List of sovereign states by date of formation


Below is a list of sovereign states with the dates of their formation (date of their independence or of their constitution), sorted by continent.

This list includes the 195 states which are currently full member states or observer states of the United Nations. This does not include extinct states, but does include several states with limited recognition.[note 1] For proposed states or various indigenous nations which consider themselves still under occupation, see list of active autonomist and secessionist movements. Micronations are not included in this list.

Nation-building is a long evolutionary process, and in most cases the date of a country's "formation" cannot be objectively determined; e.g., the fact that England and France were sovereign kingdoms on equal footing in the medieval period does not prejudice the fact that England is not now a sovereign state (having passed sovereignty to the Great Britain in 1707), while France is a Republic founded in 1792 (technically, France currently refers to the French Fifth Republic, formed in 1958).

An unambiguous measure is the date of national constitutions; but as constitutions are an entirely modern concept[citation needed], all formation dates by that criterion are modern or early modern (the oldest constitution being that of San Marino, dating to 1600).

Independence dates for widely recognized states earlier than 1919 should be treated with caution, since prior to the founding of the League of Nations, there was no international body to recognize nationhood, and independence had no meaning beyond mutual recognition of de facto sovereigns (the role of the League of Nations was effectively taken over by the United Nations after the Second World War). See also: disputed territories.

Many countries have some remote (or fantastically remote) symbolic foundation date as part of their national mythology, sometimes artificially inflating a country's "age" for reasons of nationalism, sometimes merely gesturing at a long and gradual process of the formation of an ethnic identity. Such dates reflect not the formation of a state (an independent political entity), but of a nation (an ethnic or cultural grouping), terms that are often conflated in the context of nation states.

The following list contains the formation dates of countries with a short description of those events. For a more detailed description of a country's formation and history please see the main article for each country.

Africa


Country Date of current form of government Birth of current form of government Date of acquisition of sovereignty Acquisition of sovereignty Date of territorial modification Most recent significant territorial modification
 Algeria 972 the foundation of the berber Muslim Zirid Dynasty 3 July 1962 French recognition of Algerian referendum on independence held two days earlier 5 July 1962 Algeria gains sovereignty over the entire Algerian territory upon independence from France.
 Angola 1975 11 November 1975 Independence from Portugal
 Benin 1 August 1960 Independence from France 15 January 1894 Borders of French Protectorate of Dahomey set at conclusion of Second Franco-Dahomean War
 Botswana 30 September 1966 Independence from the United Kingdom 13 December 1999 Sedudu ruled to belong to Botswana rather than Namibia by the International Court of Justice.
 Burkina Faso 5 August 1960 Independence from France
 Burundi 28 November 1966 Monarchy replaced by republic 1 July 1962 Independence from Belgium
 Cabo Verde 5 July 1975 Independence from Portugal
 Cameroon 1 January 1960 Independence from France 1 October 1961 Merger of part of British Cameroons with Cameroon
 Central African Republic 21 September 1979 Monarchy replaced by republic 13 August 1960 Independence from France
 Chad 11 August 1960 Independence from France 3 February 1997 Aouzou Strip awarded to Chad
 Comoros 6 July 1975 Independence from France declared
 Democratic Republic of Congo 17 May 1997 30 June 1960 Independence from Belgium
 Republic of Congo 15 August 1960 Independence from France
 Cote d'Ivoire 4 December 1958 Autonomous republic within French Community
7 August 1960 Independence from France
 Djibouti 27 June 1977 Independence from France
 Egypt 18 June 1953 Egyptian revolution of 1952, Egyptian monarchy overthrown in a military coup, republic declared 969 The Fatimid Caliphate conquered Egypt, which became the political, cultural, and religious center of the empire. The Fatimid Caliphate eventually developed a new and indigenous Arabic culture in Egypt. 1925 The eastern borders of Libya and British Egypt are changed to their present boundaries.
28 February 1922 The UK ends its protectorate, granting independence to Egypt
 Equatorial Guinea 12 October 1968 Independence from Spain
 Eritrea 24 May 1993 Independence from Ethiopia declared 1 April 2002 Badme ruled to be Eritrean by the Eritrea–Ethiopia Boundary Commission (EEBC after the Eritrean–Ethiopian War). Contested by Ethiopia
 Eswatini (Swaziland) 8 February 2006 Constitution of Swaziland 6 September 1968 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Ethiopia 21 August 1995 1995 Constitution of Ethiopia 900 Zagwe dynasty 1 April 2002 Badme ruled to be Eritrean by the Eritrea–Ethiopia Boundary Commission (EEBC after the Eritrean–Ethiopian War). Contested by Ethiopia
 Gabon 17 August 1960 Independence from France
 Gambia 18 February 1965 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Ghana 6 March 1957 Independence from the United Kingdom 13 December 1956 Union of British Togoland with Gold Coast
 Guinea 2 October 1958 Independence from France
 Guinea-Bissau 24 September 1973 Independence from Portugal declared
10 September 1974 Independence from Portugal recognized
 Kenya 12 December 1963 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Lesotho 4 October 1966 Independence from the United Kingdom 12 March 1868 Area that is now Lesotho placed under British rule
 Liberia 26 July 1847 Independence from American Colonization Society 6 January 1986 Current constitution came into effect
 Libya 4 August 2014 House of Representatives takes power.[note 2] 24 December 1951 Independence from UN Trusteeship (British and French administration after Italian governance ends in 1947) 13 February 1984 Aouzou Strip awarded to Chad.
 Madagascar 14 October 1958 The Malagasy Republic was created as autonomous state within French Community
26 June 1960 France recognizes Madagascar's independence
 Malawi 6 July 1964 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Mali 25 November 1958 French Sudan gains autonomy 8 April 1960 Senegal secedes from Mali Federation
22 September 1960 Independence from France
 Mauritania 28 November 1960 Independence from France 11 August 1979 Mauritania withdraws from Tiris al-Gharbiyya (part of Western Sahara)
 Mauritius 12 March 1968 Independence from the United Kingdom 1965 Separation of Chagos Archipelago
 Morocco 7 February 788 Foundation of first Morocco Muslim national dynasty by Idriss the First. 1955 independence from France 18 November 1955 Protectorate abolished
 Mozambique 25 June 1975 Independence from Portugal
 Namibia 21 March 1990 Independence from South African rule 1 March 1997 Walvis Bay integrated into Namibia
 Niger 4 December 1958 Autonomy within French Community
3 August 1960 Independence from France
 Nigeria 1 October 1960 Independence from the United Kingdom 15 January 1970 Biafra re-integrated into Nigeria
1 June 1961 Northern Cameroons integrated in Nigeria
 Rwanda 1 July 1962 Independence from Belgium
 São Tomé and Príncipe 12 July 1975 Independence from Portugal
 Senegal 20 August 1960 Independence from France
 Seychelles 29 June 1976 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Sierra Leone 27 April 1961 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Somalia 20 August 2012 Federal Government of Somalia established.[note 3] 1 July 1960 Union of Trust Territory of Somalia (former Italian Somaliland) and State of Somaliland (formerly British Somaliland) 18 May 1991 (disputed) Somaliland declares independence, but is not recognized by any UN state.
 South Africa 31 May 1961 Republic declared 11 December 1931 Statute of Westminster, which establishes a status of legislative equality between the self-governing dominion of the Union of South Africa and the UK 21 March 1990 De facto: South West Africa declares independence, forming Namibia
4 February 1997 The post-Apartheid Constitution of South Africa comes into effect 31 May 1910 Creation of the autonomous Union of South Africa from the previously separate colonies of the Cape, Natal, Transvaal and Orange River 27 April 1994 De jure: Reincorporation of the nominally independent but unrecognised bantustans into post-apartheid South Africa
 South Sudan 9 July 2011 2011 South Sudanese independence referendum 9 July 2011 Separation of Southern Sudan from Sudan
 Sudan 15 April 2010 First democratic election since the Second Sudanese Civil War 1 January 1956 Independence from Egyptian and British joint rule 9 July 2011 South Sudan secedes from Sudan
 Tanzania 1 July 1991 Amendment to Constitution of Tanzania ends status as one-party state 9 December 1961 Independence of Tanganyika from the United Kingdom 26 April 1964 Merger of Zanzibar with Tanganyika to form Tanzania
 Togo 30 August 1958 Autonomy within French Union
27 April 1960 Independence from France
 Tunisia 26 January 2014 Constitution of Tunisia following the Tunisian Revolution 20 March 1956 Independence from France
 Uganda 1 March 1962 Self-government granted
9 October 1962 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Zambia 24 October 1964 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Zimbabwe 22 December 1987 Robert Mugabe revises the Constitution of Zimbabwe to create an executive presidency.[note 4] 11 November 1965 Unilateral declaration of independence by Southern Rhodesia 1901 BSAC separates North-Eastern Rhodesia from Southern Rhodesia
18 April 1980 Recognized independence from the United Kingdom as Zimbabwe

Americas


Country Date of current form of government Birth of current form of government Date of acquisition of sovereignty Acquisition of sovereignty Date of territorial modification Most recent significant territorial modification
 Antigua and Barbuda     1 November 1981 Independence from the United Kingdom    
 Argentina 1 May 1853 The current Constitution of Argentina enters in force 25 May 1810 May Revolution installs first local government 18 October 1884 Conquest of the Desert
9 July 1816 Argentine Declaration of Independence from Spain.
 Bahamas     7 January 1964 Internal self-governance granted    
10 July 1973 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Barbados     30 November 1966 Independence from the United Kingdom    
 Belize     21 September 1981 Independence from the United Kingdom 1859 Treaty establishes border between British Honduras and Guatemala
1 January 1964 Self-governing colony
 Bolivia 25 January 2009 Constitution of Bolivia 6 August 1825 Bolivian War of Independence from Spain. 11 November 1903 Treaty of Petrópolis with Brazil whereby Bolivia gained lands in Mato Grosso in exchange for the territory of Acre
21 July 1844 Independence recognized by Spain
 Brazil 5 October 1988 Constitution of Brazil established as the third Federative Republic 7 September 1822 Independence from the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves declared 11 November 1903 Signing of the Treaty of Petrópolis with Bolivia whereby Brazil was given the territory of Acre in exchange for lands in Mato Grosso
29 August 1825 Independence recognized by Portugal
15 November 1889 Proclamation of the Federal Republic
 Canada 1 July 1867 Granted nominal independence (Dominion status), establishing as a federation 11 December 1931 Statute of Westminster 1 April 1999 Nunavut Territory created as per native land claims act from two thirds of the area of Northwest Territories.
17 April 1982 Constitution Act, 1982 established
 Chile 17 August 1989 Amendment to the Constitution of Chile ends the military dictatorship 18 September 1810 First Government Junta 3 July 1929 Chile awarded Arica district in Treaty of Lima
12 February 1818 Chilean Declaration of Independence from Spain
25 April 1844 Independence recognized by Spain
 Colombia 4 July 1991 Colombian Constitution of 1991 established as a presidential republic. 20 July 1810 Colombia declares independence from Spain. 4 July 1991 The Sovereign territory was organized under the National Constituent Assembly.
17 December 1819 Colombia merged with Venezuela, Panama, and Ecuador.
19 November 1831 Gran Colombia dissolved creating a pact with Panama as the Republic of New Granada.
22 May 1858 The Republic of New Granada was replaced to the Granadine Confederation under the 1858 constitution.
8 May 1863 The Granadine Confederation was replaced to the United States of Colombia under the constitutional change of 1864.
30 January 1881 Declaration of Independence recognized by Spain
8 August 1886 Establishment of the current sovereignty of Colombia as a republic.
 Costa Rica 7 November 1949 Constitution of Costa Rica 15 September 1821 Costa Rica declared independence from Spain 25 July 1824 Partido de Nicoya
15 November 1838 Independence from Federal Republic of Central America
10 May 1850 Independence recognized by Spain
 Cuba 1 January 1959 Cuban Revolution 10 October 1898 Several wars were declared against Spain from 1868 to 1898, ending with the military support of USA to the Cuban Revolution.    
10 December 1898 Spain loses the war against the United States and the military occupation of Cuba by the U.S. begins.
20 May 1902 United States military occupation ends[1]
 Dominica 3 November 1978 Constitution of Dominica 27 February 1967 Became an associated state of the United Kingdom    
3 November 1978 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Dominican Republic 28 November 1966 Civilian constitution of the Dominican Republic following the Dominican Civil War.[note 5] 27 February 1844 The Dominican Republic gains independence from Haiti 9 May 1936 Haiti and the Dominican Republic sign a treaty setting a definitive border.
14 October 1874 Independence recognized by Spain
 Ecuador 28 September 2008 Constitution of Ecuador established. 10 August 1809 First declaration of Independence from Spain 26 February 1946 Rio Protocol ends border dispute with Peru
24 May 1822 Second declaration of independence from Spain of Gran Colombia, of which Ecuador is a part of
13 May 1830 Dissolution of Gran Colombia
16 February 1840 Declaration of Independence recognized by Spain
 El Salvador 16 December 1983 Constitution of El Salvador established as the third Unitary presidential republic 15 September 1821 El Salvador becomes independent from Spain, and 9 days later becomes province in First Mexican Empire    
1 July 1823 El Salvador becomes a state of Federal Republic of Central America from the First Mexican Empire
2 February 1841 Dissolution of the Federal Republic of Central America, El Salvador becomes independent nation
18 February 1841 El Salvador was internationally recognized.
24 June 1865 Independence recognized by Spain
 Grenada     27 February 1967 Associated state of the United Kingdom    
7 February 1974 Full independence from the United Kingdom
 Guatemala 31 May 1985 Constitution of Guatemala established 15 September 1821 Guatemala becomes state in Federal Republic of Central America, which declared independence from Spain    
17 April 1839 Independence from Federal Republic of Central America declared
29 May 1863 Independence recognized by Spain
 Guyana     26 May 1966 Independence from the United Kingdom    
 Haiti March 1987 Constitution of 1987 (superseded) 1 January 1804 The French colony Saint-Domingue gains independence as Haiti 27 February 1844 The Dominican Republic gains independence from Haiti
9 May 1936 Haiti and the Dominican Republic sign a treaty setting a definitive border.
 Honduras 11 January 1982 Constitution of Honduras. 15 September 1821 Honduras becomes state in Federal Republic of Central America, which declared independence from Spain 1 September 1972 Swan Islands returned to Honduras from United States occupation
26 October 1838 Independence from Federal Republic of Central America
17 November 1894 Independence from Spain recognized
 Jamaica     6 August 1962 Independence from the United Kingdom    
 Mexico 7 February 1917 Constitution of Mexico 16 September 1810 Independence from Spain declared 30 December 1853 Gadsden Purchase
27 September 1821 Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire
28 December 1836 Declaration of Independence recognized by Spain
 Nicaragua 9 January 1987 Constitution of Nicaragua established 15 September 1821 Nicaragua becomes state in Federal Republic of Central America, which declared independence from Spain    
5 November 1838 Independence from Federal Republic of Central America
24 July 1850 Independence recognized by Spain
 Panama 11 October 1972 Constitution of Panama established 3 November 1903 Independence from Colombia 31 December 1999 Sovereignty of Panama Canal Zone transferred to Panama from the United States
10 May 1904 Independence from Spain recognized
 Paraguay 20 June 1992 Democratic Constitution of Paraguay 14 May 1811 Independence from Spain declared 1938 Paraguay awarded a large portion of the Gran Chaco as a result of the Chaco War
10 September 1880 Independence from Spain recognized
 Peru 31 December 1993 Constitution of Peru established 28 July 1821 Independence from Spain declared 26 February 1942 Rio Protocol ends border dispute with Ecuador
14 August 1879 Independence from Spain recognized
 Saint Kitts and Nevis     27 February 1967 Associated state of the United Kingdom 19 December 1980 Anguilla separated from Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla
19 September 1983 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Saint Lucia     27 February 1967 Associated statehood    
22 February 1979 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines     27 October 1969 Associated statehood    
27 October 1979 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Suriname     15 December 1954 Self-government granted    
25 November 1975 Independence from Netherlands
 Trinidad and Tobago     31 August 1962 Independence from the United Kingdom    
 United States 4 March 1789 United States Constitution enters into force, replacing the previous Articles of Confederation and creating a new system of government 4 July 1776 Independence from Great Britain declared 21 August 1959 United States territory:
Territory of Hawaii joins the US as the State of Hawaii
3 September 1783 Independence from Great Britain recognized 7 September 1981 Insular area:
The United States cedes Serrana Bank and Roncador Bank to the Republic of Colombia as a result of a treaty signed in 1972
 Uruguay 8 December 1996 1996 Uruguayan constitutional referendum 25 August 1825 Independence from Empire of Brazil declared, joined in union with United Provinces of the River Plate (current Argentina).    
27 August 1828 Treaty of Montevideo signed, recognizing Uruguay's independence by Brazil
19 July 1870 Independence recognized by Spain
 Venezuela 20 December 1999 New Constitution of Venezuela establishes the Bolivarian Fifth Republic 19 April 1810[2] Independence from Spain declared 3 October 1899 Tribunal of Arbitration awards most of Guayana Esequiba to British Guyana.
13 January 1830 Dissolution of Gran Colombia
30 March 1845 Independence recognized by Spain

