–473 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Bei (ㄅㄟˋ) (?–1059 BC) – Ruled by the House of Zi () of Huaxia descent
    • Guan (ㄍㄨㄢˇ) (1046–1039 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Feng (ㄈㄥ) (1046–1023 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Jiao (ㄐㄧㄠ) (1046–775 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Zhu (ㄓㄨˋ) (1046–768 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Eastern Guo (東虢ㄉㄨㄥ ㄍㄨㄛˊ) (1046–767 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Su (宿ㄙㄨˋ) (1046–684 BC) – Ruled by the House of Feng () of Huaxia descent
    • Tan (ㄊㄢˊ) (1046–684 BC) – Ruled by the House of Si () of Huaxia descent
    • Huo (ㄏㄨㄛˋ) (1046–661 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Shu (ㄕㄨ) (1046–657 BC) – Ruled by the House of Yan () of Huaxia descent
    • Yu (ㄩˊ) (1046–655 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Western Guo (西虢ㄒㄧ ㄍㄨㄛˊ) (1046–655 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
      • Northern Guo (北虢ㄅㄟˇ ㄍㄨㄛˊ) (?–?)
      • Southern Guo (南虢ㄋㄢˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ) (?–?)
    • Wen (ㄨㄣ) (1046–650 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Ying (ㄧㄥ) (1046–646 BC) – Ruled by the House of Yan () of Huaxia descent
    • Yuan (ㄩㄢˊ) (1046–635 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Lu (ㄌㄨˋ) (1046–622 BC) – Ruled by the House of Yan () of Huaxia descent
    • Shuliao (舒蓼ㄕㄨ ㄌㄧㄠˇ) (1046–601 BC) – Ruled by the House of Yan () of Huaxia descent
    • Genmou (根牟ㄍㄣ ㄇㄡˊ) (1046–600 BC) – Ruled by the House of Jiang () of Dongyi descent
    • Xun (ㄒㄩㄣˊ) (1046–7th century BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Shuyong (舒庸ㄕㄨ ㄩㄥ) (1046–574 BC) – Ruled by the House of Yan () of Huaxia descent
    • Shujiu (舒鳩ㄕㄨ ㄐㄧㄡ) (1046–548 BC) – Ruled by the House of Yan () of Huaxia descent
    • Mao (ㄇㄠˊ) (1046–516 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Pan (ㄆㄢ) (1046–504 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Dun (ㄉㄨㄣˋ) (1046–496 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Cao (ㄘㄠˊ) (1046–487 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Cai (ㄘㄞˋ) (1046–447 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Ju (ㄐㄩˇ) (1046–431 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Dongyi descent
    • Cheng (ㄔㄥˊ) (1046–408 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Xu (ㄒㄩˇ) (1046–375 BC) – Ruled by the House of Jiang () of Huaxia descent
    • Ba (ㄅㄚ) (1046–316 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Ba descent
    • Teng (ㄊㄥˊ) (1046–297 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Zou (ㄗㄡ) (1046–281 BC) – Ruled by the House of Cao () of Huaxia descent
    • Yan (ㄧㄢ) (1046–222 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Qi (ㄑㄧˊ) (1046–221 BC)
      • Jiang Qi (姜齊ㄐㄧㄤ ㄑㄧˊ) (1046–386 BC) – Ruled by the House of Jiang () of Huaxia descent
      • Tian Qi (田齊ㄊㄧㄢˊ ㄑㄧˊ) (386–221 BC) – Ruled by the House of Gui () of Huaxia descent
    • Zhou (ㄓㄡ) (?–1046 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Shao (ㄕㄠˋ) (1046 BC–?) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Bi (ㄅㄧˋ) (1046 BC–?) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Zhou (ㄓㄡ) (1046 BC–?) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Rong (ㄖㄨㄥˊ) (1046 BC–?) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Yong (ㄩㄥ) (1046 BC–?) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Rui (ㄖㄨㄟˋ) (1046 BC–?) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
      • Northern Rui (北芮ㄅㄟˇ ㄖㄨㄟˋ) (1046–640 BC)
      • Southern Rui (南芮ㄋㄢˊ ㄖㄨㄟˋ) (806 BC–?)
    • Han (ㄏㄢˊ) (1046 BC–?)
    • Ji (ㄐㄧˋ) (1046 BC–?) – Ruled by the House of Qi () of Huaxia descent
    • Chunyu (淳于ㄔㄨㄣˊ ㄩˊ) (1046 BC–?) – Ruled by the House of Jiang () of Huaxia descent
    • Gao (ㄍㄠˋ) (1046 BC–?) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Mao (ㄇㄠˊ) (1046 BC–?) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Shulong (舒龍ㄕㄨ ㄌㄨㄥˊ) (1046 BC–?) – Ruled by the House of Yan () of Huaxia descent
    • Shugong (舒龔ㄕㄨ ㄍㄨㄥ) (1046 BC–?) – Ruled by the House of Yan () of Huaxia descent
    • Shubao (舒鮑ㄕㄨ ㄅㄠˋ) (1046 BC–?) – Ruled by the House of Yan () of Huaxia descent
    • Wan (ㄨㄢˇ) (1046 BC–?) – Ruled by the House of Yan () of Huaxia descent
    • Lu (ㄌㄨˊ) (1046 BC–?)
    • Chen (ㄔㄣˊ) (1045–478 BC) – Ruled by the House of Gui () of Huaxia descent
    • Lu (ㄌㄨˇ) (1043–249 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Ji (ㄐㄧˋ) (1040–750 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Xing (ㄒㄧㄥˊ) (1040–635 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Jiang (ㄐㄧㄤ) (1040–623 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ying () of Huaxia descent
    • Jiang (ㄐㄧㄤˇ) (1040–617 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Shen (ㄕㄣˇ) (1040–506 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Song (ㄙㄨㄥˋ) (1040–286 BC) – Ruled by the House of Zi () of Huaxia descent
    • Wei (ㄨㄟˋ) (1040–209 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Zuo (ㄗㄨㄛˋ) (1040 BC–?) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Dan (ㄉㄢ) (1040 BC–?) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Pugu (薄姑ㄆㄨˊ ㄍㄨ) (?–1039 BC)
    • Jin (ㄐㄧㄣˋ) (1033–376 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
      • Yi (ㄧˋ) (745–679 BC)
      • Quwo (曲沃ㄑㄩˇ ㄨㄛˋ) (745–679 BC)
    • Ying (ㄧㄥˋ) (1030–646 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Chu (ㄔㄨˇ) (1030–223 BC) – Ruled by the House of Mi () of Huaxia descent
      • Yuezhang (越章ㄩㄝˋ ㄓㄤ) (880 BC–?)
      • Later Chu (後楚ㄏㄡˋ ㄔㄨˇ) (208–206 BC)
    • Yin (ㄧㄣ) (1027–1024 BC) – Ruled by the House of Zi () of Huaxia descent
    • Yang (ㄧㄤˊ) (1020–677 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Nuo (ㄋㄨㄛˊ) (11th century–704 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Luo (ㄌㄨㄛˊ) (11th century–690 BC) – Ruled by the House of Mi () of Huaxia descent
    • Jia (ㄐㄧㄚˇ) (11th century–678 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Hao (ㄏㄠˇ) (11th century–7th century BC) – Ruled by the House of Feng () of Huaxia descent
    • Ji (ㄐㄧˋ) (11th century–7th century BC) – Ruled by the House of Yiqi (伊祁) of Huaxia descent
    • Lai (ㄌㄞˋ) (11th century–538 BC) – Ruled by the House of Jiang () of Huaxia descent
    • Wei (ㄨㄟˊ) (11th century BC–?) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Pi (ㄆㄧ) (11th century BC–?) – Ruled by the House of Ren () of Huaxia descent
    • Qin (ㄑㄧㄣˊ) (905–207 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ying () of Huaxia descent
    • Sui (ㄙㄨㄟˊ) (10th century BC–?) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Xie (ㄒㄧㄝˋ) (?–841 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ren () of Huaxia descent
    • Shen (ㄕㄣ) (841 BC–?) – Ruled by the House of Jiang () of Huaxia descent
    • Zhan (ㄓㄢ) (827 BC–?) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Zheng (ㄓㄥˋ) (806–375 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Daluo (大駱ㄉㄚˋ ㄌㄨㄛˋ) (?–9th century BC) – Ruled by the House of Ying () of Huaxia descent
    • Lan (ㄌㄢˋ) (781–521 BC) – Ruled by the House of Cao () of Huaxia descent
    • Yin (ㄧㄣˇ) (770–513 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Kuai (ㄎㄨㄞˋ) (?–769 BC) – Ruled by the House of Yun () of Huaxia descent
    • Liang (ㄌㄧㄤˊ) (768–641 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ying () of Huaxia descent
    • Hu (ㄏㄨˊ) (?–763 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Han (ㄏㄢˊ) (?–757 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Ji (ㄐㄧˊ) (?–721 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Xiang (ㄒㄧㄤˋ) (?–721 BC) – Ruled by the House of Jiang () of Huaxia descent