Asia


Country Date of current form of government Birth of current form of government Date of acquisition of sovereignty Acquisition of sovereignty Date of territorial modification Most recent significant territorial modification
 Afghanistan 26 January 2004 Constitution of Afghanistan establishes Islamic Republic 1919 Treaty of Rawalpindi ends British control of foreign policy 1747 Durrani Empire 1893 Durand-Line through Pashtunistan, because of the Durand-Treaty
 Bahrain 15 August 1971 End of treaties with the United Kingdom 1 July 1521 Portuguese conquest of current territory
 Bangladesh 4 November 1972 De jure: Constitution of Bangladesh 26 March 1971 Independence from Pakistan declared 31 July 2015 India and Bangladesh exchange exclaves
February 27, 1991 De facto: First general election since restoration of parliamentary democracy.
 Bhutan 24 March 2008 First elections to the National Assembly 1885 Ugyen Wangchuck ends period of civil war and unites Bhutan 11 November 1865 Treaty of Sinchula
 Brunei 29 September 1959 De jure: Constitution of Brunei 1 January 1984 Brunei regains its independence after an agreement with the British on 4 January 1979 18 August 1841 Kingdom of Sarawak founded
12 December 1962 De facto: Martial law declared during the Brunei Revolt, suspending democratic elections indefinitely.
 Cambodia 21 September 1963 Constitution of Cambodia 9 September 1953 France grants Cambodia independence
26 September 1989 Becomes free from Vietnamese occupation; it gets back its name instead of the People's Republic of Kampuchea
/ China[Asia 1] 25 December 1947 The Republic of China adopted its constitution during the National Assembly on 25 December 1947, with further revisions and amendments since 1991 221 BC In 221 BC, Qin Shi Huang conquered the various warring states and created for himself the title of Huangdi or "emperor" of the Qin, marking the beginning of imperial China. 20 January 1955 Loss of Yijiangshan Islands, which forms the current free area of the Republic of China
4 December 1982 The People's Republic of China adopted its constitution during the 5th National People's Congress on 4 December 1982, with further revisions about every five years 6 October 2011 Tajikistan ceded 1158 square kilometers of land to China
 India 26 January 1950 De jure: Constitution of India 15 August 1947 Independence from the British Empire 31 July 2015 India and Bangladesh exchange exclaves
 Iran 11 February 1979 Iranian Revolution ends monarchism and establishes an Islamic Republic 609 BC After the fall of Assyria between 616 BC and 609 BC, a unified Median state was formed, which together with Babylonia, Lydia, and ancient Egypt became one of the four major powers of the ancient Near East. 10 February 1828 Signing of the Treaty of Turkmenchay, whereby the territories that now constitute Armenia, Azerbaijan (the remaining part which hadn't been lost by the Treaty of Gulistan (1813), and Igdir are ceded to Russia)
 Iraq 15 October 2005 Constitution of Iraq following the Iraq War[note 6] 762 The Abbasid Caliphate built the city of Baghdad along the Tigris in the 8th century as its capital, and the city became the leading metropolis of the Arab and Muslim world for five centuries 28 February 1991 Kuwait liberated.[note 6]
3 October 1932 Kingdom of Iraq
 Israel 14 May 1948 Democratic state of Israel. Reading of the Declaration of Independence of Israel 110 BC From 110 BCE, with the Seleucid Empire disintegrating, the dynasty became fully independent, expanded into the neighboring regions of Samaria, Galilee, Iturea, Perea, and Idumea, and the rulers took the title "basileus". Some modern scholars refer to this period as an independent kingdom of Israel 14 December 1981 The Golan Heights Law annexes the Golan Heights, conquered from Syria in the Six-day war to Israel proper; they were administered as a militarily-occupied territory until that point.
12 September 2005 Completion of Israel's unilateral disengagement from the Gaza Strip
 Japan 3 May 1947 Coming into force of the current Constitution of Japan, whereby the emperor was deprived of his powers and a liberal democracy was established 4th century CE During the subsequent Kofun period, most of Japan gradually unified under a single kingdom 15 May 1972 Return of the Ryukyu Islands to Japan and abolition of the United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands
 Jordan 1 January 1952 Constitution of Jordan 25 May 1946 End of the British Mandate for Palestine 26 October 1997 Signing of the Israel–Jordan Treaty of Peace, whereby most of the disputed 400 square-kilometer area in the Arabah was handed back to Jordan
12 June 2011 The Cabinet of Jordan is made an elected body[3]
 North Korea 9 September 1948 Kim Il-sung declared Premier of North Korea, establishing the still-ruling Kim dynasty. Independence declared from the Soviet Union. 9 September 1948 Declaration of the creation of North Korea 12 October 1962 Signing of border treaty with the People's Republic of China
25 December 1972 The Constitution of North Korea replaced Communism with Juche as North Korea's governing philosophy.[note 7]
 South Korea 29 October 1987 Current Sixth Republic of South Korea founded, ending military rule 15 August 1945 Japanese rule of Korea ends 27 July 1953 Cease-fire in the Korean War creates the northern border along the Military Demarcation Line
15 August 1948 First Republic of Korea established, Independence declared from the United States.
 Kuwait 11 November 1962 Constitution of Kuwait 1752 Establishment of the Sheikhdom of Kuwait 18 December 1969 Formal division of Saudi-Kuwaiti neutral zone
 Kyrgyzstan 10 June 2010 Constitution of Kyrgyzstan introduces parliamentary system. 31 August 1991 Independence from the Soviet Union[4] 5 December 1936 Establishment of the Kirghiz SSR
 Laos 2 December 1975 Lao PDR formed 22 October 1953 Independence from France
 Lebanon 23 May 1926 Lebanese Republic formed 26 November 1941 Independence from France declared 1 September 1920 France establishes State of Greater Lebanon with current boundaries
22 November 1943 Independence from France recognized
 Malaysia 16 September 1963 Formation of Malaysia[5][6] 31 August 1957 Malayan Independence[7] from the United Kingdom was declared in Dataran Merdeka (Independence Square) 9 August 1965 Singapore expelled from the Federation of Malaysia[8][9][10]
16 September 1963 Malaysia was formed by the federation of North Borneo, Sarawak and Singapore with the existing States of the Federation of Malaya.[5][11]
 Maldives 11 November 1968 Declaration of Republic 26 July 1965 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Mongolia 12 February 1992 Constitution of Mongolia declares the country a parliamentary democracy. 1206 Mongol Empire formed
29 December 1911 Proclamation of Mongolian independence from Manchu's Qing Dynasty
 Myanmar 30 March 2011 The military junta is replaced by an elected government 4 January 1948 Myanmar (Burma) declares independence from the British Empire 1956 Signing of border treaty with the People's Republic of China
   Nepal 28 May 2008 Formation of Republic 25 September 1768 Nepali unification 2 December 1815 Sugauli Treaty ends the Gurkha War
 Oman 10 June 1749 Beginning of the Al Said dynasty, current absolute monarchical line of Oman. 26 January 1956 Expulsion of the Portuguese 8 December 1958 Gwadar sold to Pakistan
1996 Basic Law of Oman
 Pakistan 14 August 1973 Constitution of Pakistan 14 August 1947 Independence from British India in the Partition
 Palestine[Asia 2] 4 May 1994 Agreement on the Gaza Strip and the Jericho Area 15 November 1988 Palestinian Declaration of Independence 15 June 2007 Hamas takeover of the Gaza Strip
 Philippines[Asia 3] 30 November 1935 The Commonwealth of the Philippines was established through provisions of the Tydings–McDuffie Act. 12 June 1898 The evolving revolutionary movement in the Philippines declares itself independent from the Spanish Empire.[12][13][14] 2012[15][16] In 2012, the United Nations approved a 2009 claim by the Philippines to the Benham Rise.[16]
4 July 1946 The United States recognizes independence under the provisions of the Treaty of Manila (1946). The 1935 Constitution remained in effect until 1973, when the Marcos regime promulgated a newer one, in turn replaced by the present 1987 Constitution.
 Qatar 18 December 1878 Independence from the Ottoman Empire
 Saudi Arabia 23 September 1923 Regions of al-Hasa, Qatif, Nejd and Hejaz unified to become Saudi Arabia 1744 Establishment of the First Saudi State [17] 12 June 2000 Border with Yemen finalized by Treaty of Jeddah (2000)
 Singapore 9 August 1965[8] Singapore ceased to be a state of Malaysia 3 June 1959 Self-government under the United Kingdom 9 August 1965 Establishment of Singapore as an independent sovereign state[10]
9 August 1965 separate from and independent of Malaysia[8][9]
 Sri Lanka 22 May 1972 Constitution of Sri Lanka 4 February 1948 Independence from United Kingdom 14 February 1815 De jure: The Kandyan Kingdom is annexed by British Ceylon
18 May 2009 De facto: The Sri Lankan government regains control of the whole island following the end of the Sri Lankan Civil War.
 Syria 27 February 2012 Constitution of Syria[note 8] 28 September 1961 End of the United Arab Republic 8 November 1941 De jure: Lebanon declares independence from the French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon[note 8]
10 June 1967 De facto: Israel conquers the Golan Heights from Syria during the Six-day War
 Tajikistan 9 September 1991 Independence from the Soviet Union[4] 5 December 1929 Establishment of the Tajik SSR
 Thailand 6 April 2017 Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand 2017 6 November 1767 Salvage independence by Great king Taksin consist of Expulsion of Burmese and Establish a new kingdom together with reunification of Thailand 10 March 1909 Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909
 Timor-Leste 20 May 2002 Constitution of East Timor 28 November 1975 East Timor declares its independence but was suppressed by the Indonesian invasion 1914 The borders of Portuguese Timor are agreed.[18]
20 May 2002 Independence was recognized by the international community following the UN-sponsored act of self-determination of 1999
 Turkmenistan 28 September 2008 Constitution of Turkmenistan 27 October 1991 Independence from the Soviet Union[4] 7 August 1921 Establishment of the Turkmen SSR
 United Arab Emirates 2 December 1971 End of treaty relationship with the United Kingdom 11 February 1972 Ras al-Khaimah joins the UAE
 Uzbekistan 31 August 1991 Independence from the Soviet Union declared[4] 24 October 1924 Establishment of the Uzbek SSR
 Vietnam 31 December 1959 North Vietnam declared a socialist republic 2 September 1945 Withdrawal of the Japanese after World War II 2 July 1976 Reunification of North Vietnam and South Vietnam as Socialist Republic of Vietnam
1 January 2014 Current Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam
 Yemen 22 May 1990 Unification of North Yemen and South Yemen 1 November 1918 North Yemen independence from the Ottoman Empire 21 September 2014 Houthis seized control of the bulk of the former North Yemen territory and its capital Sana'a
30 November 1967 South Yemen independence from the United Kingdom 26 April 2020 Southern Transitional Council declares self-governance of Socotra and some areas controlled by the former PDR Yemen.
Table notes
  1. China: For some clarification and more detail including the sovereignty status of the Republic of China, see the following articles: History of China, Cross-Strait relations, One-China policy and Political status of Taiwan.
  2. Palestinian National Authority: For some clarification and more detail, see History of the State of Palestine.
  3. Philippines: For some clarification and more detail, see Timeline of Philippine Sovereignty and Sovereignty of the Philippines.

Europe


Country Date of current form of government Birth of current form of government Date of acquisition of sovereignty Acquisition of sovereignty Date of territorial modification Most recent significant territorial modification
 Albania 29 April 1991  Socialist People's Republic of Albania was replaced by the Republic of Albania. 1190 c. Principality of Arbër was established by archon Progon. 1945 Occupied Kosovo, west Macedonia and border region of Montenegro returned to Yugoslavia
28 November 1912 Declaration of independence from Ottoman Empire
28 November 1944 Albanian state re-established after Italian/German occupation
 Andorra 28 April 1993 Current Constitution of Andorra entered force 1813 Reversal of annexation of Andorra by the Napoleonic Empire, through the Peninsular War 28 August 2001 The Andorra–France border is adjusted to allow Andorra to construct the Envalira Tunnel access bridge
 Austria 12 November 1918 Declaration of the Republic of German-Austria 15 May 1955 Austrian Independence Treaty re-established Austria as a sovereign state 14 December 1921 City of Sopron, and 8 other towns moved to Hungary after plebiscite
17 September 1156 Privilegium Minus: Sovereignty from Duchy of Bavaria as a Duchy of the Holy Roman Empire
11 August 1804 Proclamation of the Austrian Empire
 Belarus 28 November 1996 Constitutional amendment abolishes the Supreme Soviet and establishes the National Assembly 27 July 1990 Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic 1945 Western border with Poland: modification of the Curzon Line determined at the 1945 Yalta Conference
25 August 1991 Independence recognized by Soviet Union[4]
 Belgium 21 July 1831 King Leopold I of Belgium swears allegiance to the constitution making the country a constitutional monarchy 4 October 1830 Independence was proclaimed by the provisonial government 28 June 1919 Belgian proper:
Treaty of Versailles and annexation of the East Cantons
1 July 1962 Belgian colonial empire:
Ruanda-Urundi declares independence and split within two countries: Rwanda and Burundi.
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 3 March 1992 Independence declared from the SFR Yugoslavia[note 9] 1154 Formation of the Banate of Bosnia 25 November 1943 Establishment of SR Bosnia in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
 Bulgaria 10 November 1989 People's Republic of Bulgaria was replaced by the Republic of Bulgaria 632 Formation of Old Great Bulgaria 7 September 1940 Under the First and Second Vienna Awards, Southern Dobruja was returned to Kingdom of Bulgaria
681 First Bulgarian Empire formed
1185 Second Bulgarian Empire formed
13 July 1878 Autonomy within Ottoman Empire recognized internationally by the Treaty of Berlin
22 September 1908 Independence from Ottoman Empire
 Croatia 8 October 1991 Independence from SFR Yugoslavia[note 9] 626 Formation of Duchy of Croatia[19][20][21][22][23] 10 February 1947 Annexation of most of Istria to SR Croatia as a result of signing the 1947 Paris Peace Treaties
925 Formation of Kingdom of Croatia by King Tomislav
 Czech Republic 1 January 1993 Dissolution of Czechoslovakia, creating Czech Republic and Slovakia 895 Independence from Great Moravia    
 Denmark 5 June 1953 Constitutional Act of Denmark 777 (or prior) Various Danish kings are mentioned throughout the 8th century.
15 June 1920 Denmark proper:
Sønderjylland was recovered from Germany.[note 10]
 Estonia 24 February 1918 Estonian Declaration of Independence, whereby a republic was declared[Europe 1] 24 February 1918 Independence declared from the Russian Empire 1 July 1920 De jure: Signing of the Estonia–Latvia Border Treaty whereby Valga proper was ceded to Estonia
20 August 1991 Independence (from the Soviet Union) reasserted, end of occupation[note 11] 1 January 1945 De facto: Eastern coast of Narva river and most of Petseri County were transferred to Russian SFSR
 Finland 29 March 1809 Diet of Porvoo, birth of Finland as an autonomous state entity within Russian Empire 6 December 1917 Independence from Russian Empire declared 26 January 1956 Porkkala returned from Soviet control
3 January 1918 Independence from Russia recognized by the highest Soviet executive body, VTsIK
 France 4 October 1958 Establishment of the current semi-presidential system known as the Fifth Republic 481 then
843
First creation with (Clovis), king of the Franks

Creation of the Kingdom of France (West Francia), Treaty of Verdun

10 February 1947 Metropolitan France:
Annexation of Tende, La Brigue and other villages formerly in Italy.[note 12][note 13]
5 July 1962 Overseas France:
Loss of the French departments in Algeria following the latter's independence.
 Germany 23 May 1949 The Basic Law of Germany comes into effect. 843 then

962

Creation of East Francia

East Francia becomes the Holy Roman Empire (with the Kingdom of Germany as a main part of the empire)

3 October 1990 Reunification of West Germany and East Germany
1815 German Confederation founded
18 January 1871 German Empire founded
1954 German Democratic Republic (commonly referred to at the time as East Germany) declared fully sovereign
5 May 1955 Federal Republic of Germany (commonly referred to at the time as West Germany) declared fully sovereign
15 May 1991 Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany ends the Four Power occupation.
 Greece 11 June 1975 Third Hellenic Republic 25 March 1821 (Traditional)