    • Yiqu (義渠ㄧˋ ㄑㄩˊ) (720–272 BC) – Ruled by the House of Yiqu (義渠) of Xirong descent
    • Fan (ㄈㄢˊ) (?–716 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Dai (ㄉㄞˋ) (?–713 BC) – Ruled by the House of Zi () of Huaxia descent
    • Jiao (ㄐㄧㄠˇ) (?–700 BC) – Ruled by the House of Yan () of Huaxia descent
    • Gu (ㄍㄨˇ) (?–8th century BC) – Ruled by the House of Ying () of Huaxia descent
    • Zhongli (鍾離ㄓㄨㄥ ㄌㄧˊ) (8th century–601 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ying () of Huaxia descent
    • Ni (ㄋㄧˊ) (8th century–335 BC) – Ruled by the House of Cao () of Huaxia descent
      • Xiaozhu (小邾ㄒㄧㄠˇ ㄓㄨ) (653–335 BC)
    • Yuyuqiu (於餘邱ㄩˊ ㄩˊ ㄑㄧㄡ) (?–692 BC)
    • Ji (ㄐㄧˋ) (?–690 BC) – Ruled by the House of Jiang () of Huaxia descent
    • Lu (ㄌㄨˊ) (?–690 BC) – Ruled by the House of Gui () of Huaxia descent
    • Lesser Guo (小虢ㄒㄧㄠˇ ㄍㄨㄛˊ) (?–687 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Sui (ㄙㄨㄟˋ) (?–681 BC) – Ruled by the House of Gui () of Huaxia descent
    • Xiao (ㄒㄧㄠ) (681–597 BC) – Ruled by the House of Zi () of Huaxia descent
    • Guo (ㄍㄨㄛ) (?–670 BC)
    • Lirong (驪戎ㄌㄧˊ ㄖㄨㄥˊ) (?–666 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Xirong descent
    • Zhang (ㄓㄤ) (?–664 BC) – Ruled by the House of Jiang () of Huaxia descent
    • Lingzhi (令支ㄌㄧㄥˋ ㄓ) (?–664 BC)
    • Geng (ㄍㄥˇ) (?–661 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Wei (ㄨㄟˋ) (?–661 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Gong (ㄍㄨㄥˋ) (?–660 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Yang (ㄧㄤˊ) (?–660 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Xian (ㄒㄧㄢˊ) (?–655 BC) – Ruled by the House of Wei () of Huaxia descent
    • Guang (ㄍㄨㄤ) (?–650 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Huang (ㄏㄨㄤˊ) (?–648 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ying () of Huaxia descent
    • Xiang (ㄒㄧㄤˋ) (?–643 BC)
    • Bai (ㄅㄞˇ) (?–640 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Fan (ㄈㄢˊ) (?–635 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Kui (ㄎㄨㄟˊ) (?–634 BC) – Ruled by the House of Mi () of Huaxia descent
    • Hua (ㄏㄨㄚˊ) (?–627 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Liao (ㄌㄧㄠˇ) (?–622 BC) – Ruled by the House of Yan () of Huaxia descent
    • Xuqu (須句ㄒㄩ ㄑㄩˊ) (?–620 BC) – Ruled by the House of Feng () of Huaxia descent
    • Yu (ㄩˊ) (?–612 BC) – Ruled by the House of Er () of Huaxia descent
    • Yong (ㄩㄥ) (?–611 BC)
    • Jun (ㄐㄩㄣ) (?–611 BC)
    • Li (ㄌㄧˊ) (?–604 BC) – Ruled by the House of Qi () of Huaxia descent and the House of Zi () of Huaxia descent
    • Lushi (潞氏ㄌㄨˋ ㄕˋ) (604–594 BC) – Ruled by the House of Wei () of Chidi descent
    • Western Huang (西黃ㄒㄧ ㄏㄨㄤˊ) (?–7th century BC)
    • Liu (ㄌㄧㄡˊ) (592–488 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Qianggaoru (廧咎如ㄑㄧㄤˊ ㄍㄠ ㄖㄨˊ) (?–588 BC) – Ruled by the House of Wei () of Chidi descent
    • Zhuan (ㄓㄨㄢ) (?–585 BC)
    • Zeng (ㄗㄥ) (?–567 BC) – Ruled by the House of Si () of Huaxia descent
    • Lai (ㄌㄞˊ) (?–567 BC) – Ruled by the House of Zi () of Dongyi descent
    • Biyang (偪陽ㄅㄧ ㄧㄤˊ) (?–563 BC) – Ruled by the House of Yun () of Huaxia descent
    • Wangshu (王叔ㄨㄤˊ ㄕㄨ) (?–563 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Shi () (?–560 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ren () of Huaxia descent
    • Yin (ㄧㄣ) (?–532 BC)
    • Fei (ㄈㄟˊ) (?–530 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Baidi descent
    • Fang (ㄈㄤˊ) (?–529 BC) – Ruled by the House of Qi () of Huaxia descent
    • Zhoulai (州來ㄓㄡ ㄌㄞˊ) (?–529 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Yang (ㄧㄤˇ) (?–528 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ying () of Huaxia descent
    • Gu (ㄍㄨˇ) (?–520 BC) – Ruled by the House of Qi () of Baidi descent
    • Chao (ㄔㄠˊ) (?–518 BC) – Ruled by the House of Yan () of Huaxia descent
    • Gong (ㄍㄨㄥˇ) (?–516 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Xu (ㄒㄩˊ) (?–512 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ying () of Huaxia descent
    • Zhongshan (中山ㄓㄨㄥ ㄕㄢ) (507–406 BC, 380–296 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Beidi descent
    • Xianyu (鮮虞ㄒㄧㄢ ㄩˊ) (?–506 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Beidi descent
    • Tang (ㄊㄤˊ) (?–505 BC) – Ruled by the House of Qi () of Huaxia descent
    • Hu (ㄏㄨˊ) (?–496 BC) – Ruled by the House of Gui () of Huaxia descent
    • Gumie (姑蔑ㄍㄨ ㄇㄧㄝˋ) (?–480 BC)
    • Zhongwu (鍾吾ㄓㄨㄥ ㄨˊ) (?–471 BC)
    • Western Zhou (西周ㄒㄧ ㄓㄡ) (440–256 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Tan (ㄊㄢˊ) (?–414 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Han (ㄏㄢˊ) (403–230 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Wei (ㄨㄟˋ) (403–225 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Zhao (ㄓㄠˋ) (403–222 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ying () of Huaxia descent
    • Zeng (ㄗㄥ) (?–5th century BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Chouyou (仇由ㄔㄡˊ ㄧㄡˊ) (?–5th century BC)
    • Mianzhu (緜諸ㄇㄧㄢˊ ㄓㄨ) (?–395 BC)
    • Ju (ㄐㄩ) (368–316 BC)
    • Eastern Zhou (東周ㄉㄨㄥ ㄓㄡ) (367–249 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Xue (ㄒㄩㄝ) (?–298 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ren () of Huaxia descent and the House of Gui () of Huaxia descent
    • Dai (ㄉㄞˋ) (228–222 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ying () of Huaxia descent
    • Northern Qi (北齊ㄅㄟˇ ㄑㄧˊ) (?–?) – Ruled by the House of Jiang () of Huaxia descent
    • Zhi (ㄓˇ) (?–?)
    • (ㄌㄩˇ) (?–?) – Ruled by the House of Jiang () of Huaxia descent
    • Xin (ㄒㄧㄣ) (?–?) – Ruled by the House of Si () of Huaxia descent
    • Southern Yan (南燕ㄋㄢˊ ㄧㄢ) (?–?) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Ge (ㄍㄜˊ) (?–?) – Ruled by the House of Ying () of Huaxia descent
    • Shan (ㄕㄢˋ) (?–?) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Gan (ㄍㄢ) (?–?) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Bi (ㄅㄧ) (?–?) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Mi (ㄇㄧˋ) (?–?) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Yu (ㄩˊ) (?–?) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Du (ㄉㄨˋ) (?–?) – Ruled by the House of Qi () of Huaxia descent
    • Bulang (不羹ㄅㄨˋ ㄌㄤˊ) (?–?) – Ruled by the House of Ying () of Huaxia descent
      • Eastern Bulang (東不羹ㄉㄨㄥ ㄅㄨˋ ㄌㄤˊ) (?–?)
      • Western Bulang (西不羹ㄒㄧ ㄅㄨˋ ㄌㄤˊ) (?–?)
    • Dao (ㄉㄠˋ) (?–?)
    • Chong (ㄔㄨㄥˊ) (?–?)
    • Di (ㄉㄧˊ) (?–?) – Ruled by the House of Kui () of Chidi descent
    • Ji (ㄐㄧˋ) (?–?) – Ruled by the House of Jiang () of Huaxia descent
    • Yan (ㄧㄢ) (?–?)
    • Chou (ㄔㄡˊ) (?–?) – Ruled by the House of Ren () of Huaxia descent
    • Shen (ㄕㄣˇ) (?–?) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Si (ㄙˋ) (?–?) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Ru (ㄖㄨˋ) (?–?) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Huang (ㄏㄨㄤˊ) (?–?)
    • Peng (ㄆㄥˊ) (?–?)
    • Guan (ㄍㄨㄢˋ) (?–?)
    • Jiafu (甲父ㄐㄧㄚˇ ㄈㄨˋ) (?–?)
    • Zhu (ㄓㄨˋ) (?–?) – Ruled by the House of Ren () of Huaxia descent
    • Ba (ㄅㄚˋ) (?–?) – Ruled by the House of Kui (媿) of Huaxia descent
    • Nie (ㄋㄧㄝˋ) (?–?) – Ruled by the House of Jiang () of Huaxia descent
    • Yu (ㄩˇ) (?–?) – Ruled by the House of Yun () of Huaxia descent
    • Jue (ㄐㄩㄝˊ) (?–?)
    • Ren (ㄖㄣˋ) (?–?) – Ruled by the House of Feng () of Huaxia descent
    • Mou (ㄇㄡˊ) (?–?)
    • Guan (ㄍㄨㄢ) (?–?) – Ruled by the House of Yao () of Huaxia descent
    • Han (ㄏㄢˊ) (?–?)