23 February 1821 (Actual)

Greek Revolution starts, various regional administrations established during 1821 10 February 1947 Peace treaty with Italy awards the Dodecanese to Greece
1 January 1822 First Hellenic Republic proclaimed
3 February 1830 Independence recognised by the London Protocol as Kingdom of Greece.
 Hungary 23 October 1989 People's Republic of Hungary was replaced by the Republic of Hungary. 895 Principality of Hungary formed 10 February 1947 With the Paris Peace Treaty, Hungary loses all territories that were regained with the First and Second Vienna Awards and during World War II, thus it returns to the 1937 borders (except for three villages in the northwest given to Czechoslovakia).
1 January 2012 The Basic Law of Hungary comes into effect. 1000 Formation of the Kingdom of Hungary by Stephen I of Hungary.
 Iceland 930 The Icelandic Commonwealth established and first meeting held of the Althingi (Parliament). 1 December 1918 Iceland becomes sovereign and independent from Denmark as the Kingdom of Iceland but retains a personal union with the King of Denmark. 1 September 1972 No territorial changes on land have taken place, however the expansion of the Exclusive Economic Zone was such an important change in territory for Iceland that it merits a special inclusion here.
1 July 1845 The Althingi resumes meeting after hiatus since 1799. 17 June 1944 Kingdom of Iceland becomes a Republic.
 Ireland 21 January 1919 Elected Irish Parliament Dáil Éireann unilaterally declares Ireland's independence from the United Kingdom 1542 Foundation of the Kingdom of Ireland
6 December 1922 Irish Free State secedes from United Kingdom by agreement in accordance with the terms of the Anglo-Irish Treaty but remains a dominion of the British Empire 8 December 1922 De facto: Northern Ireland secedes from the Irish Free State and rejoins the United Kingdom in accordance with the Irish Free State Constitution Act 1922
11 December 1931 Statute of Westminster confers legislative independence from the United Kingdom
29 December 1937 Constitution of Ireland establishes the roles of Taoiseach and President, and replaces the Irish Free State (or Saorstat Eireann in Irish language) with a new state named Ireland (or Éire in Irish language). 18 April 1949 Republic of Ireland Act 1948 terminates the functions of the British King in Ireland's diplomatic relations; domestic United Kingdom law purports that Ireland was one of the King's dominions until this date; Irish law does not accept this interpretation. 2 December 1999 De jure: Amendment to the Irish constitution removes irredentist claims to Northern Ireland.[note 14]
 Italy 1 January 1948 Constitution of Italy creating the Italian Republic 17 March 1861 Italian unification
23 August 476 Establishment of the Kingdom of Italy, an independent successor state created after the Fall of the Western Roman Empire
2 January 888 c. Sovereignty of the Kingdom of Italy, an independent successor state of the dissolved Carolingian Empire
25 April 1945 Disestablishment of the German-backed Italian Social Republic, whereby the unity and independence of the Italian state was restored 1 January 1948 The Peace treaty with Italy officially determines the boundaries of the Republic of Italy. The Italian Constitution of 1948 implements it at articles 10 and 117.
 Latvia 7 November 1922 Constitution of Latvia enforced[Europe 1] 18 November 1918 Independence declared from Russia 1944 Abrene district ceded to Russian SFSR (modern Russia)
4 May 1990 Independence (from Soviet Union) reasserted[note 11]
 Liechtenstein 16 March 2003 The 2003 Liechtenstein constitutional referendum increases the Prince's powers and makes the country an absolute monarchy[25] 19 October 1813 Dissolution of the Confederation of the Rhine 23 January 1719 Purchase of Vaduz
 Lithuania 11 March 1990 Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of Lithuania independence (from the Soviet Union) reasserted, end of occupation[note 11][Europe 1] 1253 Coronation of King Mindaugas (state established some time earlier, perhaps in the 1230s) 27 October 1939 and
3 August 1940
Western part (approximately half) of Vilnius Region ceded to Lithuania
16 February 1918 Independence declared from Germany and Russia
 Luxembourg 23 November 1890 Separates from union with the Kingdom of the Netherlands, becomes Grand Duchy in its own right 1945 End of German occupation during World War II 19 April 1839 Partition of Luxembourg under the Treaty of London
 Malta 13 December 1974 The State of Malta became a republic 21 September 1964 Independence from United Kingdom 20 August 1801 Gozo rejoined Malta
 Moldova 27 August 1997 Constitution of Moldova (1997) 27 August 1991 Independence from Soviet Union[4] 2 August 1940 De jure: Moldavian SSR formed
2 September 1990 De facto: Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic declares independence. The government is not recognized by any UN member, but has de facto control over the Transnistria region.
 Monaco 17 December 1962 Amendment to Constitution of Monaco curtails the power of the prince and establishes the modern National Council 1861 Franco-Monegasque Treaty confirms Monaco's sovereignty (formerly a protectorate of the Kingdom of Sardinia) 1848 Secession of Menton and Roquebrune-Cap-Martin.
 Montenegro 22 October 2007 Constitution of Montenegro 25 November 1943 Establishment of SR Montenegro
13 July 1878 Independence officially confirmed by Ottoman Empire internationally by the Treaty of Berlin other countries recognized earlier.
3 June 2006 Declaration of independence from Serbia and Montenegro.
 Netherlands 24 August 1815 Adoption of the constitution of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. 26 July 1581 Plakkaat van Verlatinghe signed, independence from Spain 16 March 1839 European Netherlands:
The United Kingdom of the Netherlands divided under the Treaty of London (1839).
15 December 1954 Charter for the Kingdom of the Netherlands signed 5 May 1945 Surrender of Nazi forces occupying the Netherlands 25 November 1975 Kingdom of the Netherlands:
Suriname declares independence.
 North Macedonia
(until 2019 Republic of Macedonia)
17 November 1991 Constitution of North Macedonia 8 September 1991 After a referendum, the Socialist Republic of Macedonia declared independence from Yugoslavia[note 9] 2 August 1944 Establishment of SR Macedonia
 Norway 1814 Constitution of Norway 872 King Harald I of Norway unifies the Petty kingdoms of Norway. 27 February 1930 Jan Mayen was made part of the Kingdom of Norway.
1814 Dissolution of the union between Norway and Denmark.
7 June 1905 Dissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden.
8 May 1945 German occupying forces surrender.
 Poland 4 June 1989 The first partially free Parliament's vote after 45-year-long Soviet domination 966 Adoption of Christianity by the first historically documented Polish ruler Mieszko I. 15 February 1951 Polish-Soviet border adjustment treaty
1025 Formation of the Kingdom of Poland by Mieszko's son Bolesław I Chrobry.
 Portugal 2 April 1976 Constitution of Portugal 25 July 1139 County of Portugal becomes independent from the Kingdom of León after the Battle of Ourique as part of the Reconquista. Recognized by León in 1143 and by the Pope in 1179. 6 June 1801 Continental Portugal:
Spain occupies the present day border town of Olivença since the War of the Oranges.
20 December 1999 Portuguese Overseas:
De facto: Portuguese Macau transferred to the People's Republic of China
20 May 2002 Portuguese Overseas:
De jure: Portuguese Timor, occupied by Indonesia since 1975, officially dissolved to form the independent state of East Timor.[note 15]
 Romania 22 December 1989 Romanian Revolution of 1989 24 January 1859 Autonomous Principality of Romania founded; becomes kingdom in 1866 and achieved independence 1878 Ottoman Empire 10 February 1947 Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina
13 July 1878 International recognition by the Treaty of Berlin.
 San Marino 1600 Constitution of San Marino 1243 The people of San Marino established the positions of Captains Regent ('Capitani Reggenti') as a joint heads of state 1463 Added Fiorentino, Montegiardino, Serravalle, and Faetano
 Serbia 27 April 1992 Independence from SFR Yugoslavia, forming the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.[note 9] 650 then 768[26] 7th century-Creation of the Principality of Serbia in the Southeastern Europe. 17 February 2008 (disputed)[27] The region of Kosovo declared independence unilaterally on 17 February 2008, and is recognized by 108 UN states. Serbia recognizes the government of Kosovo but claims its territory as an Autonomous Province.
8 June 2006 Republic of Serbia declared legal successor to Serbia and Montenegro, ending the process of the dissolution of Yugoslavia.
 Slovakia 1 January 1993 Dissolution of Czechoslovakia 1 January 1993 Dissolution of Czechoslovakia, creating Slovakia and Czech Republic    
 Slovenia 13 December 1991 Constitution of Slovenia 25 June 1991 Declaration of independence from Yugoslavia[note 9] 19 February 1945 Formation of SR Slovenia
 Spain 6 December 1978 Spanish Constitution 1479 Dinastical unification of the Crown of Castile and the Crown of Aragon by the Catholic Monarchs. The governments, institutions, and legal traditions of each kingdom remained independent of each other; alien laws (Leyes de extranjeria) determined that the national of one kingdom was a foreigner in the other Crowns/States.[28] 26 February 1976 Spanish Sahara is lost following the Madrid Accords.
1707~1716 De jure by the Nueva Planta decrees
1831 Dissolution of crowns and kingdoms and creation de jure, of the unified Kingdom of Spain.
 Sweden 1 January 1974 Instrument of Government 970 (Or prior) Eric the Victorious, the first king of Sweden about whom anything definite is known, becomes king. 29 March 1809 Loss of Finland to Imperial Russia.
6 June 1523 Gustav Vasa elected King of Sweden and marking a definite secession from the Kalmar Union.
  Switzerland 12 November 1848 Foundation of the federal state after Sonderbund war 1291 Traditional founding 1815 The cantons of Valais, Neuchâtel and Geneva join the Swiss Confederation.
7 August 1815 Restoration of the Ancien Régime (federalism), reverting the changes imposed by Napoleon Bonaparte.
 Ukraine 24 August 1991 Independence from Soviet Union 882 Formation of the Kievan Rus' 18 March 2014 Annexation of Crimea by Russia
22 January 1918 Independence of Ukrainian People's Republic from Russian Republic declared.
24 August 1991 Independence of former Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic from Soviet Union declared.[4]
 United Kingdom 1 January 1801 The Acts of Union united the two kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland[29][30][31] 519 then
927
Kingdom of Wessex
Kingdom of England

United with Scotland in 1707

6 December 1922
then 8 December 1922
Irish Free State secedes from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland by agreement in accordance with the terms of the Anglo-Irish Treaty and the Irish Free State Constitution Act 1922, and Northern Ireland opts to exclude itself from the Free State two days later.[note 12]
843 Kingdom of Scotland

United with England in 1707

(Devolved Parliament since 1999)

1 May 1707 Kingdom of Great Britain 1 July 1997 British Overseas Territories:
Hong Kong was transferred to the People's Republic of China in 1997.
1171 then
1542
Lordship of Ireland
Kingdom of Ireland
1216 Principality of Wales

United with or annexed to England in 1542

(Devolved Assembly since 1999)

  Vatican City 1274 Birth of current form of government the Papal conclave in 1274 7 June 1929 Ratification of the Lateran Treaty, making the Vatican City a sovereign state 11 February 1929 Signing of the Lateran Treaty
Table notes
  1. The date of formation of the current Baltic states is subject to an international dispute. Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania all maintain that they were illegally occupied by the Soviet Union, and that the current states are direct continuations of the pre-WWII states, which continued to exist through governments-in-exile. Russia maintains that the current Baltic States are legally distinct entities newly created after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. All three states were admitted the UN as independent nations, not successor states of the USSR. For more information, see State continuity of the Baltic states.

Australia/Oceania


Country Date of current form of government Birth of current form of government Date of acquisition of sovereignty Acquisition of sovereignty Date of territorial modification Most recent significant territorial modification
 Australia 1 January 1901 Commonwealth of Australia established as federation. 1 January 1901 Independence from United Kingdom. 16 September 1975 Papua New Guinea becomes formally independent of Australia
11 December 1931 Statute of Westminster
3 March 1986 Australia Act 1986
 Fiji     10 October 1970 Independence from the United Kingdom    
 Kiribati     12 July 1979 Independence from United Kingdom 1 October 1975 Separation of the Gilbert Islands (later Kiribati) and the Ellice Islands (later Tuvalu)
 Marshall Islands 1 May 1979 Constitution and local government established 21 October 1986 Compact of Free Association with the United States    
 Federated States of Micronesia 10 May 1979 Constitution ratified 3 November 1986 Compact of Free Association with the United States 10 May 1979 Yap, Chuuk, Pohnpei, and Kosrae unite to form the Federated States of Micronesia
 Nauru     31 January 1968 Independence from UN Trusteeship (Australian, British and New Zealand administration ends)    
 New Zealand 6 February 1840 Treaty of Waitangi between the British Crown and the indigenous Māori tribes cedes kawanatanga of New Zealand to Queen Victoria. 17 January 1853 Self-Government 1 June 1962 Samoa becomes fully independent from New Zealand. It is also the first small-island country in the Pacific to become independent.
18 April 1856 Responsible Government
26 September 1907 Granted nominal independence (Dominion status).
25 October 1926 Balfour Declaration of 1926 — Great Britain and the Dominions are “autonomous Communities within the British Empire, equal in status, in no way subordinate one to another in any aspect of their domestic or external affairs”
27 July 1938 Governor-General ceases to represent the British Government and becomes the personal representative of the King.
25 November 1947 Statute of Westminster adopted — Britain loses the power to legislate for New Zealand except by request
10 December 1947 Full power to amend own constitution
1 December 1967 Governor-General becomes a New Zealand appointment
 Palau 1 January 1981 Republic of Palau created upon adoption of constitution 1 October 1994 Emerged from United Nations trusteeship (administered by the United States).    
 Papua New Guinea     1 December 1973 Self-governing territory    
16 September 1975 Independence from Australia
 Samoa     1 June 1962 Independence from New Zealand    
 Solomon Islands     2 January 1976 Self-government granted by United Kingdom    
7 July 1978 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Tonga     4 July 1970 Independence from United Kingdom 4 December 1845 Unification of what is now the islands of Tonga by George Tupou I of Tonga
 Tuvalu 1 October 1975 Separation of Gilbert Islands (later Kiribati) and Ellice Islands (later Tuvalu) 1 October 1978 Independence from United Kingdom 7 February 1979 Treaty with United States recognizing Tuvaluan control over Funafuti, Nukufetau, Nukulaelae, and Niulakita atolls
 Vanuatu     30 July 1980 Independence from joint British-French condominium[32]    

Transcontinental states


Country Date of current form of government Birth of current form of government Date of acquisition of sovereignty Acquisition of sovereignty Date of territorial modification Most recent significant territorial modification
 Armenia 21 September 1991 2015 Armenian constitutional referendum creates a parliamentary republic 880 Evolving as a feudal kingdom in the ninth century, Armenia experienced a brief cultural, political and economic renewal under the Bagratuni dynasty. 5 December 1936 Establishment of the Armenian SSR
21 September 1991 Independence recognized by the Soviet Union
 Azerbaijan 18 October 1991 Declaration of independence from the Soviet Union 28 May 1918 Establishment of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic.[4] 28 April 1920 Establishment of the Azerbaijan SSR
 Colombia 4 August 1886 Creation of the Republic of Colombia 20 July 1810 Independence declared from Spain 3 November 1903 Separation of Panama from Colombia
7 August 1819 Independence recognized by Spain
1830 Dissolution of Gran Colombia
 Cyprus 16 August 1960 Constitution of Cyprus establishes consocial government. Consociationalism de facto suspended in 1963.[33][34][35] 16 August 1960 Independence from United Kingdom 23 July 1974 Establishment of the United Nations Buffer Zone in Cyprus
15 November 1983 (disputed) Northern Cyprus declares independence. The government has de facto control of the northern part of the island, but is only recognized by Turkey
 Egypt 23 July 1952 Egyptian Revolution of 1952 28 February 1922 Unilateral recognition of independence by the United Kingdom but continued British military occupation 25 April 1982 Withdrawal of last Israeli troops and settlers from Sinai as agreed upon in the peace treaty with Israel
18 January 2014 New Egyptian constitution enters force following the 2013 Egyptian coup d'état 18 June 1956 Withdrawal of last British troops from the Suez Canal Zone
28 September 1961 De facto disestablishment of the United Arab Republic following a military coup in Damascus
 Georgia 9 April 1991 Independence from the Soviet Union declared 1008 Establishment of the Kingdom of Georgia 23 July 1992 Abkhazia unilaterally declared independence
26 May 1918 Establishment of Democratic Republic of Georgia[4] 28 November 1991 South Ossetia unilaterally declared independence
 Indonesia 18 August 1945 Ratification of the Constitution of Indonesia by the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence 17 August 1945 Indonesian Declaration of Independence from Netherlands 20 May 2002 Independence of East Timor, formerly administered as a province of Indonesia
27 December 1949 Independence from the Netherlands recognized
 Kazakhstan 30 August 1995 Constitution of Kazakhstan 16 December 1991 Independence declared from the Soviet Union[4] 5 December 1936 Establishment of the Kazakh SSR
30 March 1993 (disputed) Baikonur Cosmodrome and surrounding areas leased to Russia.[note 16]
 Panama     3 November 1903 Separation of Panama from Colombia, independence from Spain 1 October 1979 Panama Canal Zone
 Russia 25 December 1993 1993 Russian constitutional referendum replaces the Supreme Soviet with the Federal Assembly and increases presidential power. 882 Formation of the Kievan Rus' 18 March 2014 (disputed) Annexation of Crimea by Russia
12 June 1990 Russian SFSR declares sovereignty over its own territory[4]
 Spain 6 December 1978 Spanish Constitution 1479 Dinastical unification of the Crown of Castile and the Crown of Aragon by the Catholic Monarchs. The governments, institutions, and legal traditions of each kingdom remained independent of each other; alien laws (Leyes de extranjeria) determined that the national of one kingdom was a foreigner in the other Crowns/States.[28] 26 February 1976 Spanish Sahara is lost following the Madrid Accords.
1707~1716 De jure by the Nueva Planta decrees
1831 Dissolution of crowns and kingdoms and creation de jure, of the unified Kingdom of Spain.
 Turkey 29 October 1923 Turkey transitions into a republic from empire. 1299 The foundation of the Turkish State of the Ottoman Empire. 29 June 1939 Turkey annexes the once Syrian province of Hatay.

Sortable list


In this list, "date of last subordination" refers to the last date of control by an external government. The list shows large groupings associated with the dates of independence from decolonization (e.g. 41 current states gained control of sovereignty from the United Kingdom and France between 1956 and 1966) or dissolution of a political union (e.g. 18 current states gained control of sovereignty from the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia between 1990 and 1992). In other cases, a sovereign state submitted to foreign military occupation or political subjugation for a period of time and later regained its independence (e.g. 6 current states gained control of sovereignty from Nazi Germany between 1944 and 1945).

Dates refer to de facto rule or occupation of the major territory, whether or not legitimized by international recognition.

In a union such as Czechoslovakia, the Soviet Union, or the Kalmar Union, one of the constituents can be considered the dominant power – generally where the seat of government was located. The United Kingdom is a particularly complicated case. If England is viewed as the dominant member, then history can be traced from Roman conquest, Saxon invasions, 10th century unification, and the 1066 Norman Conquest before the union of England and Scotland in 1707. However, if viewed from a Scottish perspective, an unbroken history of sovereignty can be traced from unification in 843 through the 1707 union with England (with a brief annexation by England from 1657 to 1660). Some Scots view the 1707 union as a ceding of sovereignty to England.[37]

Country Continent First acquisition
of sovereignty
Date of last
subordination
Previous governing power Historical Notes
 Afghanistan Asia 1709 1796 Afsharid Empire 2004–Present: Islamic Republic of Afghanistan

2002–2004: Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan

1996-2001: Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan
1992–2002: Islamic State of Afghanistan (controlled only a small part of the country from 1996 to 2001, but still recognized by the UN and most of the world's countries as the legitimate government of Afghanistan)

1987-1992: Republic of Afghanistan
1978–1987: Democratic Republic of Afghanistan
1973–1978: Republic of Afghanistan
1926–1973: Kingdom of Afghanistan
1823–1926: Emirate of Afghanistan (protectorate of the United Kingdom 1879-1919)
1796–1823: Durrani Empire (also called Sadozai Kingdom)
1738–1796: Part of the Afsharid Empire
1709–1738: Hotak Emirate
1506–1709: Part of the Khanate of Bukhara
1405–1506: Center of the Timurid Empire
1369–1405: Part of the Timurid Empire
1231–1369: Part of the Mongol Empire
1163–1231: Part of the Khwarazmian Kingdom
1003–1163: Ghaznavid Sultanate
873–1003: Saffarid Emirate
821–873: Part of Tahirid Emirate
750–821: Part of Abbasid Caliphate
661–750: Part of Umayyad Caliphate
500–661: Part of Sasanian Empire
320–500 AD: Kidarite Kingdom
30–320 AD: Kushan Empire
150 BC–30 AD: Part of Indo-Parthian Kingdom and the Indo-Scythians
256–150 BC: Greco-Bactrian Kingdom
549–256 BC: Part of Macedonian Empire
549–330 BC: Part of Achaemenid Empire
678–549 BC: Part of Median Kingdom/Empire
Since 48,000 BC humans have been known to be living in the region, starting as Part of Indus Valley Civilisation and Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex

 Albania Europe 28 Nov 1912 Nov 1944[38] Germany 1992–present: Republic of Albania

1946–92: People's Socialist Republic of Albania

1944-46: Democratic Government of Albania

1943-44: Part of Germany as the Albanian Kingdom

1939-43: Part of Italy as the Kingdom of Albania
1928–39: Albanian Kingdom
1925–1928: Albanian Republic
1914–1925: Principality of Albania (via Albanian Declaration of Independence)
1912–1914: Independent Albania
1479–1912: Part of  Ottoman Empire as Sanjak of Scutari
1444–1479: League of Lezhë (military alliance of Albanian feudal lords)
1190–1444: Various Albanian principalities (including the Principality of Albania)
1255–1368: Kingdom of Albania, Dependency of the Angevin Kingdom of Sicily/Naples
1190–1255: Principality of Arbanon, oldest of the Albanian principalities, also autonomous principality of the  Byzantine Empire and later of the Despotate of Epirus
324–1190: Part of the  Byzantine Empire as the province of Macedonia
148 BC-324 AD: Part of the  Roman Empire as the province of Macedonia
Since 40,000 BC humans have been settled in the Kryegjata Valley, near the antique site of Apollonia,[39] including Illyria.

 Algeria Africa 1962 3 July 1962[40]  France 1962–present: People's Democratic Republic of Algeria (via Évian Accords)

1830–1962: Part of French Colonial Empire (as the integral territory)
1556–1830: part of the  Ottoman Empire (as the Regency of Algiers)
1235–1554: Kingdom of Tlemcen
1121–1269: Part of the Almohad Caliphate
1014–1152: Hammadid Sultanate
1014–1148: Part of the Zirid Emirate
973–1014: Center of the Zirid Emirate
909–973: Part of the Fatimid Caliphate
800–909: Part of the Aghlabid Emirate
778–909: Rustamid Imamate
750–778: Part of the Abbasid Caliphate
661–750: Part of the Umayyad Caliphate
590–698: Part of the Byzantine Empire (as the Exarchate of Africa)
484–703: Kingdom of the Aurès
439–534: Part of the Vandal Kingdom
435–439: Center of the Vandal Kingdom
395–435: Part of the Western Roman Empire as province
40 BC–395 AD: Part of the  Roman Empire as province
202 BC – 40 BC: Kingdom of Numidia
814–202 BC: Part of the Carthaginian Empire
2500–539 BC: Part of Phoenicia
10,000–2500 BC: Inhabited by Caspians
20,000–10,000 BC: Inhabited by Iberomaurusians
80,000–20,000 BC: Inhabited by Aterians
Since 1.8 Million BC, humans have been settled in Algeria as demonstrated by the discovery of Oldowan stone tools found at Ain Hanech in 1992.[41]

 Andorra Europe 7 Sep 1278[42][43] Nov 1944[44] France 1278–present: Principality of Andorra (via Paréage of Andorra; occupied by France 1812–13, 1870, 1914, 1936, 1939, 1944)

987-1278: Part of France

843-987: Part of West Francia

481-843: Part of Francia

395-481: Part of the Western Roman Empire

27 BCE-481: Part of the Roman Empire

197 BCE - 27 BCE: Part of the Roman Republic

 Angola Africa 11 Nov 1975[45] 11 Nov 1975  Portugal 1992–present: Republic of Angola
1975–1992: People's Republic of Angola (via the Alvor Agreement)
1972–1975: State of Angola (part of the Portuguese Empire)
1951–1972: Overseas Province of Angola (part of the Portuguese Empire)
1575–1951: State of West Africa (part of the Portuguese Empire)
The territory of Angola has been inhabited since the Paleolithic Era, hosting a wide variety of ethnic groups, tribes and kingdoms (like the kingdoms of Kongo, Ndongo and Matamba).
 Antigua and Barbuda The Americas 1 Nov 1981[46] 1 Nov 1981  United Kingdom 1981–present:  Antigua and Barbuda

1632–1981: Part of the  British Empire as its West Indies (interrupted by  France in 1666)
Since 3100 BC, humans have been settled starting with the indigenous peoples of the Americas.

 Argentina The Americas 25 May 1810 9 July 1816[47] Spain 1861–present: Argentine Republic (a Federal state; originally the federation had 14 federated states [ Provinces of Argentina ], after the Conquest of the Desert, federal territories was established in Patagonia, the last territory, Tierra del Fuego, became the Province of Tierra del Fuego, Antarctica and South Atlantic Islands and joined the federation in 1990. Currently Argentina has 23 provinces)

1831–1861:  Argentine Confederation
1816–1830: United Provinces of South America (On 9 July 1816, the Congress of Tucumán issued the formal Declaration of Independence, the country became a republic)
1810–1816: United Provinces of South America (via the 1810 May Revolution; nominally a monarchic state in personal union with Spain, recognizing Ferdinand VII as king)
1776–1810: Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata (Part of the Spanish Empire)
1542–1776: Part of the Viceroyalty of Peru (Part of the Spanish Empire)
1528–1542: Governorate of New Andalusia, part of the Spanish Empire
11,000 BC-1528 AD: Inhabited by Native Argentines, including the Inca Empire, Chonan peoples and Guaycuru peoples.

 Armenia Transcontinental – Asia/Europe 880 c. 23 Sep 1991[48] Soviet Union 1991–present: Republic of Armenia

1920–1991:  Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, federated state of the  Soviet Union
1918–1920: First Republic of Armenia
April–May 1918: Part of the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic
November 1917 – April 1918: Part of the Russian Republic as Transcaucasian Commissariat
1829–1917: Part of the  Russian Empire as Caucasus Viceroyalty
1502–1829: Part of the Ottoman Empire
1468–1502: Part of the Timurid Empire
1374–1468: Part of the Kara Koyunlu
1335–1374: Part of the Jalairid Sultanate
1236–1335: Part of the Mongol Empire as its territory
1201–1360: Zakarid Principality of Armenia
1071–1194: Part of the Seljuk Empire
987–1170: Kingdom of Syunik
883–1045:Bragatid Kingdom of Armenia
654–884: Arminiya, Province (largely autonomous vassal principalities) of the Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates
428–654: Divided between the  Byzantine Empire on the west, and the east by the  Sasanian Empire .
321 BCE–AD 428: Kingdom of Armenia
549 BCE–331 BC: Part of Achaemenid Empire
860 BCE–590 BC: Kingdom of Ararat
1114 BCE–860 BC: Nairi Confederation
1300 BCE–1190 BC: Kingdom of Arme-Shupria
1500 BCE–1290 BC: Hayasa-Azzi Confederation
2492 BCE: Traditional foundation
Since 6000 BC humans have been settled starting with the Shulaveri-Shomu and Kura–Araxes eras.

 Australia Australia 1 Jan 1901 (Not completely sovereign) 9 Oct 1942 (Full sovereignty. Adoption of the Statute of Westminster 1931) United Kingdom 1942–present: Commonwealth of Australia, a Federal state, (consisted of six states, three internal territories, and seven external territories, via Constitution of Australia[49]) and a monarchy in personal union with the United Kingdom

1901-1942: Commonwealth of Australia, a federation with a Dominion status within the British Empire)
1788–1901: Part of the  British Empire
Possibly 70,000 BC – 1788 AD: Inhabited by Indigenous Australians

 Austria Europe 1806 15 May 1955[50] World War II Allies (Allied-occupied Austria) 1955–present: Republic of Austria, a Federal state (via Austrian State Treaty)
1945–55: Allied-occupied Austria
1938–45: Annexed by Nazi Germany
1934–38: Federal State of Austria (client state of Italy)
1919–34: First Republic of Austria (via Treaty of Saint Germain)
1918–19: Republic of German-Austria (via Proclamation of Charles I)
1867–1918: Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, a dual monarchy with Hungary (via Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867)
1866: Austrian Empire
1815–1866: Austrian Empire (In union with other 38 states in the German Confederation)
1806–1815: Austrian Empire
1804–1806: Austrian Empire (State of the Holy Roman Empire)
1457–1804: Archduchy of Austria (State of the Holy Roman Empire)
1156–1457: Duchy of Austria (state of the Holy Roman Empire)
 Azerbaijan Transcontinental – Asia/Europe 28 May 1918 30 Aug 1991 Soviet Union 1995–present: Republic of Azerbaijan (independence from Soviet Union declared 1991; constitution adopted 1995)

1920–1995: Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic, federated state of the  Soviet Union

1918–1920: Azerbaijan Democratic Republic
1824–1918: Part of Russian Empire
1796–1824: Part of Qajar Empire
1747–1796: Part of Afsharid Empire
(1760–1794): Part of Zand Empire
1736–1747: Part of Afsharid Empire
(1722–1729): Part of Hotaki Emirate
1501–1736: Part of Safavid Empire
1468–1508: Part of Agh Qoyunlu
1405–1507: Part of Timurid Empire
1406–1468: Part of Qara Qoyunlu
1370–1405: Part of Timurid Empire
1337–1376: Part of Sarbadars
1336–1432: Part of Jalayirid Sultanate
1335–1393: Part of Muzaffarid Dynasty
1335–1357: Part of Chobanid Dynasty
1256–1335: Part of Ilkhanate
1077–1231: Part of Khwarazmian Kingdom
1037–1194: Part of Great Seljuq Empire
963–1186: Part of Ghaznavid Sultanate
875–999: Part of Samanid Emirate
936–1055: Part of Buyid Empire
934–936: Part of Buyid Emirate
867–1002: Part of Saffarid Emirate
928–1043: Part of Ziyarid Kingdom
750–1258: Part of Abbasid Caliphate
661–750: Part of Umayyad Caliphate
(642–759/760): Part of Dabuyid dynasty
224–651: Part of Sassanid Empire
247 BC – 224 AD: Part of Parthian Empire
312–63 BC: Part of Seleucid Empire
550–330 BC: Part of Achaemenid Empire
(652–625 BC): Part of Scythian Kingdom
678–550 BC: Part of Median Empire
850–616 BC: Inhabited by Mannaeans
2700–539 BC: Inhabited by Elamites
3200–2700 BC: Inhabited by Proto-Elamites

 Bahamas The Americas 10 July 1973[51] 10 July 1973  United Kingdom 1973–present: Commonwealth of the Bahamas (Self-government gained from the United Kingdom in 1964; independence gained on 10 July 1973)
1718–1973: Part of the British Empire as its West Indies
1492–1718: Part of the Spanish Empire
500 to 800–1492: Inhabited by the Lucayans (a Taino people)
 Bahrain Asia 16 Dec 1971 16 Dec 1971  United Kingdom 1971–present: Kingdom of Bahrain

1861–1971: Protectorate of the British Empire by way of the Perpetual Truce of Peace and Friendship
1783–1861: In union with other states in the Bani Utbah Confederation
1717–1783: Ruled by Oman after a successful invasion
1602–1717: Part of Persia under the Safavid dynasty
1521–1602: Part of the Portuguese Empire
Mid-1400s–1521: Ruled by the Jabrid dynasty
1253-mid–1400s: Ruled by the Usfurid dynasty
1076–1235: Ruled by the Uyunid Emirate
976–1076: Ruled as part of the Abbasid Caliphate
899–976: Ruled by the Qarmatian Republic
3rd century AD – 899: Ruled by the Sassanids of Persia
130 BC – 3rd century BC: Ruled by the Parthians
6th century BC – 3rd century BC: Part of the Persian Empire under the Achaemenids
4th millennium BC – 6th century BC: Dilmun civilization

 Bangladesh Asia 590 16 Dec 1971  Pakistan 1972–present: People's Republic of Bangladesh

1971–1972: Provisional Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh
1955–1971: East Pakistan (Part of Pakistan)
1947–1955: East Bengal (Part of Pakistan)
1858–1947: Part of the  British Empire as Bengal Presidency, part of British India
1757–1858: Part of the  British Empire as Bengal Presidency, part of the Company Raj
1717–1880: Ruled by the Nawabs, nominally subordinate to the Mughal Empire until 1757, and to the British Empire after 1757 (Lost ruling power after the Battle of Plassey in 1757)
1576–1757: Part of the Mughal Empire as Bengal Subah
1352–1576: Bengal Sultanate
1235–1352: Part of the Delhi Sultanate
1204–1297: Deva dynasty
c.1070–1204: Sena Kingdom
c. 750–c. 1070: Pala Empire
c. 650–c. 750: Bengal was divided between various kingdoms, like Vanga and Samatata (Both ruled by the Khadga dynasty)
590–626: Gauda Kingdom
350–655: Part of Kamarupa under the Varman dynasty
358–590: Part of the Gupta Empire
26 BC – 358 AD: Bengal was divided between various kingdoms.
73 BC – 26 BC: Part of the Kanva Kingdom
185 BC–73 BC: Part of the Shunga Empire
232 BC – 800 AD: Part of Samatata
319–185 BC: Part of the Maurya Empire
340–319 BC: Part of the Kingdom of Magadha
600–340 BC: Ancient Bengal was divided between various kingdoms.
700–200 BC: Inhabited by the Pundravardhana culture
Since 100,000 BC humans have been settled on Bangladesh, although the prehistoric evidences are weak.[52]

 Barbados The Americas 30 Nov 1966 30 Nov 1966  United Kingdom 1966–present: Barbados

1625–1966: Part of the British Empire as its West Indies
Claimed by Spain and Portugal in the 16th century.
c. 1200–c.1500 AD: Inhabited by the Kalinago
c. 800–c. 1200 AD: Inhabited by the Saladoids
Archeological evidence suggests humans may have first settled or visited the island circa 1600 BC.

 Belarus Europe 1918 25 Aug 1991 Soviet Union 1990–present: Republic of Belarus

1943–1990: Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, a federated state of the Soviet Union (USSR)
1941–1943: Occupation by Nazi Germany
1922–1941: Byelorussian SSR, a federated state of the Soviet Union (USSR)
1920–1922: Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic
1919–1919: Lithuanian–Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic
1918–1919: Belarusian People's Republic
1917–1918: Part of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
1795–1917: Part of the Russian Empire
1569–1795: Part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
1397–1569: Part of Grand Duchy of Lithuania
1307–1397: Principality of Polotsk, part of Grand Duchy of Lithuania
987–1307: Principality of Polotsk (independent principality)
Before 987: In the 9th century the territory of modern Belarus became part of Kievan Rus', a loose federation of East Slavic and Finno-Ugric peoples, ruled by the Rurikid dynasty
The region that is now Belarus was first settled by Baltic tribes in the 3rd century. Around the 5th century, the area was taken over by Slavic tribes.

 Belgium Europe 4 Oct 1830 1945 Germany 1830–present: Kingdom of Belgium (a Federal state, consisted of three regions and three communities)
1813–1830: Part of the Netherlands
1795–1813: Ruled by France
1713–1795: Austrian Netherlands (collective name of States of the Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries, held by the Habsburg Monarchy)
1581–1714: Spanish Netherlands (collective name of States of the Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries, held in personal union by the Spanish Crown)
 Belize The Americas 21 Sep 1981[53] 21 Sep 1981  United Kingdom 1981–present: Belize

1716–1973: Part of the British Empire

 Benin Africa 1600 (approx.) 1 Aug 1960  France 1990–present: Republic of Benin
1975–1990: People's Republic of Benin

1958–1975: Republic of Dahomey (French self-governing colony)
1904–1958: French Dahomey (as part of French West Africa)
1894–1904: Kingdom of Dahomey (French Protectorate)
c.1600–1894: Kingdom of Dahomey (African kingdom)

 Bhutan Asia 1634 1634 (none) Autonomous since at least the 10th century.[54] Unified 1634, after the Battle of Five Lamas. Early history is sketchy, but may have been part of Kamarupa kingdom, and may have been occupied by Tibetan-Mongol forces ca. 10th century.[55]
 Bolivia The Americas 6 Aug 1825 6 Aug 1825 Spain 2009–present: Plurinational State of Bolivia

1839–2009: Republic of Bolivia
1836–1839: In union with North Peru and South Peru in the Peru–Bolivian Confederation
1825–1839: Republic of Bolivia (The name of the country is a tribute to Simon Bolivar (considered as the country's first president), who always referred to the country as Upper Peru. There were doubts if the region should be an independent nation or join Argentina or Peru. After Antonio José de Sucre was elected as the second president, he convened the Constituent Assembly in Chuquisaca to determine the future of the region. Almost all delegates wanted that Bolivia became an independent country and rejected any annexation to Argentina (former Río de la Plata) or Peru).
1821–1825: Center of the Viceroyalty of Peru (viceroyalty of the Spanish Empire)
1810–1821: Part of the Viceroyalty of Peru (viceroyalty of the Spanish Empire)
1776–1810: Part of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata (viceroyalty of the Spanish Empire)
1542–1776: Part of the Viceroyalty of Peru (viceroyalty of the Spanish Empire)
1528–1542: Governorate of New Toledo(governorate of the Crown of Castille)
1471–1542: Part of the Inca Empire
1000–1500: Mollo culture
550–c.1000: Tiwanaku state
The region now known as Bolivia had been occupied for over 2,500 years when the Native Bolivians, including Aymara, arrived.

 Bosnia and Herzegovina Europe 1377 3 Mar 1992 Yugoslavia 1997–present: Bosnia and Herzegovina (a Federal state)

1992–1997: Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
1945–1992: Federated state of Yugoslavia
1941–1945 Part of Independent State of Croatia (Nazi Germany invasion)
1918–1941: Part of Kingdom of Yugoslavia
1878–1918: Part of Austria-Hungary Empire
1463–1878: Part of Ottoman Empire
1377–1463: Kingdom of Bosnia
1154–1377: Banate of Bosnia (subject to Kingdom of Hungary)

 Botswana Africa 30 Sep 1966[56] 30 Sep 1966  United Kingdom 1966–present : Republic of Botswana

1885–1966: Part of the British Empire as Bechuanaland Protectorate
600 AD: Bantu-speaking peoples first moved into the country from the north
The territory of Botswana has been inhabited since the Paleolithic Era. The original inhabitants of southern Africa were the San and Khoi peoples.

 Brazil The Americas 7 Sep 1822[57] 29 Aug 1825 (Treaty of Rio de Janeiro) United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves 1985–Present: Federative Republic of Brazil (Sixth Brazilian Republic) (a federal state, the federation have 26 federated states and 1 federal district)

1964–1985: Brazilian Military Dictatorship (Fifth Brazilian Republic) (a federal state, the federation had 22 federated states, 1 federal district and 4 federal territories)
1946–1964: United States of Brazil (Fourth Brazilian Republic) (a federal state, the federation had 22 federated states, 1 federal district and, 4 federal territories)
1930–1946: Brazilian Vargas Era (Second and Third Brazilian Republics) (a federal state, the federation had 20 federated states, 1 federal district and 7 federal territories)
1889–1930: Republic of the United States of Brazil (First Brazilian Republic) (a federal state, the federation had 20 federated states, 1 federal district and, from 1903, 1 federal territory)
1822–1889:  Empire of Brazil (a unitary state)
1815–1822: Brazil, elevated to kingdom so that it was legally possible to achieve a political union with the Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves to create the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and Algarves (Portuguese Empire)
1772–1775: State of Maranhão and Piauí, part of the Portuguese Empire
1772–1775: State of Grão-Pará and Rio Negro, part of the Portuguese Empire
1751–1772: State of Grão-Pará and Maranhão, part of the Portuguese Empire
1621–1751: State of Maranhão, part of the Portuguese Empire
1621–1815: State of Brazil, part of the Portuguese Empire
1613–1621: Governorate General of Brazil, part of the Portuguese Empire
1607–1613: Divided in Governorate General of Bahia and Governorate General of Rio de Janeiro, part of the Portuguese Empire
1578–1607: Governorate General of Brazil, part of the Portuguese Empire
1572–1578: Divided in Governorate General of Bahia and Governorate General of Rio de Janeiro, part of the Portuguese Empire
1549–1572: Governorate General of Brazil, part of the Portuguese Empire
1534–1549: Captaincy Colonies of Brazil, private and autonomous colonies of the Portuguese Empire
9000 BC – 1500 AD: Inhabited by Native Brazilians, including Tupi people, Gê peoples, Kalina people and Arawaks.

 Brunei Asia 1368 1 Jan 1984  United Kingdom 1984–present: Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace

1945–1984: Part of the British Empire
1942–1945: Occupied by Japan
1888–1942: Part of the British Empire
1368–1888: Sultanate of Brunei
1294–1368: Part of the Majapahit Kingdom
1276–1294: Part of the Kingdom of Singhasari
c. 1000 AD – 1276 AD: Part of the Kingdom of Srivijaya

 Bulgaria Europe 681[58] 5 Oct 1908 Ottoman Empire 1990–present: Republic of Bulgaria

1946–1990: People's Republic of Bulgaria
1908–1946: Tsardom of Bulgaria (reunified with Eastern Rumelia where was a part of the  Ottoman Empire)
1878–1908: Principality of Bulgaria
1396–1878: Part of the  Ottoman Empire
1185–1396: Second Bulgarian Empire
1018–1185: Part of the  Byzantine Empire
681–1018: First Bulgarian Empire
632–668: Old Great Bulgaria
324–681: Part of the  Byzantine Empire as the province of Thracia
46–324 AD: Part of the  Roman Empire as the province of Thracia
480 BC–46 AD: Odrysian kingdom
Since c.1.4 million BC humans have been settled starting with Lower Paleolithic.[59]

 Burkina Faso Africa 5 Aug 1960[60] 5 Aug 1960  France 1984–present: Burkina Faso

1960–1984:Republic of Upper Volta (independent)
1958–1960: Republic of Upper Volta, self-governing colony within the French Empire
1896–1958: Part of the French West Africa, federation of colonies of the French Empire
11th century – 1896: Burkina Faso is divided in several Mossi Kingdoms

 Burundi Africa 1680 (approx.) 1 July 1962  Belgium 1966–present: Republic of Burundi

1962–1966: Kingdom of Burundi (independent)
1890–1962: Kingdom of Burundi, part of Ruanda-Urundi (Part of the Belgian Empire)
1890–1919: Kingdom of Burundi, part of German East Africa (Part of the German Empire)
c.1680–1890: Kingdom of Burundi

 Cambodia Asia 50 / 68 9 Nov 1953[61]  France 1993–present: Kingdom of Cambodia

1992–1993: United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia
1989–1992: State of Cambodia
1979–1989: People's Republic of Kampuchea
1975–1979: Democratic Kampuchea
1970–1975: Khmer Republic
1954–1970: Kingdom of Cambodia
1945–1953:French protectorate of Cambodia
1945: Japanese occupation of Cambodia
1863–1945: French protectorate of Cambodia, a French protectorate within French Indochina — a collection of Southeast Asian protectorates within the French Empire.
1431–1863: Kingdom of Cambodia
802–1431: Khmer Empire founded 802 according to Sdok Kok Thom Inscription
706/717–802: Separation in Land Chenla and Water Chenla
550 – c.706/717: Kingdom of Chenla
c.50/68 AD–550 AD: Kingdom of Funan

 Cameroon Africa 1 Jan 1960 1 Oct 1961  United Kingdom Republic of Cameroon

French Cameroons gained independence in 1960; added British Southern Cameroons in 1961.
1922–1961: British Cameroon, part of the British Empire
1918–1960: French Cameroon, part of the French Empire
1884–1916: German Cameroon, part of the German Empire
The territory of Cameroon has been inhabited since the Neolithic Era, hosting a wide variety of ethnic groups, tribes, fondoms and kingdoms (such as the kingdoms of Kotoko, Mandara and Bamum).