    • Zong (ㄗㄨㄥ) (?–?) – Ruled by the House of Dong () of Huaxia descent
    • Yan (ㄧㄢˇ) (?–?)
    • Pang (ㄆㄤˊ) (?–?)
    • Yi (ㄧˊ) (?–?) – Ruled by the House of Yun () of Huaxia descent
    • Quegong (闕鞏ㄑㄩㄝˋ ㄍㄨㄥˇ) (?–?)
    • Zhuanyu (顓臾ㄓㄨㄢ ㄩˊ) (?–?) – Ruled by the House of Feng () of Huaxia descent
    • Fei (ㄈㄟˋ) (?–?) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Ruo (ㄖㄨㄛˋ) (?–?)
      • Lower Ruo (下鄀ㄒㄧㄚˋ ㄖㄨㄛˋ) (?–622 BC)
      • Upper Ruo (上鄀ㄕㄤˋ ㄖㄨㄛˋ) (622 BC–?)
    • Zhi (ㄓˋ) (?–?) – Ruled by the House of Ren () of Huaxia descent
    • Zhu (ㄓㄨ) (?–?) – Ruled by the House of Si () of Huaxia descent
    • Jie (ㄐㄧㄝˋ) (?–?) – Ruled by the House of Yun () of Dongyi descent
    • Kan (ㄎㄢˋ) (?–?)
    • You (ㄧㄡ) (?–?) – Ruled by the House of Man () of Huaxia descent
    • Zong (ㄗㄨㄥ) (?–?) – Ruled by the House of Yan () of Huaxia descent
    • Guo (ㄎㄢˋ) (?–?) – Ruled by the House of Ren () of Huaxia descent
    • Rong (ㄖㄨㄥˊ) (?–?) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Xirong descent
    • Zhen (ㄓㄣˇ) (?–?) – Ruled by the House of Yan () of Huaxia descent
    • Yun (ㄩㄣˊ) (?–?) – Ruled by the House of Ying () of Huaxia descent
    • Dai (ㄉㄞˋ) (?–?) – Ruled by the House of Zi () of Beidi descent
    • Fengfu (封父ㄈㄥ ㄈㄨˋ) (?–?) – Ruled by the House of Jiang () of Huaxia descent
    • Anling (安陵ㄢ ㄌㄧㄥˊ) (?–?)
    • Mie (ㄇㄧㄝˋ) (?–?)
    • Er (ㄦˋ) (?–?)
    • Zhou (ㄓㄡ) (?–?) – Ruled by the House of Yan () of Huaxia descent
    • Tong (ㄊㄨㄥˊ) (?–?) – Ruled by the House of Yan () of Huaxia descent
    • Peng (ㄆㄥˊ) (?–?)
    • Wuzhong (無終ㄨˊ ㄓㄨㄥ) (?–?)
  • Qin dynasty (秦朝ㄑㄧㄣˊ ㄔㄠˊ) (221–207 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ying () of Huaxia descent
  • Zhang Chu (張楚ㄓㄤ ㄔㄨˇ) (209–208 BC) – Ruled by the House of Chen () of Huaxia descent
  • Xiongnu confederation (匈奴ㄒㄩㄥ ㄋㄨˊ) (209 BC–AD 48) – Ruled by the House of Luandi (攣鞮) of Xiongnu descent
  • Western Chu (西楚ㄒㄧ ㄔㄨˇ) (206–202 BC) – Ruled by the House of Mi () of Huaxia descent
  • Eighteen Kingdoms (十八國ㄕˊ ㄅㄚ ㄍㄨㄛˊ) (206–200 BC)
    • Sai (ㄙㄞˋ) (206 BC) – Ruled by the House of Sima (司馬) of Huaxia descent
    • Di (ㄉㄧˊ) (206 BC) – Ruled by the House of Dong () of Huaxia descent
    • Liaodong (遼東ㄌㄧㄠˊ ㄉㄨㄥ) (206 BC) – Ruled by the House of Han () of Huaxia descent
    • Jiaodong (膠東ㄐㄧㄠ ㄉㄨㄥ) (206 BC) – Ruled by the House of Gui () of Huaxia descent
    • Qi (ㄑㄧˊ) (206 BC) – Ruled by the House of Gui () of Huaxia descent
    • Jibei (濟北ㄐㄧˋ ㄅㄟˇ) (206 BC) – Ruled by the House of Gui () of Huaxia descent
    • Yong (ㄩㄥ) (206–205 BC) – Ruled by the House of Zhang () of Huaxia descent
    • Western Wei (西魏ㄒㄧ ㄨㄟˋ) (206–205 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent
    • Henan (河南ㄏㄜˊ ㄋㄢˊ) (206–205 BC) – Ruled by the House of Shen () of Huaxia descent
    • Yin (ㄧㄣ) (206–205 BC) – Ruled by the House of Sima (司馬) of Huaxia descent
    • Changshan (常山ㄔㄤˊ ㄕㄢ) (206–205 BC) – Ruled by the House of Zhang () of Huaxia descent
    • Dai (ㄉㄞˋ) (206–205 BC)
    • Linjiang (臨江ㄌㄧㄣˊ ㄐㄧㄤ) (206–203 BC) – Ruled by the House of Gong () of Huaxia descent
    • Jiujiang (九江ㄐㄧㄡˇ ㄐㄧㄤ) (206–203 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ying () of Huaxia descent
    • Han (ㄏㄢˋ) (206–202 BC) – Ruled by the House of Liu () of Huaxia descent
    • Hengshan (衡山ㄏㄥˊ ㄕㄢ) (206–202 BC) – Ruled by the House of Wu () of Huaxia descent
    • Yan (ㄧㄢ) (206–202 BC) – Ruled by the House of Zang () of Huaxia descent
    • Han (ㄏㄢˊ) (206–200 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji () of Huaxia descent and the House of Zheng () of Huaxia descent
  • Nanyue (南越ㄋㄢˊ ㄩㄝˋ) (204–111 BC) – Ruled by the House of Zhao () of Huaxia descent
  • Han dynasty (漢朝ㄏㄢˋ ㄔㄠˊ) (202 BC–AD 9, AD 23–220) – Ruled by the House of Liu () of Han descent
    • Western Han (西漢ㄒㄧ ㄏㄢˋ) (202 BC–AD 9)
    • Xuan Han (玄漢ㄒㄩㄢˊ ㄏㄢˋ) (AD 23–25)
    • Chimei Han (赤眉漢ㄔˋ ㄇㄟˊ ㄏㄢˋ) (AD 25–27)
    • Eastern Han (東漢ㄉㄨㄥ ㄏㄢˋ) (AD 25–220)
  • Yelang (夜郎ㄧㄝˋ ㄌㄤˊ) (3rd century–27 BC)
  • Shule (疏勒ㄕㄨ ㄌㄜˋ) (200 BC–AD 790)
  • Nanhai (南海ㄋㄢˊ ㄏㄞˇ) (195–174 BC)
  • Weiman Chaoxian (衛滿朝鮮ㄨㄟˋ ㄇㄢˇ ㄔㄠˊ ㄒㄧㄢˇ) (194–108 BC) – Ruled by the House of Wei ()
  • Dong'ou (東甌ㄉㄨㄥ ㄡ) (191–138 BC) – Ruled by the House of Zou ()
  • Loulan (樓蘭ㄌㄡˊ ㄌㄢˊ) (176–77 BC)
    • Shanshan (鄯善ㄕㄢˋ ㄕㄢˋ) (77 BC–AD 448)
  • Yarlung dynasty (雅魯王朝ㄧㄚˇ ㄌㄨˇ ㄨㄤˊ ㄔㄠˊ) (127 BC–AD 618) – Ruled by the House of Xibuye (悉補野) of Tibetan descent
  • Wusun (烏孫ㄨ ㄙㄨㄣ) (117 BC–?)
  • Gouding (句町ㄍㄡ ㄉㄧㄥ) (111 BC–AD 316)
  • Kucha (龜茲ㄑㄧㄡ ㄘˊ) (72 BC–AD 788)
  • Jushi (車師ㄐㄩ ㄕ) (71 BC–AD 508)
    • Nearer Jushi (車師前國ㄐㄩ ㄕ ㄑㄧㄢˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ) (71 BC–AD 508)
    • Further Jushi (車師後國ㄐㄩ ㄕ ㄏㄡˋ ㄍㄨㄛˊ) (67 BC–AD 170)
  • Suoju (莎車ㄙㄨㄛ ㄐㄩ) (66 BC–AD 89)
  • Gaogouli (高句麗ㄍㄠ ㄍㄡ ㄌㄧˊ) (37 BC–AD 668) – Ruled by the House of Gao () of Yemaek descent
  • Xin dynasty (新朝ㄒㄧㄣ ㄔㄠˊ) (AD 9–23) – Interrupted the Han dynasty; Ruled by the House of Wang () of Han descent
  • Chengjia (成家ㄔㄥˊ ㄐㄧㄚ) (AD 25–36) – Ruled by the House of Gongsun (公孫) of Han descent
  • Kingdom of Khotan (于闐ㄩˊ ㄊㄧㄢˊ) (AD 56–1006) – Ruled by the House of Yuchi (尉遲) of Saka descent
  • Yanqi (焉耆ㄧㄢ ㄑㄧˊ) (AD 58–792) – Ruled by the House of Long ()
  • Xianbei state (鮮卑ㄒㄧㄢ ㄅㄟ) (AD 93–234)
  • Zhongjia (仲家ㄓㄨㄥˋ ㄐㄧㄚ) (AD 197–199) – Ruled by the House of Yuan () of Han descent
  • Three Kingdoms (三國ㄙㄢ ㄍㄨㄛˊ) (AD 220–280)
    • Cao Wei (曹魏ㄘㄠˊ ㄨㄟˋ) (AD 220–266) – Ruled by the House of Cao () of Han descent
    • Shu Han (蜀漢ㄕㄨˇ ㄏㄢˋ) (AD 221–263) – Ruled by the House of Liu () of Han descent
    • Eastern Wu (東吳ㄉㄨㄥ ㄨˊ) (AD 222–280) – Ruled by the House of Sun () of Han descent
  • Yan (ㄧㄢ) (AD 237–238) – Ruled by the House of Gongsun (公孫) of Han descent
  • Jin dynasty (晉朝ㄐㄧㄣˋ ㄔㄠˊ) (AD 266–420) – Ruled by the House of Sima (司馬) of Han descent
    • Western Jin (西晉ㄒㄧ ㄐㄧㄣˋ) (AD 266–316)
    • Eastern Jin (東晉ㄉㄨㄥ ㄐㄧㄣˋ) (AD 317–420)
  • Tuyuhun (吐谷渾ㄊㄨˇ ㄩˋ ㄏㄨㄣˊ) (AD 284–670) – Ruled by the House of Murong (慕容) of Xianbei descent
  • Chouchi (仇池ㄔㄡˊ ㄔˊ) (AD 296–371, AD 385–442, AD 443–477, AD 478–580) – Ruled by the House of Yang () of Di descent
    • Former Chouchi (前仇池ㄑㄧㄢˊ ㄔㄡˊ ㄔˊ) (AD 296–371)
    • Later Chouchi (後仇池ㄏㄡˋ ㄔㄡˊ ㄔˊ) (AD 385–442)
    • Wudu Kingdom (武都國ㄨˇ ㄉㄨ ㄍㄨㄛˊ) (AD 443–477)
    • Wuxing Kingdom (武興國ㄨˇ ㄒㄧㄥ ㄍㄨㄛˊ) (AD 478–506, AD 529–553)
    • Yinping Kingdom (陰平國ㄧㄣ ㄆㄧㄥˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ) (AD 479–580)
  • Mu'ege (慕俄格ㄇㄨˋ ㄝˊ ㄍㄜˊ) (AD 300–1698) – Ruled by the House of An () of Yi descent
    • Chiefdom of Shuixi (水西土司ㄕㄨㄟˇ ㄒㄧ ㄊㄨˇ ㄙ) (AD 1279–1698)
  • Sixteen Kingdoms (十六國ㄕˊ ㄌㄧㄡˋ ㄍㄨㄛˊ) (AD 304–439)
    • Han Zhao (漢趙ㄏㄢˋ ㄓㄠˋ) (AD 304–329) – Ruled by the House of Liu () of Xiongnu descent
      • Northern Han (北漢ㄅㄟˇ ㄏㄢˋ) (AD 304–319)
      • Former Zhao (前趙ㄑㄧㄢˊ ㄓㄠˋ) (AD 319–329)
    • Cheng Han (成漢ㄔㄥˊ ㄏㄢˋ) (AD 304–347) – Ruled by the House of Li () of Di descent
      • Cheng (ㄔㄥˊ) (AD 304–338)
      • Han (ㄏㄢˋ) (AD 338–347)
    • Later Zhao (後趙ㄏㄡˋ ㄓㄠˋ) (AD 319–351) – Ruled by the House of Shi () of Jie descent
      • Wei (ㄨㄟˋ) (AD 350)
    • Former Liang (前涼ㄑㄧㄢˊ ㄌㄧㄤˊ) (AD 320–376) – Ruled by the House of Zhang () of Han descent
    • Former Yan (前燕ㄑㄧㄢˊ ㄧㄢ) (AD 337–370) – Ruled by the House of Murong (慕容) of Xianbei descent
    • Former Qin (前秦ㄑㄧㄢˊ ㄑㄧㄣˊ) (AD 351–394) – Ruled by the House of Fu () of Di descent
    • Later Yan (後燕ㄏㄡˋ ㄧㄢ) (AD 384–409) – Ruled by the House of Murong (慕容) of Xianbei descent
    • Later Qin (後秦ㄏㄡˋ ㄑㄧㄣˊ) (AD 384–417) – Ruled by the House of Yao () of Qiang descent
    • Western Qin (西秦ㄒㄧ ㄑㄧㄣˊ) (AD 385–400, AD 409–431) – Ruled by the House of Qifu (乞伏) of Xianbei descent
    • Later Liang (後涼ㄏㄡˋ ㄌㄧㄤˊ) (AD 386–403) – Ruled by the House of Lü () of Di descent
    • Southern Liang (南涼ㄋㄢˊ ㄌㄧㄤˊ) (AD 397–414) – Ruled by the House of Tufa (禿髮) of Xianbei descent
    • Northern Liang (北涼ㄅㄟˇ ㄌㄧㄤˊ) (AD 397–439) – Ruled by the House of Juqu (沮渠) of Xiongnu descent
      • Northern Liang of Gaochang (高昌北涼ㄍㄠ ㄔㄤ ㄅㄟˇ ㄌㄧㄤˊ) (AD 442–460)
    • Southern Yan (南燕ㄋㄢˊ ㄧㄢ) (AD 398–410) – Ruled by the House of Murong (慕容) of Xianbei descent
    • Western Liang (西涼ㄒㄧ ㄌㄧㄤˊ) (AD 400–421) – Ruled by the House of Li () of Han descent
      • Later Western Liang (後西涼ㄏㄡˋ ㄒㄧ ㄌㄧㄤˊ) (AD 422–442)
    • Hu Xia (胡夏ㄏㄨˊ ㄒㄧㄚˋ) (AD 407–431) – Ruled by the House of Helian (赫連) of Xiongnu descent
    • Northern Yan (北燕ㄅㄟˇ ㄧㄢ) (AD 407–436) – Ruled by the House of Feng () of Han descent
  • Dai (ㄉㄞˋ) (AD 310–376) – Ruled by the House of Tuoba (拓拔) of Xianbei descent
  • Liaoxi (遼西ㄌㄧㄠˊ ㄒㄧ) (AD 313–338) – Ruled by the House of Duan () of Xianbei descent
  • Rouran Khaganate (柔然ㄖㄡˊ ㄖㄢˊ) (AD 330–555) – Ruled by the House of Yujiulü (郁久閭)
  • Cuan-shi (爨氏ㄘㄨㄢˋ ㄕˋ) (AD 330–580) – Ruled by the House of Cuan () of Cuanman descent
    • Western Cuan (西爨ㄒㄧ ㄘㄨㄢˋ) (AD 580–786)
    • Eastern Cuan (東爨ㄉㄨㄥ ㄘㄨㄢˋ) (AD 672–748)
  • Ran Wei (冉魏ㄖㄢˇ ㄨㄟˋ) (AD 350–352) – Ruled by the House of Ran () of Han descent
  • Duan Qi (段齊ㄉㄨㄢˋ ㄑㄧˊ) (AD 350–356) – Ruled by the House of Duan () of Xianbei descent
  • Western Yan (西燕ㄒㄧ ㄧㄢ) (AD 384–394) – Ruled by the House of Murong (慕容) of Xianbei descent
  • Xianyu Zhao (鮮于趙ㄒㄧㄢ ㄩˊ ㄓㄠˋ) (AD 385) – Ruled by the House of Xianyu (鮮于)
  • Northern and Southern dynasties (南北朝ㄋㄢˊ ㄅㄟˇ ㄔㄠˊ) (AD 386–589)
    • Northern dynasties (北朝ㄅㄟˇ ㄔㄠˊ) (AD 386–581)
      • Northern Wei (北魏ㄅㄟˇ ㄨㄟˋ) (AD 386–535) – Ruled by the House of Tuoba (拓跋) of Xianbei descent
        • Eastern Wei (東魏ㄉㄨㄥ ㄨㄟˋ) (AD 534–550)
        • Western Wei (西魏ㄒㄧ ㄨㄟˋ) (AD 535–557)
      • Northern Qi (北齊ㄅㄟˇ ㄑㄧˊ) (AD 550–577) – Ruled by the House of Gao () of Han descent
      • Northern Zhou (北周ㄅㄟˇ ㄓㄡ) (AD 557–581) – Ruled by the House of Yuwen (宇文) of Xianbei descent
    • Southern dynasties (南朝ㄋㄢˊ ㄔㄠˊ) (AD 420–589)
      • Liu Song (劉宋ㄌㄧㄡˊ ㄙㄨㄥˋ) (AD 420–479) – Ruled by the House of Liu () of Han descent
      • Southern Qi (南齊ㄋㄢˊ ㄑㄧˊ) (AD 479–502) – Ruled by the House of Xiao () of Han descent
      • Liang dynasty (梁朝ㄌㄧㄤˊ ㄔㄠˊ) (AD 502–557) – Ruled by the House of Xiao () of Han descent
      • Chen dynasty (陳朝ㄔㄣˊ ㄔㄠˊ) (AD 557–589) – Ruled by the House of Chen () of Han descent
  • Zhai Wei (翟魏ㄓㄞˊ ㄨㄟˋ) (AD 388–392) – Ruled by the House of Zhai () of Dingling descent
  • Huan Chu (桓楚ㄏㄨㄢˊ ㄔㄨˇ) (AD 403–404) – Ruled by the House of Huan () of Han descent
  • Western Shu (西蜀ㄒㄧ ㄕㄨˇ) (AD 405–413) – Ruled by the House of Qiao () of Han descent
  • Northern Jin (北晉ㄅㄟˇ ㄐㄧㄣˋ) (AD 414–415) – Ruled by the House of Sima (司馬)
  • Dengzhi (鄧至ㄉㄥˋ ㄓˋ) (AD 430–554) – Ruled by the House of Xiang () of Qiang descent
  • Gaochang (高昌ㄍㄠ ㄔㄤ) (AD 460–640)
    • Kan-shi of Gaochang (闞氏高昌ㄎㄢˋ ㄕˋ ㄍㄠ ㄔㄤ) (AD 460–488) – Ruled by the House of Kan ()
    • Zhang-shi of Gaochang (張氏高昌ㄓㄤ ㄕˋ ㄍㄠ ㄔㄤ) (AD 488–496) – Ruled by the House of Zhang () of Han descent
    • Ma-shi of Gaochang (馬氏高昌ㄇㄚˇ ㄕˋ ㄍㄠ ㄔㄤ) (AD 496–501) – Ruled by the House of Ma ()
    • Qu-shi of Gaochang (麴氏高昌ㄑㄩ ㄕˋ ㄍㄠ ㄔㄤ) (AD 501–640) – Ruled by the House of Qu () of Han descent
  • Gaoche (高車ㄍㄠ ㄔㄜ) (AD 487–541) – Ruled by the House of Fufuluo (副伏羅) of Tiele descent
  • Hou Han (侯漢ㄏㄡˊ ㄏㄢˋ) (AD 551–552) – Ruled by the House of Hou () of Jie descent
  • First Turkic Khaganate (突厥汗國ㄊㄨ ㄐㄩㄝˊ ㄏㄢˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ) (AD 552–581) – Ruled by the House of Ashina (阿史那) of Göktürk descent
  • Mong Mao (勐卯ㄇㄥˇ ㄇㄠˇ) (AD 560–1604) – Ruled by the House of Si () of Dai descent
  • Tanchang (宕昌ㄊㄢˋ ㄔㄤ) (?–AD 564) – Ruled by the House of Liang () of Qiang descent
  • Sui dynasty (隋朝ㄙㄨㄟˊ ㄔㄠˊ) (AD 581–619) – Ruled by the House of Yang () of Han descent
  • Chiefdom of Sizhou (思州土司ㄙ ㄓㄡ ㄊㄨˇ ㄙ) (AD 582–1413) – Ruled by the House of Tian ()
    • Chiefdom of Sinan (思南土司ㄙ ㄋㄢˊ ㄊㄨˇ ㄙ) (AD 1364–1414)
  • Xueyantuo (薛延陀ㄒㄩㄝ ㄧㄢˊ ㄊㄨㄛˊ) (AD 605–646) – Ruled by the House of Yilidie (一利咥) of Xueyantuo descent
  • Lin Chu (林楚ㄌㄧㄣˊ ㄔㄨˇ) (AD 616–622) – Ruled by the House of Lin () of Han descent
  • Xia (ㄒㄧㄚˋ) (AD 617–621) – Ruled by the House of Dou () of Han descent
  • Later Western Liang (後西梁ㄏㄡˋ ㄒㄧ ㄌㄧㄤˊ) (AD 617–621) – Ruled by the House of Xiao () of Han descent
  • Liang (ㄌㄧㄤˊ) (AD 617–628) – Ruled by the House of Liang () of Han descent
  • Liang (ㄌㄧㄤˊ) (AD 618–619) – Ruled by the House of Li () of Han descent
  • Xu (ㄒㄩˇ) (AD 618–619) – Ruled by the House of Yuwen (宇文) of Xiongnu descent
  • Tibetan Empire (吐蕃ㄊㄨˇ ㄅㄛ) (AD 618–842) – Ruled by the House of Xibuye (悉補野) of Tibetan descent
  • Tang dynasty (唐朝ㄊㄤˊ ㄔㄠˊ) (AD 618–690, AD 705–907) – Ruled by the House of Li () of Han descent
    • Wu Zhou (武周ㄨˇ ㄓㄡ) (AD 690–705) – Interrupted the Tang dynasty; Ruled by the House of Wu () of Han descent
  • Zheng (ㄓㄥˋ) (AD 619–621) – Ruled by the House of Wang ()
  • Later Sui (後隋ㄏㄡˋ ㄙㄨㄟˊ) (AD 620–630) – Ruled by the House of Yang () of Han descent
  • Second Turkic Khaganate (後突厥ㄏㄡˋ ㄊㄨ ㄐㄩㄝˊ) (AD 682–745) – Ruled by the House of Ashina (阿史那) of Göktürk descent
  • Bohai (渤海ㄅㄛˊ ㄏㄞˇ) (AD 698–926) – Ruled by the House of Da () of Mohe descent
  • Türgesh Khaganate (突騎施汗國ㄊㄨ ㄑㄧˊ ㄕ ㄏㄢˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ) (AD 699–766)
  • Little Gaogouli (小高句麗ㄒㄧㄠˇ ㄍㄠ ㄍㄡ ㄌㄧˊ) (AD 699–820) – Hypothesized
  • Uyghur Khaganate (回鶻汗國ㄏㄨㄟˊ ㄏㄨˊ ㄏㄢˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ) (AD 744–840) – Ruled by the House of Yaglakar (藥羅葛) of Uyghur descent and the House of Ädiz (阿跌) of Tiele descent
  • Yan (ㄧㄢ) (AD 756–763)
    • Former Yan (前燕ㄑㄧㄢˊ ㄧㄢ) (AD 756–759) – Ruled by the House of An () of Sogdian descent
    • Later Yan (後燕ㄏㄡˋ ㄧㄢ) (AD 759–763) – Ruled by the House of Shi () of Göktürk descent
  • Karluk Yabghu (葛邏祿葉護國ㄍㄜˊ ㄌㄨㄛˊ ㄌㄨˋ ㄧㄝˋ ㄏㄨˋ ㄍㄨㄛˊ) (AD 756–840)
  • Ji (ㄐㄧˋ) (AD 782–784) – Ruled by the House of Zhu () of Han descent
  • Chu (ㄔㄨˇ) (AD 784–786) – Ruled by the House of Li () of Han descent
  • Six Zhao (六詔ㄌㄧㄡˋ ㄓㄠˋ) (?–AD 794)
    • Mengsui Zhao (蒙巂詔ㄇㄥˇ ㄙㄨㄟˇ ㄓㄠˋ) (?–AD 730)
    • Mengshe Zhao (蒙舍詔ㄇㄥˇ ㄕㄜˇ ㄓㄠˋ) (?–AD 738) – Ruled by the House of Meng () of Wuman descent
      • Nanzhao (南詔ㄋㄢˊ ㄓㄠˋ) (AD 738–902)
        • Dali (大禮ㄉㄚˋ ㄌㄧˇ) (AD 860–877)
        • Dafengmin (大封民ㄉㄚˋ ㄈㄥ ㄇㄧㄣˊ) (AD 878–902)
    • Yuexi Zhao (越析詔ㄩㄝˋ ㄒㄧ ㄓㄠˋ) (?–AD 747)
    • Shilang Zhao (施浪詔ㄕ ㄌㄤˋ ㄓㄠˋ) (?–AD 794)
    • Langqiong Zhao (浪穹詔ㄌㄤˋ ㄑㄩㄥˊ ㄓㄠˋ) (?–AD 794)
    • Dengtan Zhao (邆賧詔ㄉㄥ ㄊㄢˋ ㄓㄠˋ) (?–AD 794)
  • Yenisei Kyrgyz Khaganate (黠戛斯汗國ㄒㄧㄚˊ ㄐㄧㄚˊ ㄙ ㄏㄢˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ) (AD 840–1207)
  • Kara-Khanid Khanate (喀喇汗國ㄎㄚ ㄌㄚˇ ㄏㄢˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ) (AD 840–1212)
    • Eastern Kara-Khanid (東喀喇汗國ㄉㄨㄥ ㄎㄚ ㄌㄚˇ ㄏㄢˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ) (AD 1032–1210)
    • Western Kara-Khanid (西喀喇汗國ㄒㄧ ㄎㄚ ㄌㄚˇ ㄏㄢˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ) (AD 1041–1212)
  • Qocho (高昌回鶻ㄍㄠ ㄔㄤ ㄏㄨㄟˊ ㄏㄨˊ) (AD 843–1360)
  • Chiefdom of Bozhou (播州土司ㄅㄛ ㄓㄡ ㄊㄨˇ ㄙ) (AD 876–1600) – Ruled by the House of Yang () of Yi descent
  • Era of Fragmentation (吐蕃分裂時期ㄊㄨˇ ㄅㄛ ㄈㄣ ㄌㄧㄝˋ ㄕˊ ㄑㄧ) (AD 877–1264)
    • Lhachen dynasty (拉达克王系ㄌㄚ ㄉㄚˊ ㄎㄜˋ ㄨㄤˊ ㄒㄧˋ) (AD 930–1470)
    • Guge dynasty (古格王系ㄍㄨˇ ㄍㄜˊ ㄨㄤˊ ㄒㄧˋ) (AD 967–1635)
      • Purang-Guge Kingdom (普蘭-古格王國ㄆㄨˇ ㄌㄢˊ ㄍㄨˇ ㄍㄜˊ ㄨㄤˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ) (?–?)