 Canada The Americas 1 July 1867 (Not completelly sovereign. The British Empire still had control of the foreign affairs of Canada) 11 Dec 1931 (Canada becomes completely sovereign, having consulates and embassies in other countries) United Kingdom 1931–present: Dominion of Canada, a federal state and monarchy in personal union with the United Kingdom (Statute of Westminster in 1931.[62])

1867–1931: Dominion of Canada (By the 1st of July 1867,  Canada has been established as a federation with a Dominion status within the British Empire)
1783-1867: British North America, part of the British Empire. (Included the Province of Quebec (1763-1791)[63] and the Rupert’s Land. In 1791 Quebec was split into two provinces: The Upper Canada and Lower Canada, and in 1841 the provinces merged to make the United Province of Canada.
1760–1783: British America (After the Seven Years' War, the British conquers all French territories in the future modern territory of Canada)
1535–1760: Canada, part of the French Empire, established in 1535. The Newfoundland Colony, part of the English Empire, is established in 1610. Later the English establishes the Rupert’s Land in 1670. The English territories in America would become part of the British America after 1707
Since 14000 BC humans have been settled from Native Canadians with tribes, chiefdoms and confederations.

 Cape Verde Africa 5 July 1975 5 July 1975[64]  Portugal Republic of Cabo Verde

1460–1975: Part of the Portuguese Empire

 Central African Republic Africa 13 Aug 1960 13 Aug 1960  France Central African Republic

1903–1960: Ubangi-Shari, part of the French Equatorial Africa, federation of colonial possessions of the French Empire
The territory of Central African Republic has been inhabited since the Neolithic Era, hosting a wide variety of ethnic groups

 Chad Africa 11 Aug 1960 11 Aug 1960  France 1960–present: Republic of Chad

1900–1960: French Chad, part of the French Equatorial Africa, federation of colonial possessions of the French Empire
1501–1912: Wadai Sultanate
1480/1522–1897: Sultanate of Bagirmi
c. 700–1900: Kanem–Bornu Empire
The territory of Chad has been inhabited since the Paleolithic Era.

 Chile The Americas 18 Sep 1810 12 Feb 1818 Spain 1990–Present: Republic of Chile (Democracy Restored)

1973–1990: Chilean Military Dictatorship
1925–1973: Chilean Presidential Republic
1891–1925: Parliamentary Chile
1861–1891: Liberal Chile
1830–1861: Conservative Chile
1823–1830: Republic of Chile (Organization of the Republic)
1818–1823: Republic of Chile (Patria Nueva, New Fatherland)
1814–1818: Captaincy General of Chile (Reconquest by the Spanish Empire
1810–1814: Kingdom of Chile (Patria Vieja, Old Fatherland) (nominally a monarchic state in personal union with Spain, recognizing Ferdinand VII as king)
1798–1818: Captaincy General of Chile or Govenorate of Chile (known unofficially as the Kingdom of Chile), with self-administration without vice-royal dependence, part of the Spanish Empire
1533–1798: Captaincy General of Chile or Govenorate of Chile (known unofficially as the Kingdom of Chile), under supervision of the Viceroyalty of Peru, part of the Spanish Empire
1438–1533: Part of the Inca Empire
Between 18,500 and 14,000 BC – 1541 AD: Inhabited by Chilean Natives, including Aymara, Mapuche, and Rapa Nui

 China Asia 1600 BC 9 February 1945 Japan

1949–present:  People's Republic of China
1937–1945: Japanese Invasion
1916–present: Republic of China (Taiwan)
1915–1916: Empire of China
1912–1915: Republic of China
1895–1945: Japanese Taiwan
1895: Republic of Formosa
1644–1912:  Qing dynasty
1624–1662: Dutch Formosa / Spanish Formosa
1368–1644: Ming dynasty
1271–1368: Yuan dynasty
960–1279: Song dynasty
907–1125: Divided in Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms / Liao dynasty
618–907: Tang dynasty
581–618: Sui dynasty
420–589: Divided in Northern and Southern dynasties
266–420: Jin dynasty
220–280: Divided in Three Kingdoms
206 BC – 220 AD: Han dynasty
221–206 BC: Qin dynasty (first imperial dynasty)
c. 1046–256 BC: Zhou dynasty
c. 1600–c. 1046 BC: Shang dynasty
c. 2070–c. 1600 BC: Xia dynasty (first royal dynasty)
c. 8500–c. 2070 BC: Neolithic
Since as earliest as 2 Million BC, humans have been settled starting with the Renzidong

Note: Although the Mongol's Yuan dynasty and the Manchu's Qing dynasty were considered foreign by many Han Chinese in their times, current Chinese official position considers these two dynasties as Chinese, as they were established by Chinese ethnic minorities and had their capitals in present-day Beijing. The PRC government considers itself the successor of the Republic of China (1912–49) which legally inherited the whole of China from the Qing Empire.

 Colombia The Americas 20 July 1820 7 Aug 1819 Spain 1886–present: Republic of Colombia (unitary state)

1863–1886: United States of Colombia (federal state)
1858–1863: Granadine Confederation (confederal state)
1831–1858: Republic of New Granada (unitary state)
1819–1831: Republic of Colombia (Gran Colombia) (federal state)
1816-1819: Viceroyalty of New Granada, part of the  Spanish Empire(Reconquest by the Spanish Empire)
1811–1816: Patria Boba period (Foolish Fatherland period) United Provinces of New Granada, a federal and republican state
1810–1814: Patria Boba period (Foolish Fatherland period): Free and Independent State of Cundinamarca (a monarchical state in personal union with Spain, recognizing Ferdinand VII as king, in 1813 declared itself a republic and joined the United Provinces of New Granada in 1814)
1739–1810: Viceroyalty of New Granada, part of the  Spanish Empire
1723–1739: New Kingdom of Granada, within the Viceroyalty of Peru, part of the  Spanish Empire
1717–1723: Viceroyalty of New Granada, part of the  Spanish Empire
1538–1717: New Kingdom of Granada, within the Viceroyalty of Peru, part of the  Spanish Empire
Since 10,000 BC humans have been settled from Native Colombians with tribes, chiefdoms, and confederations (like the Muisca Confederation).

 Comoros Africa 6 July 1975 6 July 1975  France 2001–present:Union of the Comores (a Federal state)

1975–2001: Federal and Islamic Republic of Comoros
1886–1975: part of the French Empire
c.1000 BC: when the archipelago was first inhabited. The Comoros have been inhabited by various groups throughout this time.

 Congo, Democratic Republic of the Africa 1885 30 June 1960  Belgium

1997–present:  Democratic Republic of the Congo
1971–1997: Republic of Zaire
1964–1971: Democratic Republic of the Congo (Kinshasa)
1960–1964: Republic of the Congo (Léopoldville)
1908–1960: Part of the Belgian Empire as  Belgian Congo
1885–1908: Part of the Belgian Empire as the  Congo Free State (as sovereign entity, a private domain of King Leopold II of Belgium)
1390–1914: Part of the Kingdom of Kongo
Since 80,000 BC humans has been settled from with tribes, chiefdoms and confederations.

 Congo, Republic of the Africa 15 Aug 1960 15 Aug 1960  France

1992–present:  Republic of the Congo
1969–1992:  People's Republic of the Congo
1960–1969: Republic of the Congo (Brazzaville)
1910–1960: Part of the French Empire as French Equatorial Africa
1882–1910: Part of the French Empire as Middle Congo
1390–1914: Part of the Kingdom of Kongo
Since 80,000 BC humans has been settled from with tribes, chiefdoms and confederations.

 Costa Rica The Americas 15 Sep 1821 1838 Federal Republic of Central America 1948–present: Republic of Costa Rica (Second)

1848–1948: First Costa Rican Republic
1838–1847: Free State of Costa Rica
1823–1838: Federated state of the Federal Republic of Central America
24 September 1821 – 1823: Part of the First Mexican Empire as Province of Costa Rica
15–24 September 1821: Republic of Costa Rica
1609–1821: Part of the Captaincy General of Guatemala (alternativelly Kingdom of Guatemala) within the Viceroyalty of New Spain (Part of the Spanish Empire)
1535–1609: Part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain (Part of the Spanish Empire)
1525–1535: Part of the Columbian Viceroyalty (Part of the Spanish Empire)
Before 1525: The Huetar people establishes some kingdoms in the modern territory of Costa Rica: Eastern Huetar Kingdom, domains of the King Garabito, Kingdom of Pacaca and Western Huetar Kingdom. There was also the Kingdom of Nicoya and the Kingdom of Talamanca
Since about 10,000 to 7,000 BC humans have been settled by Native Costa Ricans, including Chibchans and Nahuatl.

 Côte d'Ivoire Africa 7 Aug 1960 7 Aug 1960  France 1960–present Republic of Côte d'Ivoire

1886–1962: Part of the French Empire as French Ivory Coast, part of the Western Africa
1740–1843: Kingdom of Sanwi
1710–1898: Kong Empire
1460–1895: Gyaaman
Possibly since the Upper Paleolithic humans have been settled before 1460.

 Croatia Europe 626[19][20][21][22][23] 8 Oct 1991 Yugoslavia 1991–present: Republic of Croatia

1945–1991: Federated state of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia as  SR Croatia
1941–1945: Occupied by Nazi Germany as the  Independent State of Croatia, a Fascist puppet.
1918–1941: Part of the  Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes)
1868–1918: Part of the  Austria-Hungary as the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia
1527–1868: Kingdom of Croatia (in the union with Kingdom of Hungary within Habsburg Monarchy, Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary)
1102–1526: Kingdom of Croatia (in the union with Kingdom of Hungary)
925–1102: Kingdom of Croatia
681–925 AD: Divided between the Pannonian and Dalmatian
324–681: Part of the  Byzantine Empire as the province of Dalmatia
32 BC – 324 AD: Part of the  Roman Empire as the province of Dalmatia and Illyricum
Since 128,000 BC humans have been settled from Pre-Croats with tribes, chiefdoms and confederations.

 Cuba The Americas 20 May 1902 2 February 1909  United States 1959–present: Republic of Cuba, sovereign communist state

1934–1959: Republic of Cuba, sovereign capitalist state
1909–1934: Republic of Cuba, Protectorate of the United States
1906–1909: Second American Occupation of Cuba
1902–1906: Republic of Cuba, Protectorate of the United States
1898–1902: Occupied but not annexed by United States
1821–1898: Captaincy General of Cuba (part of the Spanish Empire)
1607–1821: Captaincy General of Cuba, under supervision of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, part of the Spanish Empire (part of the Spanish Empire)
1535–1607: Part of the Captaincy General of Santo Domingo, part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain (part of the Spanish Empire)
1510–1535: Part of the Columbian Viceroyalty (part of the Spanish Empire)
The territory that is now Cuba was inhabited by the Taíno people from the 4th millennium BC until Spanish colonization in the 15th century.

 Cyprus Europe 1960 16 Aug 1960  United Kingdom 1960–present: Republic of Cyprus

1878–1960: Part of the British Empire as crown colony
1571–1878: Part of the Ottoman Empire
1489–1571: Part of the  Republic of Venice
1192–1489: Kingdom of Cyprus
965–1192: Part of the  Byzantine Empire as Province
750–965: Part of the Abbasid Caliphate
668–750: Part of the Umayyad Caliphate
31 BC-668 AD: Part of the  Roman Empire
305–31 BC: Part of the Ptolemaic Kingdom
321–305 BC: Part of the Macedonian Empire
545–321 BC: Part of the Achaemenid Empire
626–545 BC: Part of the Neo-Babylonian Empire
911–669 BC: Part of the Neo-Assyrian Empire
Since around the 10th millennium BC humans have been settled on the island dates.[65]
Note: Cyprus has been divided between two ethnicities as one sovereign state: Greek Cyprus and Turkish Cyprus from 1983.

 Czechia Europe 870 1 Jan 1993 Czechoslovakia 1993–present: Czech Republic

1945–1993: Part of the Czechoslovakia (interrupted by Warsaw Pact armies in 1968)
1945: Occupied by WWII Allies in 1945
1939–1945: Occupied by Germany
1918–1919: Part of the Czechoslovakia
1867–1918: Part of Austria-Hungary
1806–1867: Part of the Austrian Empire
1198–1806: Kingdom of Bohemia, State of the Holy Roman Empire
1002–1198: Duchy of Bohemia, State of the Holy Roman Empire
935–1002: Unified with Moravia and Silesia under Boleslaus I, Duke of Bohemia, who acceded to the throne in 935.
870–935: Duchy of Bohemia first independent from Great Moravia

 Denmark Europe 714[66] 5 May 1945 Germany 2014: Denmark submits a claim for the North Pole to the UN

2009: Greenlandic Self-Governance after a referendum
1973– : Unsettled dispute with Canada over sovereignty of Hans Ø
1973: Denmark becomes member of the EEC
1948: Faroe Islands granted home rule
1940–1945: German occupation
1920: Northern Schleswig (Sønderjylland) re-united with Denmark
1918: Independence of Iceland
1917: Denmarks last tropical colony, sold to United States
1864: Schleswig, Holstein & Lauenburg is lost to Prussia
1863– : House of Glücksburg
1849: New constitution with elected parliament
1814: Norway becomes independent with new constitution. Greenland, Iceland & Faroe Islands remain under Danish rule
1721: Denmark-Norway re-establish claim to Greenland
1679: Denmark forced to leave Gotland for good
1665: Kongeloven, Denmarks first constitution
1658: The sovereignty over Skåneland is transferred to Sweden
1620: First overseas colony
1536: Reformation in Denmark
1534–1536: War of succession
1448: Christian I first king of House of Oldenburg
1397–1523: Kalmar Union
1380–1814: Personal union between Denmark and Norway
1375–1412: Queen Margaret
1332–1340: Interregnum, Denmark controlled by German counts
1241: Code of Jutland "Jyske Lov"
1219–1223/27: Dominant Baltic power under the reign of Valdemar II
1154–1182: Valdemar the Great
1131–1157: Civil war
1086: Murder of Canute the Saint the first Danish royal saint
1047– : Unbroken line of Danish monarchs ruling the kingdom, al descending from titular Queen Estrid Svendsdatter
1042–1047: Norwegian rule

1010s–1040s: Anglo-Danish kingdom under the kings Sweyn, Cnut & Harthacnut
970s–1035: In periods the Danish kings Harald, Sweyn & Cnut (& perhaps Harald II ?) exercises supremacy over Norway
Country re-united under Gorm the Old & Harald Bluetooth
The decades from the 890s to the 930s are only sparse documented in written sources. The country possibly divided into smaller parts ruled by various families
Second half of 9th century, an increasing number of Viking raids on Western Europe, many originating from Denmark
826: Harald first Danish king to be baptised
814–854: Horik I king (in periods ruling jointly with others)
812: Civil war
c. 800–810: King Gudfred
c. 714: Ongendus king
Danish kingship documented from the 8th century, though the institution possibly established prior to that

 Djibouti Africa 27 June 1977 27 June 1977  France 1977–present: Republic of Djibouti

1894–1977: Part of the French Colonial Empire as French Somaliland
1862–1883: Ruled by Afar and Somali sultans
1577–1862: Part of the Ottoman Empire
1415–1577:Part of the Sultanate of Adal
1285–1415: Part of the Sultanate of Ifat

 Dominica The Americas 3 Nov 1978 3 Nov 1978  United Kingdom 1978–present: Commonwealth of Dominica

1763–1978: Part of the British Empire as its West Indies
c.1690–1763: Part of the French Empire
The island was originally inhabited by the Kalinago.

 Dominican Republic The Americas 1821 ( Republic of Spanish Haiti) 27 Feb 1844 Haiti 1844–present: Dominican Republic

1822–1844: Part of the Republic of Haiti
1821–1822: Republic of Spanish Haiti
1809–1821: Part of the Spanish Empire
1806–1809: Part of the Republic of Haiti
1805: Part of the Empire of Haiti
1795–1805: Part of the French Colonial Empire
1535–1795: Captaincy General of Santo Domingo, part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain (Part of the Spanish Empire)
1492–1535: Captaincy General of Santo Domingo, part of the Columbian Viceroyalty (Part of the Spanish Empire)
At the time of Columbus' arrival in 1492, the island's territory consisted of five Taíno chiefdoms: Marién, Maguá, Maguana, Jaragua, and Higüey.

 Ecuador The Americas 24 May 1822 13 May 1830 Gran Colombia 1830–present: Republic of Ecuador

1824-1830: Divided in Azuay, Guayaquil and Ecuador, federated states of the Gran Colombia
1821–1824: Federated state of the Gran Colombia
1717–1821: Part of the jurisdiction of the Royal Audience of Quito (sometimes referred unofficially as the Presidency of Quito or Kingdom of Quito) within the Viceroyalty of Nueva Granada, part of the  Spanish Empire
1563–1717: Part of the jurisdiction of the Royal Audience of Quito (sometimes referred unofficially as the Presidency of Quito or Kingdom of Quito) within the Viceroyalty of Peru, part of the  Spanish Empire
1542–1562: Part of the Viceroyalty of Peru, within the  Spanish Empire
1532–1542: Part of the Governorate of New Castile, part of the  Spanish Empire
1486–1532: Part of the Inca Empire
Since 8000 BC humans has been settled, starting with Native Ecuadorians such as Cotocollao, Tayos, Machalilla, and Manteños

 Egypt Transcontinental – Africa/Asia 3150 BC 28 Feb 1922 United Kingdom 1971–present: Arab Republic of Egypt

1958–1971:  United Arab Republic (In union with  Syria)
1953–1958: Arab Republic of Egypt
1922–1953: Kingdom of Egypt
1914–1922: Part of the  British Empire as the Sultanate of Egypt (British protectorate)
1867–1914: Khedivate of Egypt, a de jure Ottoman autonomous state (Occupied by the  British Empire from 1882 to 1922).
1798–1801: Occupied by the First French Empire
1517–1867: Part of the  Ottoman Empire as Eyalet of Egypt
1250–1517: Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt (Baḥrī and Burjī dynasties)
1218–1250: Center of the Ayyubid Sultanate
1174–1218: Part of the Ayyubid Sultanate
1171–1174: Center of the Ayyubid Sultanate
973–1171: Center of the Fatimid Caliphate
969–973: Part of the Fatimid Caliphate
935–969: Ikhshidid State, autonomous state within the Abbasid Caliphate
868–935: Part of the Abbasid Caliphate
868–905: Tulunid Emirate
750–868: Part of the Abbasid Caliphate
661–750: Part of the Umayyad Caliphate
641–661: Part of the Rashidun Caliphate
619–629: Part of the Sasanian Empire as Province
324–641: Part of the  Byzantine Empire as province
30 BC-324 AD: Part of the  Roman Empire as province
332–30 BC: Ptolemaic Kingdom (in association with Macedonia)
332–323 BC: Part of the Macedonian Empire
343–332 BC: Part of the Achaemenid Empire as the 31st Dynasty
404–343 BC: 28th–30th Dynasties of Ancient Egypt
525–404 BC: Part of the Achaemenid Empire as the 27th Dynasty
664–525 BC: 26th Dynasty of Ancient Egypt
1069–664 BC: 21st–25th Dynasties of Ancient Egypt
1550–1069 BC: 18th–20th Dynasties of Ancient Egypt as a new kingdom
1650–1550 BC: 13th–17th Dynasties of Ancient Egypt
2055–1650 BC: 11th and 12th Dynasties of Ancient Egypt as the middle kingdom
2181–2055 BC: 8th–10th Dynasties of Ancient Egypt
2575–2150 BC: 3rd–7th Dynasties of Ancient Egypt as kingdom
3150–2575 BC: 1st–2nd Dynasties of Ancient Egypt (Unified by Pharaoh Menes or probably Narmer, founder of the First Dynasty between Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt).

Since 598,000 BC humans have been settled starting within a 30-metre (100 ft) terrace, with primitive Acheulean and Abbevillian (Chellean).[67]

 El Salvador The Americas 15 Sep 1815 21 Jan 1922 Federal Republic of Central America

1982–present: Republic of El Salvador
1979–1982: Revolutionary Junta of El Salvador
1922–1979: Republic of El Salvador
1921–1922: Federated state of the Federal Republic of Central America
1915–1921: Republic of El Salvador (As an official name from June 7)
1898–1915: Republic of Salvador
1896–1898: Federated state of the Greater Republic of Central America
November 1852 – 1896: Republic of Salvador
October–November 1852: Federated state of the Federation of Central America
1841–1852: Republic of Salvador
1823–1841: Federated state of the Federal Republic of Central America
1821–1823: Part of the First Mexican Empire as Province of Salvador
1609–1821: Part of the Captaincy General of Guatemala (alternativelly Kingdom of Guatemala) within the Viceroyalty of New Spain (Part of the Spanish Empire)
1535–1609: Part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain (Part of the Spanish Empire)
1525–1535: Part of the Columbian Viceroyalty (Part of the Spanish Empire)
c.1200–1525: Divided between Cuzcatlan (Western part) and Lenca (Eastern part)
Since 8000 BC humans have been settled by Native Salvadorans, including Mayans, Nahuatl, and Pipils.

 Equatorial Guinea Africa 12 Oct 1968 12 Oct 1968 Spain 1968–present: Republic of Equatorial Guinea

1778–1968: Part of the Spanish Empire
1474–1778: Part of the Portuguese Empire

 Eritrea Africa 1137 24 May 1993 Ethiopia 1993–present: State of Eritrea

1952–1993: Part of Ethiopia
1941–1952: Occupied by the British Empire
1889–1941: Part of the Italian Empire
1879–1889: Part of the Ethiopian Empire
1555–1879: Part of the Ottoman Empire
1137–1889: Medri Bahri kingdom
c. 100 AD – c. 940 AD: Part of the Kingdom of Aksum
c. 980 BC–c. 400 BC: Part of Dʿmt

 Estonia Europe 24 Feb 1918[68] 20 Aug 1991 Soviet Union 1991–present: Republic of Estonia

1940–1991: Occupation by the Soviet Union (1940–1941), Germany (1941–1944) and again by the Soviet Union (1944–1991)
1918–1940: Republic of Estonia
1917–1918: Autonomous Governorate of Estonia, autonomous entity of the Russian Republic
1721–1917: Governorate of Estonia, part of the Russian Empire
1561–1721: Duchy of Estonia, dominion of the Swedish Empire
1465–1561: Part of the Livonian Confederation
1346–1435: Part of the State of the Teutonic Order
1219–1346: Duchy of Estonia, a direct dominion (Latin: dominium directum) of the King of Denmark
The territory of Estonia has been inhabited since at least 9,000 B.C

 Eswatini Africa 6 Sep 1968 6 Sep 1968  United Kingdom 2018–present: Kingdom of Eswatini

1968–2018: Kingdom of Swaziland
1902–1968: Part of the British Empire
1745–1902:Kingdom of Swaziland

 Ethiopia Africa 80 BC 5 May 1941 Italy 1995–present: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (a Federal state, constituted by 10 regional states and 2 chartered cities)

1991–1995: Transitional Government of Ethiopia
1987–1991: People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
1974–1987: Provisional Military Government of Socialist Ethiopia
1941–1974: Ethiopian Empire
[69] 1936–1941: Occupied by Italy
[69] 1734–1936: Sultanate of Aussa
1647–1887: Emirate of Harar
1577–1672: Imamate of Aussa
1415–1577: Adal Sultanate
1285–1415: Part of the Sultanate of Ifat
1270–1936: Ethiopian Empire
c. 900/1137–1270: Zagwe Kingdom
c. 325–1627: Kingdom of Semien
c. 80 BC – c. 940 AD: Kingdom of Aksum
c. 980 BC–c. 400 BC: Kingdom of D'mt

 Fiji Australia 1871 10 Oct 1970  United Kingdom 1987–present: Republic of Fiji

1970–1987: Dominion of Fiji
1874–1970: Part of the British Empire
1871–1874: Kingdom of Fiji

 Finland Europe 6 Dec 1917 4 Jan 1918 Russia 1919–present: Republic of Finland

1918–1919: Kingdom of Finland
1809–1917: Grand Duchy of Finland, Governorate-General of the Russian Empire
c.1200s–1809: Part of the Kingdom of Sweden, as an integral region.

 France Europe 481 1944 Germany 1958—Present: French Republic (Fifth; consisted of integral regions (five being overseas regions) and severall overseas collectivities)

1946–1958: French Fourth Republic
1944–1946: Provisional Government of the French Republic
1940–1944:  Free France, a government-in-exile of France, and member of the allies during WWII.
1940–1944: Occupied by Germany in WWII making Vichy France, a Nazi Puppet.
1870–1940: French Third Republic
1852–1870: Second French Empire
1848–1852: French Second Republic
1830–1848: July Monarchy
1814/5–1830: Bourbon Restoration
1804–1814/5: First French Empire
1792–1804: First French Republic
987–1792: Focusing with West Francia, the Kingdom of France was established.
843–987: with the Treaty of Verdun established West Francia
768–843: Part of the Kingdom of the Franks
481–768: Center of the Kingdom of the Franks
395–480 AD: Gaul, part of the Western Roman Empire
121 BC – 395 AD: Gaul, part of the  Roman Empire
French Tribes from 5th century to 121 BC: Gauls and Celtics
First human settlement from 1.8 Million BC

Note: The French Colonial Empire was founded by the order of Francis I of France. In 1534, Francis sent Jacques Cartier to explore the St. Lawrence River in Quebec.

 Gabon Africa 17 Aug 1960 17 Aug 1960  France 1960–present: Gabonese Republic

1910–1960: Part of the French Equatorial Africa, federation of colonial possessions of the French Empire
1839–1910: Part of the French Empire as a protectorate

 Gambia Africa 18 Feb 1965 18 Feb 1965  United Kingdom 1970–present: Republic of The Gambia

1965–1970: Gambia (monarchy)
1821–1965: Part of the British Empire
1287–1480: Part of the Mali Empire

 Georgia Transcontinental – Asia/Europe 978 8 Apr 1991 Soviet Union 1991–Present: Republic of Georgia
1921–1991: Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic, a federated state of the Soviet Union
1918–1921 : Democratic Republic of Georgia
1801–1918: Part of the Russian Empire
1490–1801 Fragmentized into three independent kingdoms – Kartli, Kakheti, and Imereti and five semi-independent principalities – Odishi, (Mingrelia), Guria, Abkhazia, Svaneti, and Samtskhe
978–1490: Kingdom of Georgia
 Germany Europe Aug 843 15 Mar 1991 West Germany
East Germany
West Berlin
1990–Present: Federal Republic of Germany (Become fully sovereign reunification on 15 March 1991 after the Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany came into effect).

1949–1990: Divided between Federal Republic of Germany and  German Democratic Republic ( West Berlin was an exclave of West Germany).
1945–1949: Germany occupied between the Allies (USA, UK and France) and the Soviet Union (The occupation lasted from 1945 until the ratification of Bonn–Paris conventions in 1955).
1933–1945:  Nazi Germany
1918–1933: Weimar Germany (a federal republic)
1878–1918:  German Empire (Prussia Unified in a federal monarchy with all state kingdoms of Germany, excluding Austria).
1867–1878: North German Confederation, union of 22 German-speaking states .
1815–1866:  German Confederation, union of 39 German-speaking states in Central Europe, including  Prussia and  Austrian Empire (Interrupted by the German Empire (1848–49)).
1806–1815: Confederation of the Rhine, part of the First French Empire
962[note 17]-1806:  Holy Roman Empire (federation composed of many kingdoms, principalities, duchies, counties, prince-bishoprics, Free Imperial Cities, and other domains).
843–962: Kingdom of Germany or East Francia
768–843: Center of the Kingdom of the Franks
481–768: Part of the Kingdom of the Franks
395–480 AD: Germania Superior and Germania Inferior, parts of the Western Roman Empire
83–395 AD: Germania Superior and Germania Inferior, parts of the  Roman Empire
Germanic Tribes from 5th century to 480 AD: Germania
First human settlement from the year 598,000 BC.

 Greece Europe 338 BC 1945  Bulgaria
 Nazi Germany
 Italy
1974–Present: Third Hellenic Republic

1967–1974: : Greek Dictatorship
1944–1973:  Kingdom of Greece
1941–1944: Hellenic State, a government-in-exile during the axis occupation, and member of the allies during WWII.
1935–1941:  Kingdom of Greece
1924–1935: Second Hellenic Republic
1832–1924:  Kingdom of Greece
1822–1832: After the War of Independence Greece declared independent as the First Hellenic Republic
1453–1822: Part of the  Ottoman Empire
1453–1460: Despotate of Morea, ruled by the Palaiologos dynasty
1346–1566: Island of Chios and port of Phocaea, Part of the Republic of Genoa (Maona of Chios and Phocaea)
1348–1360: Part of the Serbian Empire
1310–1522: Rhodes, under the Knights Hospitaller
1261–1453: Part of the  Byzantine Empire under the Palaiologos dynasty
1261–1458: Duchy of Athens
1261–1432: Principality of Achaea
1231–1244: Part of the Second Bulgarian Empire
1205–1669: Crete, part of the Republic of Venice as part of its Stato da Màr.
1205–1337/40: Despotate of Epirus
1204–1261: Part of the Latin Empire
920s–1010s: Part of the First Bulgarian Empire
324–1204: Part of the  Byzantine Empire
148 BC-324 AD: Part of the  Roman Empire
323–148 BC: Ancient Greece (Hellenistic period), Greece was divided in the Kingdom of Macedonia, Kingdom of Epirus, and the Aetolian League, Achaean League, and the city-states of Sparta and Athens.
338–323 BC: League of Corinth, a confederation of Greek states created by Philip II of Macedon (father of Alexander the Great). Sparta and Crete did not join this league
776–338 BC: Ancient Greece (Archaic and Classical Period): Greece was divided into many states, including Athens, Sparta, Thebes and Macedonia
c.1100–776 BC: Greek Dark Ages
c. 1600–c. 1100 BC: Mycenaean civilization
Since 7000 BC humans have been settled passing the first Greek ages such as the Neolithic era, the Minoan era and the Helladic era.

 Ghana Africa 6 May 1957 6 May 1957  United Kingdom 1957–Present: Republic of Ghana

1867–1957: British Gold Coast
1658–1850: Danish Gold Coast
1598–1872: Dutch Gold Coast
1650–1663: Swedish Gold Coast
1682–1721: 'Branderberger/Prussian Gold Coast
c.1670–1957: Kingdom of Ashanti
1482–1642: Portuguese Gold Coast
1409–1700: Kingdom of Dagbon, founded by the Dagomba people
c.13th century: Modern day Ghana was divided in many states like Bonoman, Ashanti, Denkyira, Mankessim Kingdom, and Akwamu
c.11th century: Akans were firmly established in the Akan state called
Although the area of present-day Ghana in West Africa has experienced many population movements, the Akans were firmly settled by the 5th century CE

 Grenada The Americas 7 Feb 1974 7 Feb 1974  United Kingdom 1974–present: Grenada

1783–1974: Part of the British Empire, as its West Indies
1779–1783: Part of the French Empire
1763–1779: Part of the British Empire
1650–1763: Part of the French Empire

 Guatemala The Americas 15 Sep 1815 21 Jan 1822 Federal Republic of Central America 1922–present: Republic of Guatemala

1921–1922: Federated state of the Federal Republic of Central America
1840–1921: Republic of Guatemala
1823–1838: Federated state of the Federal Republic of Central America
24 September 1821 – 1823: Part of the First Mexican Empire as Province of Guatemala
15–24 September 1821: Republic of Guatemala
1609-1821: Captaincy General of Guatemala (alternativelly known as Kingdom of Guatemala), within the Viceroyalty of New Spain, part of the Spanish Empire. Since its foundation the Captaincy had self-administration without vice-royal dependence.
1535-1609: Part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain
1523–1535: Part of the Columbian Viceroyalty
Since 8000 BC humans have been settled by Native Guatemalans, including Mayans (that established city-states in the region) and Nahuatl (founders of the Aztec Empire).

 Guinea Africa 2 Oct 1958 2 Oct 1958  France 1958–present: Republic of Guinea

1894–1958: French Guinea, part of the French West Africa, part of the French Empire
1878–1898: Wassoulou Empire
1725–1894: Imamate of Futa Jallon
1559–1670: part of the Mali Empire
1235–1559: center of the Mali Empire

 Guinea-Bissau Africa 24 Sep 1973 10 Sep 1974  Portugal 1974–present: Republic of Guinea-Bissau

1474–1974: Portuguese Guinea

 Guyana The Americas 26 May 1966 26 May 1966  United Kingdom 1970–present: Co-operative Republic of Guyana

1966–1970: Guyana (monarchy)
1814–1966: British Guyana, part of the British Empire
1616–1814: Divided in three Dutch colonies: Demerara, Essequibo and Berbice
First human settlement from the year 35,000 BC.

 Haiti The Americas 1 Jan 1804 1 Jan 1804 France 1859–present: Republic of Haiti

1849–1859: Second Empire of Haiti
1820–1849: Republic of Haiti
1811–1820: Kingdom of Haiti
1806–1811: State of Haiti
1804–1806: First Empire of Haiti
1625–1804: Part of the French Empire as Saint-Domingue
1492–1625: Part of the Spanish Empire
At the time of Columbus' arrival in 1492, the island's territory consisted of five Taíno chiefdoms: Marién, Maguá, Maguana, Jaragua, and Higüey.

 Honduras The Americas 15 Sep 1821 21 Jan 1922 Federal Republic of Central America 1922–present: Republic of Honduras

1921–1922: Federated state of the Federal Republic of Central America
1898–1921: Republic of Honduras (United States has been occupied on the Honduran Land in 1903, 1907, 1911, 1912, 1919, 1924 and 1925).[70]
1896–1898: Federated state of the Greater Republic of Central America
November 1852 – 1896: Republic of Honduras
October–November 1852: Federated state of the Federation of Central America
1838–1852: Republic of Honduras
1823–1838: Federated state of the Federal Republic of Central America
September 24, 1821 – 1823: Part of the First Mexican Empire as Province of Honduras
15–24 September 1821: Republic of Honduras
1609–1821: Part of the Captaincy General of Guatemala (alternativelly Kingdom of Guatemala) within the Viceroyalty of New Spain (Part of the Spanish Empire)
1535–1609: Part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain (Part of the Spanish Empire)
9000 BC–1525 AD: Inhabited by Native Hondurans, including Mayans, and Toltecs.[71]

 Hungary Europe 895 1918  Austria-Hungary 1989–present: Hungary Third Republic

1949–1989: Hungarian People's Republic
1946–1949: Second Hungarian Republic
1920–1946: Kingdom of Hungary
1919–20: Hungarian Republic
1918–1919: First Hungarian Republic
1867–1918: Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, a dual monarchy with Austria (via Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867)
1000–1867: Kingdom of Hungary
895–1000: Principality of Hungary

 Iceland Europe 930 1 Dec 1918  Denmark 1945–present: Republic of Iceland

1944-1945: Republic of Iceland (occupied by the United States) 1918-1944: Kingdom of Iceland, with a personal union with Denmark (Occupied by the United Kingdom and Canada in 1940 and 1941 and by the United States in 1941–1944) 1814-1918: Part of the Kingdom of Denmark 1523-1814: Part of Denmark-Norway, a real union between the kingdoms of Norway and Denmark
1397-1523: Part of the Kingdom of Norway, within the Kalmar Union (personal union between the kingdoms of Norway, Denmark and Sweden)
1262-1397: Part of the Kingdom of Norway
930-1262: Icelandic Commonwealth.in 1262; Part of the Kingdom of Denmark after 1814; Kingdom of Iceland (1918–1944) with a Personal union with Denmark, Republic of Iceland founded 1944.