    • Yatse dynasty (亞澤王系ㄧㄚˋ ㄗㄜˊ ㄨㄤˊ ㄒㄧˋ) (AD 12th century–1801)
    • Lhasa dynasty (拉薩王系ㄌㄚ ㄙㄚˋ ㄨㄤˊ ㄒㄧˋ) (?–?)
    • Yarlung dynasty (雅隆覺阿王系ㄧㄚˇ ㄌㄨㄥˊ ㄐㄩㄝˊ ㄚ ㄨㄤˊ ㄒㄧˋ) (?–?)
    • Puhrang dynasty (普蘭王系ㄆㄨˇ ㄌㄢˊ ㄨㄤˊ ㄒㄧˋ) (?–?)
    • Gungthang dynasty (貢塘王系ㄍㄨㄥˋ ㄊㄤˊ ㄨㄤˊ ㄒㄧˋ) (?–?)
    • Lhagyari dynasty (拉加里王朝ㄌㄚ ㄐㄧㄚ ㄌㄧˇ ㄨㄤˊ ㄔㄠˊ) (?–?)
  • Huang Qi (黃齊ㄏㄨㄤˊ ㄑㄧˊ) (AD 881–884) – Ruled by the House of Huang () of Han descent
  • Ganzhou Uyghur Kingdom (甘州回鶻ㄍㄢ ㄓㄡ ㄏㄨㄟˊ ㄏㄨˊ) (AD 894–1036) – Ruled by the House of Yaglakar (藥羅葛) of Uyghur descent
  • Qi (ㄑㄧˊ) (AD 901–924) – Ruled by the House of Li () of Han descent
  • Later Three Dynasties of Yunnan (雲南後三朝ㄩㄣˊ ㄋㄢˊ ㄏㄡˋ ㄙㄢ ㄔㄠˊ) (AD 902–937)
    • Dachanghe (大長和ㄉㄚˋ ㄔㄤˊ ㄏㄜˊ) (AD 902–928) – Ruled by the House of Zheng () of Han descent
    • Datianxing (大天興ㄉㄚˋ ㄊㄧㄢ ㄒㄧㄥ) (AD 928–929) – Ruled by the House of Zhao ()
    • Dayining (大義寧ㄉㄚˋ ㄧˋ ㄋㄧㄥˊ) (AD 929–937) – Ruled by the House of Yang () of Han descent
  • Liugubu (六谷部ㄌㄧㄡˋ ㄍㄨˇ ㄅㄨˋ) (AD 906–1016)
  • Zhao (ㄓㄠˋ) (AD 907–921) – Ruled by the House of Wang () of Han descent
  • Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (五代十國ㄨˇ ㄉㄞˋ ㄕˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ) (AD 907–979)
    • Five Dynasties (五代ㄨˇ ㄉㄞˋ) (AD 907–960)
      • Later Liang (後梁ㄏㄡˋ ㄌㄧㄤˊ) (AD 907–923) – Ruled by the House of Zhu () of Han descent
      • Later Tang (後唐ㄏㄡˋ ㄊㄤˊ) (AD 923–937) – Ruled by the House of Li () of Shatuo descent
        • Former Jin (前晉ㄑㄧㄢˊ ㄐㄧㄣˋ) (AD 907–923)
        • Li Liang (李梁ㄌㄧˇ ㄌㄧㄤˊ) (AD 946–947)
      • Later Jin (後晉ㄏㄡˋ ㄐㄧㄣˋ) (AD 936–947) – Ruled by the House of Shi () of Shatuo descent
      • Later Han (後漢ㄏㄡˋ ㄏㄢˋ) (AD 947–951) – Ruled by the House of Liu () of Shatuo descent
      • Later Zhou (後周ㄏㄡˋ ㄓㄡ) (AD 951–960) – Ruled by the House of Guo () of Han descent
    • Ten Kingdoms (十國ㄕˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ) (AD 907–979)
      • Former Shu (前蜀ㄑㄧㄢˊ ㄕㄨˇ) (AD 907–925) – Ruled by the House of Wang () of Han descent
      • Yang Wu (楊吳ㄧㄤˊ ㄨˊ) (AD 907–937) – Ruled by the House of Yang () of Han descent
      • Ma Chu (馬楚ㄇㄚˇ ㄔㄨˇ) (AD 907–951) – Ruled by the House of Ma () of Han descent
      • Wuyue (吳越ㄨˊ ㄩㄝˋ) (AD 907–978) – Ruled by the House of Qian () of Han descent
      • Min (ㄇㄧㄣˇ) (AD 909–945) – Ruled by the House of Wang () of Han descent
        • Yin (ㄧㄣ) (AD 943–945)
      • Southern Han (南漢ㄋㄢˊ ㄏㄢˋ) (AD 917–971) – Ruled by the House of Liu () of Han descent
        • Yue (ㄩㄝˋ) (AD 917)
      • Jingnan (荊南ㄐㄧㄥ ㄋㄢˊ) (AD 924–963) – Ruled by the House of Gao () of Han descent
      • Later Shu (後蜀ㄏㄡˋ ㄕㄨˇ) (AD 934–965) – Ruled by the House of Meng () of Han descent
      • Southern Tang (南唐ㄋㄢˊ ㄊㄤˊ) (AD 937–976) – Ruled by the House of Li () of Han descent
        • Xu Qi (徐齊ㄒㄩˊ ㄑㄧˊ) (AD 937–939)
        • Jiangnan (江南ㄐㄧㄤ ㄋㄢˊ) (AD 971–976)
      • Northern Han (北漢ㄅㄟˇ ㄏㄢˋ) (AD 951–979) – Ruled by the House of Liu () of Shatuo descent
  • Beiping (北平ㄅㄟˇ ㄆㄧㄥˊ) (AD 909–929) – Ruled by the House of Wang () of Han descent
  • Yan (ㄧㄢ) (AD 911–913) – Ruled by the House of Liu () of Han descent
  • Liao dynasty (遼朝ㄌㄧㄠˊ ㄔㄠˊ) (AD 916–1125) – Ruled by the House of Yelü (耶律) of Khitan descent
    • Northern Liao (北遼ㄅㄟˇ ㄌㄧㄠˊ) (AD 1122–1123)
    • Western Liao (西遼ㄒㄧ ㄌㄧㄠˊ) (AD 1124–1218)
  • Dongdan Kingdom (東丹ㄉㄨㄥ ㄉㄢ) (AD 926–936) – Ruled by the House of Yelü (耶律) of Khitan descent
  • Later Bohai (後渤海ㄏㄡˋ ㄅㄛˊ ㄏㄞˇ) (AD 928–976) – Ruled by the House of Da () of Mohe descent
  • Dali Kingdom (大理ㄉㄚˋ ㄌㄧˇ) (AD 937–1094, AD 1096–1253) – Ruled by the House of Duan () of Baiman descent
    • Former Dali (前大理ㄑㄧㄢˊ ㄉㄚˋ ㄌㄧˇ) (AD 937–1094)
    • Later Dali (後大理ㄏㄡˋ ㄉㄚˋ ㄌㄧˇ) (AD 1096–1253)
  • Ding'an (定安ㄉㄧㄥˋ ㄢ) (AD 938–986) – Ruled by the House of Lie () and the House of Wu ()
  • Song dynasty (宋朝ㄙㄨㄥˋ ㄔㄠˊ) (AD 960–1279) – Ruled by the House of Zhao () of Han descent
    • Northern Song (北宋ㄅㄟˇ ㄙㄨㄥˋ) (AD 960–1127)
    • Southern Song (南宋ㄋㄢˊ ㄙㄨㄥˋ) (AD 1127–1279)
  • Chiefdom of Shuidong (水東土司ㄕㄨㄟˇ ㄉㄨㄥ ㄊㄨˇ ㄙ) (AD 975–1630) – Ruled by the House of Song ()
  • Restored Bohai (再興渤海ㄗㄞˋ ㄒㄧㄥ ㄅㄛˊ ㄏㄞˇ) (AD 979–1018) – Ruled by the House of Da () of Mohe descent
  • Li Shu (李蜀ㄌㄧˇ ㄕㄨˇ) (AD 994) – Ruled by the House of Li () of Han descent
  • Wure (兀惹ㄨˋ ㄖㄜˇ) (AD 995–996) – Ruled by the House of Wu ()
  • Xingliao (興遼ㄒㄧㄥ ㄌㄧㄠˊ) (AD 1029–1030) – Ruled by the House of Da () of Mohe descent
  • Changqi (長其ㄔㄤˊ ㄑㄧˊ) (AD 1029–1055) – Ruled by the House of Nong () of Zhuang descent
    • Dali (大歷ㄉㄚˋ ㄌㄧˋ) (AD 1041–1045)
    • Nantian (南天ㄋㄢˊ ㄊㄧㄢ) (AD 1045–1052)
    • Danan (大南ㄉㄚˋ ㄋㄢˊ) (AD 1052–1055)
  • Tsongkha (唃廝囉國ㄍㄨ ㄙ ㄌㄨㄛˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ) (AD 1032–1104)
  • Western Xia (西夏ㄒㄧ ㄒㄧㄚˋ) (AD 1038–1227) – Ruled by the House of Weiming (嵬名) of Tangut descent
  • Luoshi Kingdom (羅氏鬼國ㄌㄨㄛˊ ㄕˋ ㄍㄨㄟˇ ㄍㄨㄛˊ) (AD 1042–1278)
  • Dazhong (大中ㄉㄚˋ ㄓㄨㄥ) (AD 1094–1096) – Interrupted the Dali Kingdom; Ruled by the House of Gao () of Baiman descent
    • Chiefdom of Yao'an (姚安土司ㄧㄠˊ ㄢ ㄊㄨˇ ㄙ) (AD 1147–1729)
    • Chiefdom of Heqing (鶴慶土司ㄏㄜˋ ㄑㄧㄥˋ ㄊㄨˇ ㄙ) (AD 1253–1437)
    • Chiefdom of Yongsheng (永勝土司ㄩㄥˇ ㄕㄥˋ ㄊㄨˇ ㄙ) (?–AD 1946)
  • Keraite state (克烈ㄎㄜˋ ㄌㄧㄝˋ) (AD 11th century–13th century)
  • Chiefdom of Lingtsang (林蔥土司ㄌㄧㄣˊ ㄘㄨㄥ ㄊㄨˇ ㄙ) (AD 11th century–1959)
  • Ziqi (自杞ㄗˋ ㄑㄧˇ) (AD 1100–1259)
  • Jin dynasty (金朝ㄐㄧㄣ ㄔㄠˊ) (AD 1115–1234) – Ruled by the House of Wanyan (完顏) of Jurchen descent
  • Great Bohai (大渤海ㄉㄚˋ ㄅㄛˊ ㄏㄞˇ) (AD 1116) – Ruled by the House of Gao ()
  • Xi (ㄒㄧ) (AD 1123) – Ruled by the House of Xiao () of Kumo Xi descent
  • Chu (ㄔㄨˇ) (AD 1127) – Ruled by the House of Zhang () of Han descent
  • Liu Qi (劉齊ㄌㄧㄡˊ ㄑㄧˊ) (AD 1130–1137) – Ruled by the House of Liu () of Han descent
  • Khamag Mongol (蒙兀ㄇㄥˇ ㄨˋ) (AD 1148–1171) – Ruled by the House of Borjigin (孛兒只斤) of Mongol descent
  • Former Northwestern Liao (前西北遼ㄑㄧㄢˊ ㄒㄧ ㄅㄟˇ ㄌㄧㄠˊ) (AD 1161–1164) – Ruled by the House of Yelü (耶律) of Khitan descent
  • Ren Chu (任楚ㄖㄣˊ ㄔㄨˇ) (AD 1170) – Ruled by the House of Ren () of Han descent
  • Chiefdom of Nangqên (囊謙土司ㄋㄤˊ ㄑㄧㄢ ㄊㄨˇ ㄙ) (AD 1175–1955) – Ruled by the House of Zhi () of Tibetan descent
  • Chiang Hung (景隴金殿國ㄐㄧㄥˇ ㄌㄨㄥˇ ㄐㄧㄣ ㄉㄧㄢˋ ㄍㄨㄛˊ) (AD 1180–1950)
  • Later Northwestern Liao (後西北遼ㄏㄡˋ ㄒㄧ ㄅㄟˇ ㄌㄧㄠˊ) (AD 1196) – Ruled by the House of Yelü (耶律) of Khitan descent
  • Naiman state (乃蠻ㄋㄞˇ ㄇㄢˊ) (?–AD 1206) – Ruled by the House of Güčügüt (古出古惕) of Naiman descent
    • Northern Naiman (北乃蠻ㄅㄟˇ ㄋㄞˇ ㄇㄢˊ) (AD 1198–1204)
    • Southern Naiman (南乃蠻ㄋㄢˊ ㄋㄞˇ ㄇㄢˊ) (AD 1198–1206)
  • Mongol Empire (蒙古帝國ㄇㄥˇ ㄍㄨˇ ㄉㄧˋ ㄍㄨㄛˊ) (AD 1206–1368) – Ruled by the House of Borjigin (孛兒只斤) of Mongol descent
    • Ögedei Khanate (窩闊台汗國ㄨㄛ ㄎㄨㄛˋ ㄊㄞˊ ㄏㄢˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ) (AD 1225–1309)
    • Chagatai Khanate (察合台汗國ㄔㄚˊ ㄍㄜˇ ㄊㄞˊ ㄏㄢˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ) (AD 1225–1346)
      • Western Chagatai Khanate (西察合台汗國ㄒㄧ ㄔㄚˊ ㄍㄜˇ ㄊㄞˊ ㄏㄢˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ) (AD 1346–1402)
      • Eastern Chagatai Khanate (東察合台汗國ㄉㄨㄥ ㄔㄚˊ ㄍㄜˇ ㄊㄞˊ ㄏㄢˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ) (AD 1347–1680)
        • Beshbalik (別失八里ㄅㄧㄝˊ ㄕ ㄅㄚ ㄌㄧˇ) (AD 1389–1418)
        • Ili Baliq (亦力把里ㄧˋ ㄌㄧˋ ㄅㄚˇ ㄌㄧˇ) (AD 1418–1508)
        • Turpan Khanate (吐魯番汗國ㄊㄨˇ ㄌㄨˇ ㄈㄢ ㄏㄢˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ) (AD 1487–1570)
        • Yarkent Khanate (葉爾羌汗國ㄧㄝˋ ㄦˇ ㄑㄧㄤ ㄏㄢˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ) (AD 1514–1705)
    • Yuan dynasty (元朝ㄩㄢˊ ㄔㄠˊ) (AD 1271–1368)
      • Northern Yuan (北元ㄅㄟˇ ㄩㄢˊ) (AD 1368–1635)
        • Altan Khanate (阿拉坦汗部ㄚ ㄌㄚ ㄊㄢˇ ㄏㄢˊ ㄅㄨˋ) (AD 1609–1691)