 India Asia 1500 BC 15 Aug 1947  United Kingdom 1950–present: Republic of India (a federal state. The States Reorganisation Act, 1956 reorganised the states based on linguistic lines. Currently the Indian Union comprises 28 states and 8 union territories)

1947–1950: Dominion of India, a monarchy in personal union with the United Kingdom(a federal state. Between 1947 and 1950 the territories of the princely states were politically integrated into the Indian Union.)
1858–1947: Part of the  British Empire as the British Raj (the region was sometimes called the Indian Empire, though not officially.)(India was divided into provinces (also called Presidencies) that were directly governed by the British and princely states which were nominally controlled by a local prince or raja loyal to the British Empire, which held de facto sovereignty (suzerainty) over the princely states.)
1757–1858: Part of the  British Empire as the East India Company
1717–1857: India divided during the Mughal Era: Maratha Empire (later, the "Maratha Confederacy"), Kingdom of Mysore, and the Sikh Kingdom. However, the Mughal Emperor (in Maratha) continued to be the highest manifestation of sovereignty. The Muslim, Hindu (including Maratha), and Sikh leaders took part in ceremonial acknowledgements of the emperor as the sovereign of India.[72]
1555–1717: Mughal Empire
1540–1556: Sur Empire
1526–1556 AD: Mughal Empire
13th century-16th century: Politics in Northern India was dominated by the Delhi Sultanate, and in Southern India by the Vijayanagar Empire. However, there were other regional powers present, like the Chero dynasty, Reddi kingdom, Rajput states, Gajapati Kingdom, Ahom kingdom and the Kingdom of Manipur
1347–1527: Three sultanates declared independent from Delhi Bahmani Sultanate (1347–1527), Malwa Sultanate (1392–1562), and Gujarat Sultanate (1407–1573). Plus the Vijayanagara Empire (1336–1646)
1336–1646: Vijayanagara Empire (also called Kingdom of Bisnegar), ruled a major part of the southern Indian subcontinent
1206–1526: Delhi Sultanate, ruled a major part of the northern Indian subcontinent
230 BC–1206 AD: India divided between the 49 middle kingdoms. The well-known kingdoms are Shunga Empire (187 to 78 BC), Gupta Empire (280–550 AD), Satavahana dynasty (1st century BC–2nd century AD), Pala Empire (8th century–12th century), Rashtrakuta Kingdom (753–982), Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty (mid-8th century AD–1036 AD) and the Chola Empire (300s BC–1279 AD).
322–185 BC: Maurya Empire (Political unity in verified historiography was first achieved by Chandragupta Maurya).
5th or 4th century–322 BC: Nanda Empire
c.600–345 BC: Indian Subcontinent was divided in 16 kingdoms called Mahajanapadas
1500–500 BC: Inhabited by Vedic
1700–1500 BC: Inhabited by Cemetery H
c.3300–c.1300 BC: Indus Valley Civilisation, era when the India's local name Bhārat derives from the legendary Bharata (either Dushyanta's son Bharata or Rishabha's son Bharata), held by tradition as the first emperor to unite India in 2000 BC.[citation needed]

Since 2.2 million BC, India has been settled starting with Hominins who were from Africa by the expansion of civilization with the Madrasian and Soanian cultures. [73][74][75]

 Indonesia Asia 17 Aug 1945 27 Dec 1949 Netherlands 1949–present: Republic of Indonesia

1945–1949: Indonesian Struggle for Independence
1942–1945: Part of Japan in World War II
1816–1942: Part of the Dutch Empire as Dutch East Indies
1812–1816: Part of British India (following Dutch-French defeat in the Napoleonic War)
1802–1812: Part of Batavian Republic (Client State of the Napoleonic France)
1619–1802: Under Administration of the Dutch East India Company, being part of the Dutch Empire
15th–19th century: Various Islamic Kingdoms, most notably Demak (successor state to the Majapahit Empire), Pajang (successor state to Demak), Mataram (successor state to Pajang) and Banten in Java; Malaka, Johor-Riau, Minang and Aceh in Sumatra; Brunei and Banjarmasin in Kalimantan, Makassar in Sulawesi, and Ternate and Tidore in Moluccas
1292–1478: Majapahit Empire, united Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia and parts of Philippines under the reign of Hayam Wuruk
4th century–13th century: Various Hindu-Buddhist Kingdoms, most notably Srivijaya in 8th–10th century AD
4th century: First Hindu Kingdom of Kutai in Kalimantan
2nd century: Alleged Indian Kingdom of Salakanagara in Java

 Iran Asia 678 BC 17 Oct 1941  United Kingdom/ Soviet Union
Anglo-Soviet withdrawal from Tehran
1980–present: Islamic Republic of Iran

1979–1980: Under a Interim Government
1925–1979: Pahlavi Dynasty (Anglo-Soviet occupation 1941–1946)
1796–1925: Qajar Dynasty
1747–1796: Afsharid Dynasty
(1760–1794): Zand Dynasty
1736–1747: Afsharid Dynasty
(1722–1729): Part of Hotaki Empire
1501–1736: Safavid Dynasty
1468–1508: Part of Agh Qoyunlu
1405–1507: Part of Timurid Empire
1406–1468: Part of Qara Qoyunlu
1370–1405: Part of Timurid Empire
1337–1376: Sarbadars
1336–1432: Part of Jalayirid Dynasty
1335–1393: Muzaffarid Dynasty
1335–1357: Chobanid Dynasty
1256–1335: Ilkhanate Empire (Hulagu Dynasty)
1225–1231: Center of the Khwarazmian Empire
1077–1225: Part of the Khwarazmian Empire
1037–1194: Part of the Great Seljuq Empire
963–1186: Part of the Ghaznavid Empire
875–999: Part of the Samanid Dynasty
934–1055: Buyid Dynasty
867–1002: Part of Saffarid Dynasty
928–1043: Ziyarid Dynasty
750–1258: Part of Abbasid Caliphate
c.1236 661–750: Part of Umayyad Caliphate
(642–759/760): Dabuyid dynasty
224–651: Sassanid Dynasty
247 BC – 224 AD: Parthian Empire (Arsacid Dynasty)(
312–63 BC: Part of Seleucid Empire
330–323 BC: Part of the Empire of Alexander the Great
550–330 BC: Achaemenid Dynasty
(652–625 BC): Part of Scythian Kingdom
678–550 BC: Median Empire
850–616 BC: Inhabited by Mannaeans
2700–539 BC: Inhabited by Elamites
3200–2700 BC: Inhabited by Proto-Elamites

 Iraq Asia 1932 1 May 2003  United Kingdom 2003–present:  Republic of Iraq (a federal state, consisting of 19 governorates, four of which make up the autonomous Kurdistan Region)

2003: American Invasion[76]
1968–2003: Iraqi Republic
1958–1968: Iraqi Republic
1958: Arab Federation of Iraq and Jordan
1932–1958: Kingdom of Iraq
1920–1932: Kingdom of Iraq under British Administration
1534–1923: Part of the Ottoman Empire
1509–1534: Part of the Safavid Empire
1469–1509: Part of the Aq Qoyunlu
1451-1469: Part of the Qara Qoyunlu
1434-1451: Part of the Qara Qoyunlu, except the east that was part of the Timurid Empire
1410–1434: Part of the Qara Qoyunlu, except the south and east that was part of the Timurid Empire
1394–1410: Part of the Timurid Empire
1335–1394: Jalairid Sultanate in the south, Artuqid Beylik in the north
1258–1335: Part of the Ilkhanate
1234-1258:Abbasid Caliphate in the center, Ayyubid Sultanate in the north, Mongol Empire in the east
1194-1234: Abbasid Caliphate in the center, Ayyubid Sultanate in the north, Khwaraszmian Sultanate in the east
1185-1194: Part of the Seljuk Empire in the south, west and center, Ayyubid Sultanate in the north
1130-1185: Part of the Seljuk Empire in the south, west and center, Zengid Emirate in the north
1071-1130: Part of the Seljuk Empire
1055–1071: Part of the Seljuk Empire in the south, west and center, Uqaylid Emirate in the north
1024-1055: Part of the Buyid Empire in the south, west and center, Uqaylid Emirate in the north, Kakuyid Emirate in the east
996-1024: Part of the Buyid Empire in the south, west and center, Uqaylids in the north
945–996: Part of the Buyid Empire in the south, west and center, Hamdanid Emirate in the north
937-945: Center of the Abbasid Caliphate, Ziyarid Kingdom and Buyid Empire in the east, Hamdanid Emirate in the north
931-937: Center of the Abbasid Caliphate, Ziyarid Kingdom in the east, Hamdanid Emirate in the north
900-931: Center of the Abbasid Caliphate, Samanid Emirate in the east, Hamdanid Emirate in the north
890-900: Center of the Abbasid Caliphate, Saffarid Emirate in the east, Hamdanid Emirate in the north
876-890: Center of the Abbasid Caliphate, eastern regions are part of the Saffarid Emirate
809–876: Center of the Abbasid Caliphate
796–809: Part of the Abbasid Caliphate
750–796: Center of the Abbasid Caliphate
661–750: Part of the Umayyad Caliphate
656–661: Center of the Rashidun Caliphate
637–656: Part of the Rashidun Caliphate
224–637: Part of the Sassanid Empire
128 BC-224 BC: Part of the Parthian Empire
148 BC–128 BC: Divided between the Seleucid Empire and the Parthian Empire
301–148 BC: Seleucid Empire
310-301: Divided between the Antigonid Empire and the Seleucid Empire
318-310: Part of the Antigonid Empire
323-318: Divided in the satraps of Mesopothamia and Babylonia
330–323 BC: Part of the Empire of Alexander the Great
539–330 BC: Part of the Achaemenid Empire
606–539 BC: Babylonian Empire
630 BC-606 BC: Divided between Babylonian Empire and Assyrian Empire
730 BC-630 BC: Assyrian Empire
770–730 BC: Divided between Babylonian Empire and Assyrian Empire
c.850 BC–770 BC: Assyrian Empire
c.1450–c.850 BC: Divided between Babylonian Empire and Assyrian Empire (between c.1020 BC-c.890 BC there is also the presence of small independent states orbiting the two empiress)
c.2000–c.1450 BC: Divided in many states like Assyria, Isin and Babylonia
c.2100 BC: Neo-Sumerian Empire
c.2200 BC: Divided in many states along the Tigris–Euphrates river system
c.2300 BC: Akkadian Empire
c.2550 BC: Divided in many states along the Tigris–Euphrates river system
c.4000 BC: Sumer Civilization (the first Civilization in the world)

 Ireland Europe 18 Oct 1171 11 Dec 1931 (Statute of Westminster adoption) United Kingdom 1937–Present:  Ireland (additionally described as the Republic of Ireland) (Constitution of Ireland (1937): name change to "Ireland" (Irish: Éire), the country still was a monarchy in a personal union with Great Britain) (Republic of Ireland Act 1948: Ireland becomes a republic, ending the monarchy).

1931–1937:  Irish Free State, monarchic state in a personal union with the United Kingdom
1922–1931:  Irish Free State, a Dominion within the British Empire (Irish War of Independence: Ireland unilaterally declared itself independent in 1919, war ended with Anglo-Irish Treaty with the Partition of Ireland)..
1801–1922: constituent country of the  United Kingdom (political union)
1707–1801: Kingdom of Ireland (in a personal union with Great Britain)
1659–1707: Kingdom of Ireland (in a personal union with England)
1659–1660: Part of the Commonwealth of England
1653–1659: Part of The Protectorate
1653: Part of the Commonwealth of England
1642–1652: Confederate Ireland (a confederal monarchy that pledged allegiance to the English monarch)
1603–1642: Kingdom of Ireland. After the Tudor conquest of Ireland, the entire country came under the nominal control of the King of Ireland (the monarch of England held the crowns of England and Ireland in a personal union).
1542–1603: Kingdom of Ireland is established. However, most of Ireland was still held by Gaelic Irish dynasties.
1171–1542:  Lordship of Ireland, a papal possession held in fief by the King of England. The kings of England claimed lordship over the whole island, but in reality the king's rule only ever extended to parts of the island. The rest of the island —known as Gaelic Ireland—remained under the control of various Gaelic Irish kingdoms
800–1171: Divided in many states. Some states, like the Kingdom of Dublin, was founded by Nordic invaders
150–800:[77]-: Divided in many states, like the kingdoms of Osraige, Munster and Ulaid.
10,500 BC – 853 AD: Inhabited by the Native Irish, including Gaelic and Celtic cultures.

 Israel Asia 110 BC 14 May 1948  United Kingdom The 12 tribes conquer the holy land under the leadership of Joshua, then Israel goes through "The period of the judges" leading to the Kingdom of Israel unified under King Saul, c. 1020 BC, divided into separate kingdoms of Israel and Judea, which fall to Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian empires in 722 and 586 BC, respectively. In the 2nd century BC, Judea re-gains independence as Hasmonean kingdom after revolt against the Hellenist Seleucid Empire. Conquered by Pompey of the Roman Empire in 63 BC, and subsequently falls to Byzantine, Umayyad, Abbasid, Crusader, Mamluk, Ottoman Turkish, and British rule, before regaining independence as the State of Israel in 1948.
 Italy Europe 17 May 1861 17 May 1861 Sardinia
Lombardy–Venetia
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Papal States
United Provinces of Central Italy
1946–present: Italian Republic

1945–1946:  Kingdom of Italy
1943–1945:  Italian Social Republic, a Nazi Puppet.
1861–1943:  Kingdom of Italy (Unified by the Two Sicilies, Sardinia, the Papal States, Lombardy–Venetia, and its Central United Provinces)
1859–1860: United Provinces of Central Italy
1816–1861: Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
1815–1866: Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia
1805–1814:  Napoleonic Italy, part of the First French Empire
1802–1805: Italian Napoleonic Republic, part of the First French Empire
1720–1861: Kingdom of Sardinia
962–1801: the Italian peninsula divided into many states, among them the medieval Kingdom of Italy (774–1806) within the Holy Roman Empire
855–962: Divided between the Kingdom of Italy, Duchy of Benevento, Duchy of Naples, the Giudicati, Republic of Venice and Byzantine Empire
843–855: Divided between the Middle Francia, Duchy of Benevento, Duchy of Naples, the Giudicati, Republic of Venice and Byzantine Empire
775–843: Divided between the Frankish Kingdom, Duchy of Benevento, Duchy of Naples, the Giudicati, Republic of Venice and Byzantine Empire
754–775: Divided between the Kingdom of the Lombards, the Papal States, Duchy of Benevento and the Byzantine Empire
568–754: Kingdom of the Lombards, later the Kingdom of (all) Italy (Latin: Regnum totius Italiae). For most of the kingdom's history, the Byzantine-ruled Exarchate of Ravenna and Duchy of Rome separated the northern Lombard duchies, from the two large southern duchies of Spoleto and Benevento.
553–1071: Part of the  Byzantine Empire. Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian declared war on the Ostrogoths in 535 in an effort to restore the former western provinces of the Roman Empire. The Catepanate of Italy, the last Roman (Byzantine) outpost in Italy was lost in 1071.
493–553: Ostrogothic Kingdom, officially the Kingdom of Italy (Latin: Regnum Italiae). Zeno negotiated with the invading Ostrogoths, convincing their king Theodoric to depart for Italy as magister militum per Italiam ("commander in chief for Italy") with the aim of deposing Odoacer. The Ostrogoths was never recognised by the eastern emperors as "kings" (rex).
476–493: Kingdom of Italy (Odoacer). Odoacer assumed control of the peninsula as a de jure representative of the de jure Western Roman Emperor Julius Nepos. With the death of Nepos in 480, the Eastern Roman Emperor Zeno legally abolished the title and position of Western Roman Emperor and assumed the role of Odoacer's sovereign. In Roman constitutional theory, the Empire was still simply united under one emperor, implying no abandonment of territorial claims.
395–476: Center of the Western Roman Empire
27 BC – 395 AD: Center of the  Roman Empire
509–27BC Roman Republic. Italy was unified by Rome in the third century BC. For 700 years, it was a de facto territorial extension of the capital of the Roman Republic and Empire, and for a long time experienced a privileged status and was not converted into a province.
753 BC–509 BC: Roman Kingdom, founded by an Italic tribe known as the Latins
12th century – 100 BC:Various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most predominant being the Italic peoples who gave the peninsula its name, there also the presence of Phoenicians and Carthaginians in insular Italy, Greeks in Southern Italy, and Etruscans and Celts in central and northern Italy respectively.
Since 848,000 BC humans have been settled by the first hominins at Monte Poggiolo.[78]

 Jamaica The Americas 6 Aug 1962 6 Aug 1962  United Kingdom 1962–present: Jamaica

1707–1962: Part of the British Empire
1655–1707: Part of the English Empire
1509–1655: Part of the Spanish Empire
Originally inhabited by the indigenous Arawak and Taíno peoples, the island came under Spanish rule following the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1494.

 Japan Asia 400 c. 28 Apr 1952 Allied occupation of Japan 1952–present:  Japan (after the Treaty of San Francisco ended postwar occupation).

1945–1952: Allied-occupation of Japan with the United States and the United Kingdom in the post-war period.
1868–1945:  Empire of Japan
1603–1868: Tokugawa shogunate
1568–1603: Japanese Azuchi–Momoyama
1336–1568: Ashikaga shogunate
1333–1336: Kenmu Restoration
1185–1333: Kamakura shogunate
794–1185: Heian era
710–794: Nara era
538–710: Asuka era
300–578: Kofun era (Era when all Japanese states merged into one in c. 400 AD).
1000 BC – 300 AD: Yayoi era (Era when Japan was founded in 660 BC by Emperor Jimmu mythologically).
14,000 – 900 BC: Jōmon era
Since 40,000 BC humans have been settled crossing through the Korean-Japanese bridge,[79] and Japan made as an island in 12,000 BC warming the planet.[citation needed]

 Jordan Asia 330 BC 2 Aug 1958 Arab Federation 1958–present: Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

Feb–Aug 1958: Federated state of the Arab Federation, governed from Baghdad, Iraq.
1946–1958: Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
1921–1946: Emirate of Transjordan, part of the British Empire
1918–1920: Occupied Enemy Territory Administration
1517–1918: Part of the Ottoman Empire
1250–1517: Part of the Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo)
1174–1250: Part of the Ayyubid Sultanate
1071–1174: Part of the Seljuk Empire
969–1071: Part of the Fatimid Caliphate
750–969: Part of the Abbasid Caliphate
661–750: Part of the Umayyad Caliphate
636–661: Part of the Rashidun Caliphate
625–636: Part of the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire)
614–625: Part of the Sassanid Empire
286–614: Part of the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire)
273–286: Part of the Roman Empire
269–273: Part of the Palmyrene Empire
107–269: Part of the Roman Empire
330 BC-107 AD: Nabatean Kingdom
539–330 BC: Part of the Achaemenid Empire
596–539 BC: Part of the Babylonian Empire
607–596 BC: Ammon, Moab and Edom
c.719–607 BC: Part of the Assyrian Empire
13th century – 719 BC: Three stable kingdoms emerged there at the end of the Bronze Age: Ammon, Moab and Edom.
What is now Jordan has been inhabited by humans since the Paleolithic period.

 Kazakhstan Transcontinental – Asia/Europe 1465 16 Dec 1991 Soviet Union 1991–present: Republic of Kazakhstan
1936–1991: Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic, federated state of the Soviet Union
1920–1936: Part of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, federated state of the Soviet Union
1918–1920: Alash Autonomy
1731–1917: Part of the Russian Empire
1465–1731: Kazakh Khanate
1240s–1456: Part of the Golden Horde
1220s–1240s: Part of the Mongol Empire
The territory of Kazakhstan has historically been inhabited by nomadic groups and empires. In antiquity, the nomadic Scythians have inhabited the land and the Persian Achaemenid Empire expanded towards the southern territory of the modern country. Turkic nomads who trace their ancestry to many Turkic states such as the First Turkic Khaganate etc. have inhabited the country throughout its history.
 Kenya Africa 12 Dec 1963 12 Dec 1963  United Kingdom 1964–present: Republic of Kenya

1963–1964: Kenya (monarchy)
1920–1963: Colony and Protectorate of Kenya, part of the British Empire
1895–1920: East Africa Protectorate, part of the British Empire
c.1st century AD: The Kenyan coast had served host to communities of ironworkers and communities of Bantu subsistence farmers, hunters, and fishers who supported the economy with agriculture, fishing, metal production, and trade with foreign countries. These communities formed the earliest city-states (like Mombasa and Malindi) in the region which were collectively known as Azania.[80] As city-states settled on the coast, several nomadic tribes inhabited the rest of what is today Kenya.
What is now Kenya has been inhabited by humans since the Paleolithic period.