        • Tüsheet Khanate (土謝圖汗部ㄊㄨˇ ㄒㄧㄝˋ ㄊㄨˊ ㄏㄢˊ ㄅㄨˋ) (AD 1691–1923)
        • Setsen Khanate (車臣汗部ㄔㄜ ㄔㄣˊ ㄏㄢˊ ㄅㄨˋ) (AD 1691–1923)
        • Jasaghtu Khanate (札薩克圖汗部ㄓㄚ ㄙㄚˋ ㄎㄜˋ ㄊㄨˊ ㄏㄢˊ ㄅㄨˋ) (AD 1691–1923)
  • Wu Shu (吳蜀ㄨˊ ㄕㄨˇ) (AD 1207) – Ruled by the House of Wu () of Han descent
  • Eastern Liao (東遼ㄉㄨㄥ ㄌㄧㄠˊ) (AD 1213–1269) – Ruled by the House of Yelü (耶律) of Khitan descent
    • Later Liao (後遼ㄏㄡˋ ㄌㄧㄠˊ) (AD 1216–1219)
  • Eastern Xia (東夏ㄉㄨㄥ ㄒㄧㄚˋ) (AD 1215–1233) – Ruled by the House of Puxian (蒲鮮) of Jurchen descent
  • Kingdom of Mangalai (曼尕賴ㄇㄢˋ ㄍㄚˇ ㄌㄞˋ) (AD 1220–1877)
  • Laduijiang (拉堆絳ㄌㄚ ㄉㄨㄟ ㄐㄧㄤˋ) (AD 1227–1610)
  • Chiefdom of Menggen (孟艮土司ㄇㄥˋ ㄍㄣˇ ㄊㄨˇ ㄙ) (AD 1263–1959) – Ruled by the House of Dao () of Dai descent
  • Tianwan (天完ㄊㄧㄢ ㄨㄢˊ) (AD 1351–1360) – Ruled by the House of Xu () of Han descent
  • Zhou (ㄓㄡ) (AD 1354–1367) – Ruled by the House of Zhang () of Han descent
  • Phagmodrupa dynasty (帕木竹巴ㄆㄚˋ ㄇㄨˋ ㄓㄨˊ ㄅㄚ) (AD 1354–1618)
  • Han Song (韓宋ㄏㄢˊ ㄙㄨㄥˋ) (AD 1355–1366) – Ruled by the House of Han () of Han descent
  • Chen Han (陳漢ㄔㄣˊ ㄏㄢˋ) (AD 1360–1364) – Ruled by the House of Chen () of Han descent
  • Ming Xia (明夏ㄇㄧㄥˊ ㄒㄧㄚˋ) (AD 1363–1371) – Ruled by the House of Ming () of Han descent
  • Ming dynasty (明朝ㄇㄧㄥˊ ㄔㄠˊ) (AD 1368–1644) – Ruled by the House of Zhu () of Han descent
    • Western Wu (西吳ㄒㄧ ㄨˊ) (AD 1364–1368)
    • Southern Ming (南明ㄋㄢˊ ㄇㄧㄥˊ) (AD 1644–1662)
  • Chiefdom of Shenbian (沈邊土司ㄕㄣˇ ㄅㄧㄢ ㄊㄨˇ ㄙ) (AD 1369–1911) – Ruled by the House of Yu () of Mongol descent
  • Chiefdom of Muping (穆坪土司ㄇㄨˋ ㄆㄧㄥˊ ㄊㄨˇ ㄙ) (AD 1373–1928)
  • Kara Del (哈密國ㄏㄚ ㄇㄧˋ ㄍㄨㄛˊ) (AD 1380–1513) – Ruled by the House of Borjigin (孛兒只斤) of Mongol descent
  • Chiefdom of Yongning (永寧土司ㄩㄥˇ ㄋㄧㄥˊ ㄊㄨˇ ㄙ) (AD 1381–1956) – Ruled by the House of A () of Mosuo descent
  • Chiefdom of Nandian (南甸土司ㄋㄢˊ ㄉㄧㄢˋ ㄊㄨˇ ㄙ) (AD 1389–1950) – Ruled by the House of Dao () of Dai descent
  • Chiefdom of Gengma (耿馬土司ㄍㄥˇ ㄇㄚˇ ㄊㄨˇ ㄙ) (AD 1397–1950) – Ruled by the House of Han () of Dai descent
  • Mong Lem (孟璉ㄇㄥˋ ㄌㄧㄢˇ) (AD 14th century–19th century)
  • Hor States (五霍爾ㄨˇ ㄏㄨㄛˋ ㄦˇ) (AD 14th century–20th century)
    • Khangsar (康薩ㄎㄤ ㄙㄚˋ) (?–?)
    • Mazur (馬蘇ㄇㄚˇ ㄙㄨ) (?–?)
    • Drango (特郎哥ㄊㄜˋ ㄌㄤˊ ㄍㄜ) (?–?)
    • Beri (彼里ㄅㄧˇ ㄌㄧˇ) (?–?)
    • Trehor (哲霍ㄓㄜˊ ㄏㄨㄛˋ) (?–?)
  • Chiefdom of Chakla (明正土司ㄇㄧㄥˊ ㄓㄥˋ ㄊㄨˇ ㄙ) (AD 1407–1911) – Ruled by the House of Jia () of Gyalrong descent
  • Chiefdom of Zagu (雜谷土司ㄗㄚˊ ㄍㄨˇ ㄊㄨˇ ㄙ) (AD 1410–1752)
    • Chiefdom of Suomo (梭磨土司ㄙㄨㄛ ㄇㄛˊ ㄊㄨˇ ㄙ) (AD 1721–1938)
      • Chiefdom of Songgang (松崗土司ㄙㄨㄥ ㄍㄤˇ ㄊㄨˇ ㄙ) (AD 1753–1928)
  • Chiefdom of Lengbian (冷邊土司ㄌㄥˇ ㄅㄧㄢ ㄊㄨˇ ㄙ) (AD 1410–1911) – Ruled by the House of Zhou ()
  • Chiefdom of Zhuoni (卓尼土司ㄓㄨㄛˊ ㄋㄧˊ ㄊㄨˇ ㄙ) (AD 1418–1949) – Ruled by the House of Yang () of Tibetan descent
  • Rinpungpa (仁蚌巴ㄖㄣˊ ㄅㄤˋ ㄅㄚ) (AD 1435–1565)
  • Chiefdom of Wasi (瓦寺土司ㄨㄚˇ ㄙˋ ㄊㄨˇ ㄙ) (AD 1441–1935) – Ruled by the House of Suo () of Gyalrong descent
  • Chiefdom of Mangshi (芒市土司ㄇㄤˊ ㄕˋ ㄊㄨˇ ㄙ) (AD 1443–1955) – Ruled by the House of Fang () of Dai descent
  • Namgyal dynasty of Ladakh (拉達克南嘉王朝ㄌㄚ ㄉㄚˊ ㄎㄜˋ ㄋㄢˊ ㄐㄧㄚ ㄨㄤˊ ㄔㄠˊ) (AD 1470–1842) – Ruled by the House of Namgyal (南嘉)
  • Chiefdom of Yongshun (永順土司ㄩㄥˇ ㄕㄨㄣˋ ㄊㄨˇ ㄙ) (AD 1492–1928) – Ruled by the House of Deng ()
  • Kingdom of Derge (德格王國ㄉㄜˊ ㄍㄜˊ ㄨㄤˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ) (AD 15th century–1956) – Ruled by the House of mGar (噶爾) of Tibetan descent
  • Ula (烏拉ㄨ ㄌㄚ) (AD 1561–1613) – Ruled by the House of Ula Nara (烏拉那拉) of Jurchen descent
  • Tsangpa (藏巴王朝ㄗㄤˋ ㄅㄚ ㄨㄤˊ ㄔㄠˊ) (AD 1565–1642)
  • Chiefdom of Zhefang (遮放土司ㄓㄜ ㄈㄤˋ ㄊㄨˇ ㄙ) (AD 16th century–1955) – Ruled by the House of Duo () of Dai descent
  • Chiefdom of Menghan (勐罕土司ㄇㄥˇ ㄏㄢˇ ㄊㄨˇ ㄙ) (AD 1606–1950) – Ruled by the House of Shao () of Dai descent
  • Dzungar Khanate (準噶爾汗國ㄓㄨㄣˇ ㄍㄚˊ ㄦˇ ㄏㄢˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ) (AD 1634–1757) – Ruled by the House of Choros (綽羅斯) of Mongol descent
  • Qing dynasty (清朝ㄑㄧㄥ ㄔㄠˊ) (AD 1636–1912, AD 1917) – Ruled by the House of Aisin Gioro (愛新覺羅) of Manchu descent
    • Later Jin (後金ㄏㄡˋ ㄐㄧㄣ) (AD 1616–1636)
  • Khoshut Khanate (和碩特汗國ㄏㄜˊ ㄕㄨㄛˋ ㄊㄜˋ ㄏㄢˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ) (AD 1642–1717) – Ruled by the House of Borjigin (孛兒只斤) of Mongol descent
  • Xi (西ㄒㄧ) (AD 1644–1646) – Ruled by the House of Zhang () of Han descent
  • Shun dynasty (順朝ㄕㄨㄣˋ ㄔㄠˊ) (AD 1644–1649) – Ruled by the House of Li () of Tangut descent
  • Chiefdom of Muli (木里土司ㄇㄨˋ ㄌㄧˇ ㄊㄨˇ ㄙ) (AD 1648–1952) – Ruled by the House of Xiang () of Pumi descent
  • Chiefdom of Tsanlha (贊拉土司ㄗㄢˋ ㄌㄚ ㄊㄨˇ ㄙ) (AD 1650–1776)
  • Chiefdom of Wori (沃日土司ㄨㄛˋ ㄖˋ ㄊㄨˇ ㄙ) (AD 1658–?)
  • Kingdom of Tungning (東寧ㄉㄨㄥ ㄋㄧㄥˊ) (AD 1661–1683) – Ruled by the House of Zheng () of Han descent
  • Wu Zhou (吳周ㄨˊ ㄓㄡ) (AD 1678–1681) – Ruled by the House of Wu () of Han descent
  • Kumul Khanate (哈密汗國ㄏㄚ ㄇㄧˋ ㄏㄢˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ) (AD 1696–1930) – Ruled by the House of Borjigin (孛兒只斤) of Mongol descent
  • Kingdom of Seqalu (斯卡羅ㄙ ㄎㄚˇ ㄌㄨㄛˊ) (AD 17th century–1930) – Ruled by the House of Garuljigulj (卡珞利谷) of Puyuma descent
  • Chiefdom of Chuosijia (綽斯甲土司ㄔㄨㄛˋ ㄙ ㄐㄧㄚˇ ㄊㄨˇ ㄙ) (AD 1702–?)
  • Chiefdom of Bathang (巴塘土司ㄅㄚ ㄊㄤˊ ㄊㄨˇ ㄙ) (AD 1719–1906)
  • Chiefdom of Lithang (理塘土司ㄌㄧˇ ㄊㄤˊ ㄊㄨˇ ㄙ) (AD 1719–1906)
  • Chiefdom of Lijiang (麗江土司ㄌㄧˋ ㄐㄧㄤ ㄊㄨˇ ㄙ) (?–AD 1723) – Ruled by the House of Mu () of Nakhi descent
  • Chiefdom of Chuchen (促侵土司ㄘㄨˋ ㄑㄧㄣ ㄊㄨˇ ㄙ) (AD 1723–1776)
  • Kingdom of Middag (大肚王國ㄉㄚˋ ㄉㄨˋ ㄨㄤˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ) (?–AD 1732) – Ruled by the House of Camachat (甘仔轄) of Papora descent
  • Chiefdom of Kokang (果敢土司ㄍㄨㄛˇ ㄍㄢˇ ㄊㄨˇ ㄙ) (AD 1739–1959) – Ruled by the House of Yang () of Kokang descent
  • Chiefdom of Dangba (黨壩土司ㄉㄤˇ ㄅㄚˋ ㄊㄨˇ ㄙ) (AD 1753–1953)
  • Chiefdom of Zhuokeji (卓克基土司ㄓㄨㄛˊ ㄎㄜˋ ㄐㄧ ㄊㄨˇ ㄙ) (AD 1753–?)
  • Chiefdom of Shizhu (石砫土司ㄕˊ ㄓㄨˋ ㄊㄨˇ ㄙ) (?–AD 1761) – Ruled by the House of Ma () of Tujia descent
  • Chiefdom of Mengjiaodong (勐角董土司ㄇㄥˇ ㄐㄧㄠˇ ㄉㄨㄥˇ ㄊㄨˇ ㄙ) (AD 1771–1949) – Ruled by the House of Han () of Tai Nuea descent
  • Chiefdom of Bawang (巴旺土司ㄅㄚ ㄨㄤˋ ㄊㄨˇ ㄙ) (AD 1774–?)
    • Chiefdom of Badi (巴底土司ㄅㄚ ㄉㄧˇ ㄊㄨˇ ㄙ) (AD 1774–?)
  • Taiping Heavenly Kingdom (太平天國ㄊㄞˋ ㄆㄧㄥˊ ㄊㄧㄢ ㄍㄨㄛˊ) (AD 1851–1864) – Ruled by the House of Hong () of Han descent
  • Pingnan (平南ㄆㄧㄥˊ ㄋㄢˊ) (AD 1856–1873) – Ruled by the House of Du () of Hui descent
  • Yettishar Khanate (哲德沙爾汗國ㄓㄜˊ ㄉㄜˊ ㄕㄚ ㄦˇ ㄏㄢˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ) (AD 1865–1867)
    • Hongfu Khanate (洪福汗國ㄏㄨㄥˊ ㄈㄨˊ ㄏㄢˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ) (AD 1867–1877)
  • Chiefdom of Mengban (勐板土司ㄇㄥˇ ㄅㄢˇ ㄊㄨˇ ㄙ) (AD 1899–1955) – Ruled by the House of Jiang () of Han descent
  • Bogd Khanate (博克多汗國ㄅㄛˊ ㄎㄜˋ ㄉㄨㄛ ㄏㄢˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ) (AD 1911–1919, AD 1921–1924)
  • Chiefdom of Yutong (魚通土司ㄩˊ ㄊㄨㄥ ㄊㄨˇ ㄙ) (?–AD 1911) – Ruled by the House of Jia ()
  • Chiefdom of Geshizha (革什札土司ㄍㄜˊ ㄕˊ ㄓㄚˊ ㄊㄨˇ ㄙ) (?–AD 1911)
  • Empire of China (中華帝國ㄓㄨㄥ ㄏㄨㄚˊ ㄉㄧˋ ㄍㄨㄛˊ) (AD 1915–1916) – Ruled by the House of Yuan () of Han descent
  • Kingdom of Powo (波密土王ㄅㄛ ㄇㄧˋ ㄊㄨˇ ㄨㄤˊ) (?–AD 1910, AD 1911–1928)
  • Kingdom of Tjaquvuquvulj (大龜文ㄉㄚˋ ㄍㄨㄟ ㄨㄣˊ) (?–AD 1930)
  • Manchukuo (滿洲國ㄇㄢˇ ㄓㄡ ㄍㄨㄛˊ) (AD 1934–1945) – Ruled by the House of Aisin Gioro (愛新覺羅) of Manchu descent
  • Chiefdom of Ganya (干崖土司ㄍㄢ ㄧㄚˊ ㄊㄨˇ ㄙ) (?–AD 1949) – Ruled by the House of Chi () of Dai descent
  • Chiefdom of Menghai (勐海土司ㄇㄥˇ ㄏㄞˇ ㄊㄨˇ ㄙ) (?–AD 1950) – Ruled by the House of Shao () of Dai descent
  • Chiefdom of Béri (白利土司ㄅㄞˊ ㄌㄧˋ ㄊㄨˇ ㄙ) (?–?)

Cocos (Keeling) Islands

Cyprus

Georgia

Indian Subcontinent

Note that many dates before the 9th century AD are disputed.[7]

Indonesia

Iran (Persia)

Japan

  • Imperial House of Japan (皇室こうしつ) (660 BC–present) – Also called "Yamato dynasty"; The traditional founding year of 660 BC assigned by Japanese historiography is typically considered to be legendary
    • Northern Court (北朝ほくちょう) (AD 1331–1392) – Also called "Jimyōin line" (持明院統じみょういんとう)
    • Southern Court (南朝なんちょう) (AD 1336–1392) – Also called "Daikakuji line" (大覚寺統だいかくじとう)
      • Later Southern Court (後南朝ごなんちょう) (AD 1392–1514)
  • House of Aviz-Beja (アヴィス=ベージャ王朝) (AD 1580) – Nagasaki under Portuguese rule
  • Philippine dynasty (スペイン・ハプスブルク朝) (AD 1581–1587) – Nagasaki under Portuguese rule

Jordan

Korea

  • Gojoseon (고조선 / 古朝鮮) (2333–108 BC) – The traditional founding year of 2333 BC assigned by Korean historiography is typically considered to be mythical
  • Takri Kingdom (고리국 / 槀離國) (c. 5th century–2nd century BC)
  • Jin ( / ) (c. 4th century–2nd century BC)
  • Dongye (동예 / 東濊) (c. 3rd century BC–AD 5th century)
  • Buyeo (부여 / 扶餘) (239 BC–AD 494)
    • Northern Buyeo (북부여 / 北扶餘) (239–58 BC)
    • Jolbon Buyeo (졸본부여 / 卒本扶餘) (86–37 BC)
    • Eastern Buyeo (동부여 / 東扶餘) (86 BC–AD 410)
  • Okjeo (옥저 / 沃沮) (c. 2nd century BC–AD 5th century)
    • Eastern Okjeo (동옥저 / 東沃沮) – Also called "Southern Okjeo" (남옥저 / 南沃沮)
    • Northern Okjeo (북옥저 / 北沃沮)
  • Han dynasty (한나라 / 漢朝) (c. 108 BC–AD 9, AD 30–220) – Ruled by the House of Liu ( / ); Chinese rule over the Four Commanderies of Han on the Korean Peninsula as far south as the Han River
  • Nakrang Kingdom (낙랑국 / 樂浪國) (c. 1st century BC–AD 37)
  • Samhan (삼한 / 三韓) (c. 1st century BC–AD 5th century)
    • Jinhan (진한 / 辰韓) (c. 1st century BC–AD 4th century)
    • Mahan (마한 / 馬韓) (c. 1st century BC–AD 5th century)
    • Byeonhan (변한 / 弁韓) (c. 1st century–4th century AD)
  • Three Kingdoms (삼국 / 三國) (57 BC–AD 668)
    • Silla (신라 / 新羅) (57 BC–AD 935) – Ruled by the House of Park ( / ), the House of Seok ( / ), and the House of Kim ( / )
    • Goguryeo (고구려 / 高句麗) (37 BC–AD 668) – Ruled by the House of Go ( / )
    • Baekje (백제 / 百濟) (18 BC–AD 660) – Ruled by the House of Buyeo (부여 / 扶餘); Also called "Southern Buyeo" (남부여 / 南扶餘)
  • Tamna (탐라 / 耽羅) (57 BC–AD 1402)
  • Xin dynasty (신나라 / 新朝) (AD 9–23) – Interrupted the Han dynasty; Ruled by the House of Wang ( / ); Chinese rule over the Four Commanderies of Han on the Korean Peninsula
  • Gaya (가야 / 伽倻) (AD 42–562)
  • Cao Wei (조위 / 曹魏) (AD 236–265) – Ruled by the House of Cao ( / ); Chinese rule over the Daifang Commandery on part of the Korean Peninsula
  • Jin dynasty (진(위진) / 晉朝) (AD 266–314) – Ruled by the House of Sima (사마 / 司馬); Chinese rule over the Daifang Commandery on part of the Korean Peninsula
  • Tang dynasty (당나라 / 唐朝) (AD 660–690, AD 705–761) – Ruled by the House of Li ( / ); Chinese rule over the Ungjin Commandery and Gyerim Territory Area Command on part of the Korean Peninsula
    • Wu Zhou (무주 / 武周) (AD 690–705) – Interrupted the Tang dynasty; Ruled by the House of Wu ( / ); Chinese rule over the Ungjin Commandery and Gyerim Territory Area Command on part of the Korean Peninsula
  • Bodeog (보덕국 / 報德國) (AD 674–683) – Ruled by the House of Go ( / )
  • Northern and Southern States (남북국 / 南北國) (AD 698–892)
    • Later Silla (후신라 / 後新羅) (AD 668–935) – Ruled by the House of Kim ( / ); Also called "Unified Silla" (통일신라 / 統一新羅)
    • Balhae (발해 / 渤海) (AD 698–926) – Ruled by the House of Dae ( / )
  • Jang-an (장안 / 長安) (AD 822–825) – Ruled by the House of Kim ( / )
  • Later Three Kingdoms (후삼국 / 後三國) (AD 892–936)
    • Later Silla (후신라 / 後新羅) (AD 668–935) – Ruled by the House of Kim ( / ); Also called "Unified Silla" (통일신라 / 統一新羅)
    • Later Baekje (후백제 / 後百濟) (AD 892–936) – Ruled by the House of Gyeon ( / )
    • Taebong (태봉 / 泰封) (AD 901–918) – Ruled by the House of Kim ( / ); Also called "Later Goguryeo" (후고구려 / 後高句麗)
  • Goryeo (고려 / 高麗) (AD 918–1392) – Ruled by the House of Wang ( / )
  • Later Sabeol (후사벌 / 後沙伐) (AD 919–927) – Ruled by the House of Park ( / )
  • Usan (우산국 / 于山國) (?–AD 1022)
  • Daewi (대위국 / 大為國) (AD 1135–1136)
  • Yuan dynasty (원나라 / 元朝) (AD 1270–1356) – Ruled by the House of Borjigin (보르지긴 / 孛兒只斤); Goryeo ruled as the Zhengdong Province of the Yuan dynasty of China
  • Joseon (조선 / 朝鮮) (AD 1392–1897) – Ruled by the House of Yi ( / )
  • Daegeum (대금 / 大金) (AD 1453) – Ruled by the House of Yi ( / )
  • Imperial House of Japan (일본 황실 / 日本皇室) (AD 1910–1945) – Korea under Japanese rule

Kuwait

Laos

Lebanon

Malaysia

The Maldives

Mesopotamia

Mongolia

Myanmar (Burma)

Nepal

(राणा वंश) (AD 1857-1951)

Oman

Palestine

The Philippines

Qatar

Ryukyu Islands

Saudi Arabia

Siberia

Singapore

Sri Lanka

Thailand (Siam)

  • Singhanavati (สิงหนวัติ)
  • Lavachakkaraj dynasty (AD 638–1292) – Kingdom of Hiran
  • Phra Ruang dynasty (ราชวงศ์พระร่วง) (AD 1238–1438) – Sukhothai Kingdom
  • Mangrai dynasty (AD 1292–1558) – Lan Na
  • Uthong dynasty (ราชวงศ์อู่ทอง) (AD 1350–1370, AD 1388–1409) – Ayutthaya Kingdom
  • Suphannaphum dynasty (ราชวงศ์สุพรรณภูมิ) (AD 1370–1388, AD 1409–1569) – Ayutthaya Kingdom
  • Inland dynasty (AD 1457–1688) – Pattani Kingdom
  • Sukhothai dynasty (ราชวงศ์สุโขทัย) (AD 1569–1629) – Ayutthaya Kingdom
  • Sultanate of Singora (AD 1605–1680)
  • Prasart Thong dynasty (ราชวงศ์ปราสาททอง) (AD 1629–1688) – Ayutthaya Kingdom
  • Baan Plu Luang dynasty (ราชวงศ์บ้านพลูหลวง) (AD 1688–1767) – Ayutthaya Kingdom
  • First Kelantanese dynasty (AD 1688–1808) – Pattani Kingdom
  • Chet Ton dynasty (เชื้อเจ็ดตน) (AD 1732–1943) – Also called "Thipchak dynasty" (ราชวงศ์ทิพย์จักร)
  • Thonburi dynasty (ราชวงศ์ธนบุรี) (AD 1767–1782) – Thonburi Kingdom
  • Chakri dynasty (ราชวงศ์จักรี) (AD 1782–present) – Rattanakosin Kingdom (AD 1782–1932) and Kingdom of Thailand (AD 1932–present)
  • Second Kelantanese dynasty (AD 1842–1902) – Pattani Kingdom

Timor-Leste (East Timor)

Turkey

United Arab Emirates

Vietnam

  • Hồng Bàng dynasty (Hồng Bàng thị / 鴻龐氏) (2879–258 BC)
    • Càn line (Chi Càn / 支乾) (2879–2794 BC)
    • Khảm line (Chi Khảm / 支坎) (2793–2525 BC)
    • Cấn line (Chi Cấn / 支艮) (2524–2253 BC)
    • Chấn line (Chi Chấn / 支震) (2252–1913 BC)
    • Tốn line (Chi Tốn / 支巽) (1912–1713 BC)
    • Ly line (Chi Ly / 支離) (1712–1632 BC)
    • Khôn line (Chi Khôn / 支坤) (1631–1432 BC)
    • Đoài line (Chi Đoài / 支兌) (1431–1332 BC)
    • Giáp line (Chi Giáp / 支甲) (1331–1252 BC)
    • Ất line (Chi Ất / 支乙) (1251–1162 BC)
    • Bính line (Chi Bính / 支丙) (1161–1055 BC)
    • Đinh line (Chi Đinh / 支丁) (1054–969 BC)
    • Mậu line (Chi Mậu / 支戊) (968–854 BC)
    • Kỷ line (Chi Kỷ / 支己) (853–755 BC)
    • Canh line (Chi Canh / 支庚) (754–661 BC)
    • Tân line (Chi Tân / 支辛) (660–569 BC)
    • Nhâm line (Chi Nhâm / 支壬) (568–409 BC)
    • Qúy line (Chi Qúy / 支癸) (408–258 BC)
  • Thục dynasty (Nhà Thục / 茹蜀) (257–207 BC)
  • Triệu dynasty (Nhà Triệu / 茹趙) (204–111 BC) – Founded by Zhao Tuo from the Chinese Qin dynasty; Vietnam ruled as part of Nanyue
  • Han dynasty (Nhà Hán / 茹漢) (111 BC–AD 9, AD 23–40, AD 43–220) – Vietnam under Chinese rule (First domination and Second domination)
  • Xin dynasty (Nhà Tân / 茹新) (AD 9–23) – Vietnam under Chinese rule (First domination); Interrupted the Han dynasty
  • Trưng sisters (Hai Bà Trưng / 𠄩婆徵) (AD 40–43) – Interrupted the Han dynasty
  • Eastern Wu (Đông Ngô / 東吳) (AD 229–265, AD 271–280) – Vietnam under Chinese rule (Second domination)
  • Jin dynasty (Nhà Tấn / 茹晉) (AD 266–271, AD 280–420) – Vietnam under Chinese rule (Second domination)
  • Liu Song (Lưu Tống / 劉宋) (AD 420–479) – Vietnam under Chinese rule (Second domination)
  • Southern Qi (Nam Tề / 南齊) (AD 479–502) – Vietnam under Chinese rule (Second domination)
  • Liang dynasty (Nhà Lương / 茹梁) (AD 502–544) – Vietnam under Chinese rule (Second domination)
  • Early Lý dynasty (Nhà Tiền Lý / 茹前李) (AD 544–602)
  • Sui dynasty (Nhà Tùy / 茹隋) (AD 602–618) – Vietnam under Chinese rule (Third domination)
  • Tang dynasty (Nhà Đường / 茹唐) (AD 621–690, AD 705–905) – Vietnam under Chinese rule (Third domination)
    • Wu Zhou (Võ Chu / 武周) (AD 690–705) – Vietnam under Chinese rule (Third domination); Interrupted the Tang dynasty
  • Khúc clan (Họ Khúc / 𣱆曲) (AD 905–930)
  • Southern Han (Nam Hán / 南漢) (AD 930–938) – Vietnam under Chinese rule (Third domination)
  • Ngô dynasty (Nhà Ngô / 茹吳) (AD 939–965)
  • Đinh dynasty (Nhà Đinh / 茹丁) (AD 968–980)
  • Early Lê dynasty (Nhà Tiền Lê / 茹前黎) (AD 980–1009)
  • Lý dynasty (Nhà Lý / 茹李) (AD 1009–1225)
  • Trần dynasty (Nhà Trần / 茹陳) (AD 1225–1400)
  • Hồ dynasty (Nhà Hồ / 茹胡) (AD 1400–1407)
  • Ming dynasty (Nhà Minh / 茹明) (AD 1407–1427) – Vietnam under Chinese rule (Fourth domination)
  • Later Lê dynasty (Nhà Hậu Lê / 茹後黎) (AD 1428–1527, AD 1533–1789)
  • Mạc dynasty (Nhà Mạc / 茹莫) (AD 1527–1677)
  • Bầu lords (Chúa Bầu / 主裒) (AD 1527–1689)
  • Trịnh lords (Chúa Trịnh / 主鄭) (AD 1545–1787)
  • Nguyễn lords (Chúa Nguyễn / 主阮) (AD 1558–1777)
  • Principality of Hà Tiên (Hà Tiên trấn / 河僊鎮) (AD 1707–1832) – Founded by Mo Jiu from the Chinese Southern Ming dynasty
  • Tây Sơn dynasty (Nhà Tây Sơn / 茹西山) (AD 1778–1802)
  • Nguyễn dynasty (Nhà Nguyễn / 茹阮) (AD 1802–1945) – Nguyễn monarch legally maintained the nominal title of "emperor" in the Domain of the Crown from 1950 to 1955[8]
  • House of Bonaparte (Nhà Bonaparte) (AD 1862–1870) – Cochinchina under French rule

Yemen

List of dynasties in Europe


Legend
  Extant sovereign dynasties
  Extant non-sovereign dynasties

Albania

Austria

Barbarians

Bavarii
Franks
Burgundians
Huns

This is a list of rulers of the Huns. Period Ruler

  • Vund c. 360
  • Balamber 360–378
  • Baltazár (Alypbi) 378–390
  • Uldin (Khan of the Western Huns) 390–410
  • Donatus (Khan of the Eastern Black Sea Huns & beyond) 410–412
  • Charaton (Aksungur) 412–422
  • Octar[1] 422–432
  • Rugila 432–434
  • Bleda with Attila c. 434 – c. 445
  • Attila "the Hun" c. 434–453
  • Ellac 453 – c. 455
  • Tuldila fl. c. 457
  • Dengizich (Sabirs attack c. 460–463) ?-469 with Hernach/BelkErmak
  • Hernach/BelkErmak[2] 469–503
  • House of Dulo Bulgaria (390–503) A Nominalia of the Bulgarian khans genealogy claims that the Dulo clan is descended from Attila the Hun.
Scirii
  • Edeko
  • Odoacer (435–493), was the 5th-century King of Italy
Avars
Lombards
Ostrogoths
Suebi
Vandals
Visigoths

Belgium

Medieval feudal states[lower-alpha 28]
Kingdom of Belgium

Bohemia/Czechia

Great Moravia
Duchy of Bohemia
Kingdom of Bohemia

Bosnia

Bulgaria

Croatia

Denmark

England

Estonia

Faroe Islands

Finland

France

Germany

Bavaria
Saxony

Greece

Hungary

Iceland

Ireland

Italy

Liechtenstein

Luxembourg

Malta

Monaco

Montenegro

Netherlands

Norway

Poland

Portugal

County of Portugal
Kingdom of Portugal

Roman Empire

Romania

Before the Unification
Moldavia
Wallachia
After the Unification

Russia

  • Khazar Khaganate (Хазары) (AD 650–969)
  • Volga Bulgaria (Волжская Булгария) (AD 7th century–1242)
  • Rus' Khaganate (Русский каганат) (AD 8th century–9th century) – Hypothesized
  • Kyi dynasty (AD 842–882)
  • Rurik dynasty (Рю́риковичи) (AD 862–1598, AD 1605–1610)
  • Golden Horde (Золотая Орда) (AD 1242–1502) – Russia under Mongol rule
  • Qasim dynasty (AD 1575–1576)
  • Godunov dynasty (Годуно́в) (AD 1598–1605)
  • House of Vasa (Васа) (AD 1610–1613)
  • House of Romanov (Рома́новы) (AD 1613–1762, AD 1796–1917, AD 1922)
  • Kalmyk Khanate (Калмыцкое ханство) (AD 1630–1771)
  • House of Ascania (Аскании) (AD 1762–1796)

Scotland

Serbia

Spain

Sweden

Ukraine

Wales

List of dynasties in North America


Legend
  Extant sovereign dynasties

Alaska

Antigua and Barbuda

  • House of Stuart (AD 1632–1649, AD 1660–1714) – Antigua and Barbuda under English rule (AD 1632–1649, AD 1660–1707) and Antigua and Barbuda under British rule (AD 1707–1714)
  • House of Hanover (AD 1714–1901) – Antigua and Barbuda under British rule
  • House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (AD 1901–1917) – Antigua and Barbuda under British rule

The Bahamas

Barbados

Belize

Bermuda

Canada

Costa Rica

Cuba

  • House of Trastámara (Casa de Trastámara) (AD 1511–1555) – Cuba under Spanish rule
  • House of Habsburg (Casa de Habsburgo) (AD 1516–1700) – Cuba under Spanish rule
  • House of Borbón-Anjou (Casa de Borbón-Anjou) (AD 1700–1808, AD 1813–1868, AD 1874–1898) – Cuba under Spanish rule
  • House of Bonaparte (Casa de Bonaparte) (AD 1808–1813) – Cuba under Spanish rule
  • House of Savoy (Casa de Saboya) (AD 1870–1873) – Cuba under Spanish rule

Dominica

El Salvador

Greenland

Grenada

Haiti

Jamaica

Maya

Mexico

Panama

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Trinidad and Tobago

Conterminous United States

List of dynasties in South America


Argentina

  • House of Habsburg (Casa de Habsburgo) (AD 1534–1700) – Argentina under Spanish rule
  • House of Borbón-Anjou (Casa de Borbón-Anjou) (AD 1700–1808, AD 1813–1816) – Argentina under Spanish rule
  • House of Bonaparte (Casa de Bonaparte) (AD 1808–1813) – Argentina under Spanish rule

Brazil

Chile

Guyana

Peru

List of dynasties in Oceania


Legend
  Extant sovereign dynasties
  Extant non-sovereign dynasties

Australia

Cook Islands

Fiji

Gambier Islands

Hawaii

Kiribati

Micronesia

New Zealand

Niue

Palau

Papua New Guinea

Samoa

Society Islands

Solomon Islands

Tonga

Tuvalu

Vanuatu

List of dynasties with claimed possessions in Antarctica


Note that modern territorial claims in Antarctica are suspended under the Antarctic Treaty.[9]

Legend
  Extant sovereign dynasties

See also


Notes


  1. Existing sovereign entities ruled by non-dynastic monarchs are:
  2. The founder of a dynasty need not necessarily equate to the first monarch of a particular realm. For example, while William I was the dynastic founder of the House of Orange-Nassau which currently rules over the Kingdom of the Netherlands, he was never a monarch of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
  3. Not to be confused with dynastic seat.
  4. The House of Windsor is descended from the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, which is a branch of the House of Wettin. The dynastic name was changed from "Saxe-Coburg and Gotha" to "Windsor" in AD 1917.
  5. A sovereign state with Elizabeth II as its monarch and head of state is known as a Commonwealth realm.
  6. George V was formerly a member of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha prior to AD 1917.
  7. Including:
  8. The Barbadian monarchy is to be abolished by November 2021.[5][6] In consequence, the House of Windsor will cease to be the ruling dynasty of Barbados.
  9. The Realm of New Zealand consists of:
  10. Including: The crown dependencies of the Bailiwick of Guernsey, the Bailiwick of Jersey, and the Isle of Man are neither part of the United Kingdom nor British overseas territories.
  11. The House of Belgium is descended from the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, which is a branch of the House of Wettin. The dynastic name was changed from "Saxe-Coburg and Gotha" to "Belgium" in AD 1920.
  12. Albert I was formerly a member of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha prior to AD 1920.
  13. Claimed by the royal house, but the historicity is questionable.
  14. The House of Norodom is a branch of the Varman dynasty.
  15. The House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg is a branch of the House of Oldenburg.
  16. Including:
  17. The Imperial House of Japan, or the Yamato dynasty, is the world's oldest continuous dynasty. The dynasty has produced an unbroken succession of Japanese monarchs since the legendary founding year of 660 BC.
  18. The House of Hashim is descended from Banu Qatada, which was a branch of the House of Ali.
  19. The House of Luxembourg-Nassau is descended from the House of Nassau-Weilburg, which is a branch of the House of Nassau and the House of Bourbon-Parma.
  20. The Bendahara dynasty is the ruling dynasty of Pahang Darul Makmur and Terengganu. The Sultan of Pahang is the reigning Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia.
  21. The throne of Malaysia rotates among the nine constituent monarchies of Malaysia, each ruled by a dynasty. The Yang di-Pertuan Agong is elected by the Conference of Rulers.
  22. The House of Orange-Nassau is a branch of the House of Nassau. Additionally, Willem-Alexander is also linked to the House of Lippe through Beatrix of the Netherlands.
  23. The Kingdom of the Netherlands consists of:
  24. The House of Borbón-Anjou is a branch of the House of Bourbon.
  25. The House of Nahyan is the ruling dynasty of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. The Emir of Abu Dhabi is the incumbent President of the United Arab Emirates.
  26. The President of the United Arab Emirates is elected by the Federal Supreme Council. The office has been held by the Emir of Abu Dhabi since the formation of the United Arab Emirates in AD 1971.
  27. Since AD 2011, Montenegro officially recognizes the limited non-political role of the Petrović-Njegoš dynasty in cultural promotion. The Petrović-Njegoš dynasty was the ruling dynasty of Montenegro between AD 1696 and AD 1918.
  28. Including the County of Flanders, Marquisate of Namur, Duchy of Brabant, County of Hainaut, Duchy of Limburg and County of Luxembourg

References


  1. "The Realms". The British Monarchists Society. Retrieved 26 July 2020.
  2. Tan, Qixiang, ed. (1982). "唐时期全图(一)". The Historical Atlas of China.
  3. Tan, Qixiang, ed. (1982). "唐时期全图(二)". The Historical Atlas of China.
  4. Tan, Qixiang, ed. (1982). "唐时期全图(三)". The Historical Atlas of China.
  5. "Barbados to remove Queen Elizabeth II as head of state and declare republic". The Independent. 16 September 2020. Retrieved 16 September 2020.
  6. "Barbados ready to dismiss Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state". The Washington Post. 17 September 2020. Retrieved 17 September 2020.
  7. Keay, John (2010). China: A History. ISBN 9780007372089.
  8. Lê Đình Chi. Người Thượng Miền Nam Việt Nam. Gardena, California: Văn Mới, 2006. Pages: 401-449. (in Vietnamese).
  9. Melton, John; Baumann, Martin (2010). Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices. p. 140. ISBN 9781598842043.