 Kiribati Australia 12 July 1979 12 July 1979  United Kingdom 1979–present: Republic of Kiribati

1892–1976: Gilbert and Ellice Islands, part of the British Empire

 North Korea Asia 9 Sep 1948 9 Sep 1948  Soviet Union 1948–present: Democratic People's Republic of Korea

1945–1948: Occupied by the  Soviet Union under the Provisional People's Committee, and later the People's Committee.
1919–1945: Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea
1910–1945: Part of the Empire of Japan
1897–1910:  Korean Empire
1392–1897: Kingdom of Great Joseon
918–1392: Kingdom of Goryeo
901–918: Kingdom of Taebong
892–936: Later Baekje
698–926: Kingdom of Balhae
668–935: Unified Silla
18 BC – 660 AD: Kingdom of Baekje
37 BC – 668 AD: Kingdom of Goguryeo
108 BC – 37 AD: Divides between the kingdoms of Korea
2333–108 BC: Kingdom of Gojoseon (Founded by Dangun according to legend)
Since around 498,000 BC humans have been settled in the Korean Peninsula and Manchuria began roughly half a million years ago.,[81][82] including Jeulmun and Mumun.

 South Korea Asia 15 Aug 1948 15 Aug 1948  United States 1987–present: Republic of Korea (Sixth)

1981–1987:  Fifth Republic of Korea
1972–1981:  Fourth Republic of Korea
1963–1972:  Third Republic of Korea
1961–1963:  Supreme Council for National Reconstruction
1960–1961:  Second Republic of Korea
1948–1960:  First Republic of Korea
1945–1948: Occupied by the  United States under the Army Military.
1919–1945: Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea
1910–1945: Part of the Empire of Japan
1897–1910:  Korean Empire
1392–1897: Kingdom of Great Joseon
918–1392: Kingdom of Goryeo
901–918: Kingdom of Taebong
892–936: Later Baekje
668–935: Unified Silla
42–562: Gaya confederacy
18 BC – 660 AD: Kingdom of Baekje
37 BC–668 AD: Kingdom of Goguryeo
57 BC – 935 AD: Kingdom of Silla
108 BC – 37 AD: Divides between the kingdoms of Korea
2333–108 BC: Kingdom of Gojoseon (Founded by Dangun according to legend)
Since around 498,000 BC humans have been settled in the Korean Peninsula and Manchuria began roughly half a million years ago.,[81][82] including Jeulmun and Mumun.

 Kuwait Asia 1752 Feb 1991  Iraq 1991–present: State of Kuwait

1990–1991: Kuwait Governorate, governorate of Iraq
1990: Republic of Kuwait
1963–1990: State of Kuwait
1919–1963: Sheikhdom of Kuwait, part of the British Empire as a protectorate
1889–1919: Sheikhdom of Kuwait, part of the British Empire as a protectorate (not recognized by the Ottomans)
1871–1899: Sheikhdom of Kuwait, de facto part of the Ottoman Empire
1752–1871: Sheikhdom of Kuwait, independent state
1670–1752: Part of the Khalidi Emirate
1613–1670: In 1613, the town of Kuwait was founded in the present-day location of Kuwait City. Part of the Ottoman Empire

 Kyrgyzstan Asia 31 Aug 1991 31 Aug 1991 Soviet Union 1991–present: Kyrgyz Republic (the name "Republic of Kyrgyzstan" was adopted in 1990, changed to current in 1993)

1936–1991: Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic, federated state of the Soviet Union
1922–1936: Part of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, federated state of the Soviet Union
1918–1922: Part of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
1867–1918:Part of the Russian Empire

 Laos Asia 1354 22 Oct 1953  France 1975–present: Lao People's Democratic Republic

1953–1975: Kingdom of Laos, independent state
1947–1953: Kingdom of Laos, Part of the French Empire
1945–1947: French Protectorate of Laos a French protectorate within French Indochina — a collection of Southeast Asian protectorates within the French Empire.
1940–1945: Occupied by Japan
1893–1940: French Protectorate of Laos, a French protectorate within French Indochina — a collection of Southeast Asian protectorates within the French Empire.
1707–1893: Divided between the Kingdom of Luang Phrabang (1707–1893), Kingdom of Champasak (1713–1904), Principality of Phuan (1707–1899) and Kingdom of Vientiane (1707–1828) (which lost its sovereignty to the Kingdom of Siam from 1828 until 1893),
1354–1707: Kingdom of Lan Xang

 Latvia Europe 18 Nov 1918[83] 4 May 1990 Soviet Union 1991–present: Republic of Latvia

1940–1991: Occupation by Germany (1940–1944) and later by the Soviet Union (1944–1991)
1918–1940: Republic of Latvia
1918: Duchy of Courland and Semigallia, de jure independent state (was a client state of Germany)
1918: Divided in the Courland Governorate, part of the Russian Republic, and a region occupied by Germany (Ober Ost)
1795–1918: Divided between the Courland Governorate and the Governorate of Livonia, both part of the Russian Empire
1721–1795: Divided between the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia, part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, and the Governorate of Livonia, part of the Russian Empire
1629–1721: Divided between the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia, part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, and the Swedish Livonia, part of the Swedish Empire
1569–1629: Divided between the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia and the Duchy of Livonia, both part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
1561–1569: Divided between the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia, part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and the Duchy of Livonia, part of the Kingdom of Poland
1215–1561: Terra Mariana (later known as Livonian Confederation), a directly subject to the Holy See
1207–1215: Terra Mariana, State of the Holy Roman Empire
The territory of Latvia has been inhabited since at least 9,000 B.C

 Lebanon Asia 22 Nov 1943 31 Dec 1946  France  Lebanese Republic (1943–present)

1920–1943: State of Greater Lebanon (constituent of the French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon)
1917–1920: Part of the Occupied Enemy Territory Administration
1516–1917: Part of the Ottoman Empire (as the Eyalet of Sidon and later the Beirut Vilayet)
1289–1516: Part of the Mamluk Sultanate
1109–1289: County of Tripoli
1071–1109: Part of the Seljuk Empire
969–1071: Part of the Fatimid Caliphate
935–969: Ikhshidid State, autonomous state within the Abbasid Caliphate
905–935: Part of the Abbasid Caliphate
876–905: Part of the Tulunid Emirate
750–876: Part of the Abbasid Caliphate
661–750: Part of the Ummayad Caliphate
637–661: Part of the Rashidun Caliphate
626–637: Part of the Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire)
611–626: Part of the Sassanid Empire
395–611: Part of the Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire)
273–395: Part of the Roman Empire
270–273: Part of the Palmyrene Empire
63 BC–270: Part of the Roman Republic (and later the Roman Empire)
301 BC–63 BC: Part of the Seleucid Empire
314 BC–301 BC: Part of the kingdom of Antigonus I Monophthalmus
320 BC–314 BC: Part of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt
323 BC– 320 BC: Part of the Satrap of Laomedon of Mytilene
332 BC–323 BC: Part of the Empire of Alexander the Great
538 BC–332 BC: Part of the Achaemenid Empire
605 BC–538 BC: Part of the Babylonian Empire
858 BC–608 BC: Part of the Assyrian Empire
2500 BC–858 BC: Ancient Phoenicia: Lebanon was divided into many states, like Tyre, Sidon, Arwad, Berytus, Byblos

 Lesotho Africa 1822 4 Oct 1966  United Kingdom 1966–present:  Kingdom of Lesotho (resumed)

1884–1966: Basutoland, Part of the British Empire
1822–1884: Kingdom of Lesotho

 Liberia Africa 26 July 1847 26 July 1847 American Colonization Society 1847–present: Republic of Liberia

1821–1847: Settled but not claimed by United States[84]

 Libya Africa 24 Dec 1951 24 Dec 1951 Cyrenaica Emirate
 France
 United Kingdom
2011–present:  State of Libya (Sometimes refer to as Libya)

1977–2011: Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (before 1986 without the word "Great" in the full name of the country)
1969–1977: Libyan Arab Republic
1951–1969: Kingdom of Libya
1949–1951: Emirate of Cyrenaica
1943–1951: French Military Territory of Fezzan-Ghadames
1942–1951: British Military Administration of Libya
1911–1943: Italian Libya, Part of the Italian Empire
1558–1911: Part of the Ottoman Empire (Ottoman Tripolitania). Ottomans conquered Fezzan between 1556 and 1577
1544–1558: Divided between the Banu Sulaym tribe (Cyrenaica) and the Ottoman Empire (Tripolitania)
1404–1544: Divided between the Banu Sulaym tribe (Cyrenaica) and the Sultanate of Tunis (Tripolitania)
1203–1404: Banu Sulaym tribe (coastal areas)
1187–1203: Banu Ghanyia tribe (coastal areas)
1184–1187: Divided between the Banu Sulaym tribe (Cyrenaica) and the Banu Ghanyia tribe (Tripolitania)
1159–1184: Divided between the Banu Sulaym tribe (Cyrenaica) and the Almohad Caliphate (Tripolitania)
1148–1159: Divided between the Banu Sulaym tribe (Cyrenaica) and the Kingdom of Africa (Tripolitania)
1097–1148: Divided between the Banu Sulaym tribe (Cyrenaica) and the Banu Jami tribe (Tripolitania)
1051–1097: Banu Sulaym tribe (coastal areas)
973–1051: Divided between the Fatimid Caliphate (Cyrenaica) and the Zirid Emirate (Tripolitania)
961–973: Part of the Fatimid Caliphate
945–961: Divided between the Abbasid Caliphate (Cyrenaica) and the Fatimid Caliphate (Tripolitania)
969-945: Part of the Fatimid Caliphate (coastal areas)
909–969: Divided between the Abbasid Caliphate (Cyrenaica) and the Fatimid Caliphate (Tripolitania)
906–909: Divided between the Abbasid Caliphate (Cyrenaica) and the Aghlabid Emirate (Tripolitania)
868–906: Divided between the Tulunid Emirate (Cyrenaica) and the Aghlabid Emirate (Tripolitania)
800–868: Divided between the Abbasid Caliphate (Cyrenaica) and the Aghlabid Emirate (Tripolitania)
750–800: Part of the Abbasid Caliphate
694–750: Part of the Umayyad Caliphate
683–694: Divided between the Umayyad Caliphate (Cyrenaica) and the Byzantine Empire (Tripolitania)
663–683: Part of the Umayyad Caliphate
648–656: Part of the Rashidun Caliphate
553–648: Part of the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire)
439–533: Divided between the Eastern Roman Empire (Cyrenaica) and the Vandal Kingdom (Tripolitania)
395–439: Divided between the Eastern Roman Empire (Cyrenaica) and the Western Roman Empire (Tripolitania)
97 BC – AD 395: Part of the Roman Republic (later the Roman Empire)
107 BC–95 BC: Divided between the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt (Cyrenaica) and the Roman Republic (Tripolitania)
201 BC–107 BC: Part of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt (Cyrenaica)
323 BC–201 BC: Divided between the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt (Cyrenaica) and Carthage (Tripolitania)
331 BC–323 BC: Divided between the Empire of Alexander the Great (Cyrenaica) and Carthage (Tripolitania)
525 BC–331 BC: Divided between the Achaemenid Empire (Cyrenaica) and Carthage (Tripolitania)
Phoenicians (Anciente Lebanese) and Ancient Greeks arrived in the country in the 7th century BC and established colonies and cities. The Phoenicians are fixed in Tripolitania, and the Greeks, in Cyrenaica. Fezzan was home to a Beber people known as Garamantes
Archaeological evidence indicates that the coastal plain was inhabited by Neolithic peoples (ancestors to the Bebers) from as early as 8000 BCE.

 Liechtenstein Europe 1806 1806  Holy Roman Empire 1866–present: Principality of Liechtenstein

1815–1866: Principality of Liechtenstein, in union with other 37 states in the German Confederation
1813–1815: Principality of Liechtenstein
1806–1813: Principality of Liechtenstein, in union with other 36 states in the Confederation of Rhine
1719–1806: Principality of Liechtenstein formed in 1719 from Vaduz and Schellenberg, being a State of the Holy Roman Empire.

 Lithuania Europe 1253[85] 11 Mar 1990 Soviet Union 1991–present: Republic of Lithuania

1940–1991: Occupation by Germany (1940–1944) and later by the Soviet Union (1944–1991)
1918–1940: Republic of Lithuania
1918: Kingdom of Lithuania
1914–1918: German Occupation
1812–1914: Part of the Russian Empire
1812: French Occupation
1795–1812: Part of the Russian Empire
1569–1795: Grand Duchy of Lithuania, federated state of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
1253–1569: Grand Duchy of Lithuania

 Luxembourg Europe 1815 1945 Germany
1890–present: Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, independent state with its own dynasty

1866–1890: Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, independent state in personal union with Netherlands
1815–1866: Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, independent from France in 1815 and in union with other 37 states in the German Confederation, but also in personal union with Netherlands

 Madagascar Africa 1787 26 June 1960  France 2014–present: Republic of Madagascar (Fourth Republic)

2009–2014: High Transitional Authority
1992–2009: Republic of Madagascar (Third Republic)
1975–1992: Democratic Republic of Madagascar
1960–1975: Malagasy Republic, independent state
1958–1960: Malagasy Republic, an autonomous republic within the French Community
1897–1958: French Madagascar, part of the French Empire
1882–1897: Malagasy Protectorate, part of the French Empire
1840–1882: Most of the island was united by Imerina as the Kingdom of Madagascar
1540–1840: Madagascar was divided in many states, one of this states was the Kingdom of Imerina
By the Middle Ages, over a dozen predominant ethnic identities had emerged on the island, typified by rule under a local chieftain. Among some communities, such as the Sakalava, Merina and Betsimisaraka, leaders seized the opportunity to unite these disparate communities and establish true kingdoms under their rule.
Around the 9th century AD Bantu migrants crossed the Mozambique Channel from East Africa.
Human settlement of Madagascar occurred between 350 BC and 550 AD by Indianized Austronesian peoples, arriving on outrigger canoes from Indonesia.

 Malawi Africa 1480 6 July 1964  United Kingdom 1964–present: Republic of Malawi

1963–1964: Nyasaland, part of the British Empire
1953–1963: Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, part of the British Empire
1907–1953: Nyasaland, part of the British Empire
1893–1907: British Central Africa Protectorate, part of the British Empire
1891–1893: Nyasaland Districts Protectorate, part of the British Empire
1480–1891: Kingdom of Maravi
The part of Africa now known as Malawi was settled by migrating Bantu groups around the 10th century.

 Malaysia Asia 31 Aug 1957[7] 31 Aug 1957  United Kingdom The Federation of Malaya gained independence in 1957; in 1963 it added territories of Sabah, Sarawak and Singapore, and changed its name to Malaysia (a federal state).[52] Singapore became independent in 1965.


Peninsular Malaysia:
1826–1957: British Malacca: Straits Settlements, Federated Malay States, Unfederated Malay States
1636–1826: Divided in many states like the Johor Sultanate, the Perak Sultanate, the Selangor Sultanate, Kingdom of Besut Darul Iman, etc.
1641–1824: Dutch Malacca, part of the Dutch Empire
1620–1636: Occupied by the Aceh Sultanate
1528–c.1620: Divided between the Johor Sultanate and the Perak Sultanate
1511–1641: Portuguese Malacca, part of the Portuguese Empire
1499–1511: Divided between the Kedah Sultanate and the Malacca Sultanate
c.1467–1499: Divided between the Kedah Sultanate, Malacca Sultanate, Pahang Sultanate and the Majapahit Empire
1402-c.1467: Divided between the Majapahit Empire and the independent Malacca Sultanate
1392–1402: Part of the Majapahit Empire
1380–1392: Peninsular Malaysia was divided in many states like Kedah Sultanate, Samudera Pasai Sultanate, Langkasuka, Pahang Tua, etc.
1355–1380: Part of the Majapahit Empire
1293–1355: Peninsular Malaysia was divided in many states like Kedah Sultanate, Samudera Pasai Sultanate, Langkasuka, Pahang Tua, etc.
1287–1293: Part of the Kingdom of Singhasari
1250–1287: Peninsular Malaysia was divided in many states like Kedah Sultanate, Samudera Pasai Sultanate, Langkasuka, Pahang Tua, etc.
1090–1250: Part of the Dharmasraya
687–1090: Part of the Srivijaya Empire
c.100–687:Peninsular Malaysia was divided in many states like Gangga Negara, Langkasuka, Chi Tu, Pan Pan, Kedah, Melayu Kingdom, etc.

Malaysian Borneo:
1841–1963: British Borneo
1599–1641: Sultanate of Sarawak
1568–1888: Divided between the Sultanate of Brunei and the Sultanate of Sulu
1368–1568: Part of the Sultanate of Brunei
1294–1368: Part of the Majapahit Kingdom
1276–1294: Part of the Kingdom of Singhasari
c.900 AD–1276 AD: Part of the Srivijaya Kingdom

 Maldives Asia 1140 26 July 1965  United Kingdom Unified according to legend by King Koimala (1117–1141). Independent sultanate until 1887, when it became a British protectorate.
 Mali Africa c. 9th century 22 Sep 1960  France 1960–present: Republic of Mali

1959–1960: part of Mali Federation, a territory with self-rule within the French Community, governed from Dakar, Senegal.
1893–1958: French Sudan], part of the French West Africa, federation of territories of the French Colonial Empire in Africa
1848–1893: Toucouleur Empire
1818–1862: Massina Empire
1670–1818: Pashalik of Timbuktu, part of Morocco
1559–1670: Center of the Mali Empire
c. 1235–1559: part of the Mali Empire
1464–1591: Songhai Empire
c. 9th century–1430: Gao Empire

 Malta Europe 21 Sep 1964 21 Sep 1964  United Kingdom 1974–present: Republic of Malta

1964–1974: State of Malta
1813–1964: Crown Colony of Malta
1800–1813: Protectorate of Malta
1798–1800: French occupation of Malta, the insurrection and independent Gozo
1530–1798: Order of Saint John
1130–1530: part of the Kingdom of Sicily
1091–1130: part of the County of Sicily
909–1091: part of the Fatimid Caliphate
870–909: part of the Abbasid Caliphate
395–870: part of the Byzantine Empire
218 BC-395 AD: part of Roman Sicilia
480 BC-218 BC: part of the Carthaginian Empire
800 BC-480 BC: part of the Phoenician Empire

 Marshall Islands Australia 21 Oct 1986 21 Oct 1986  United States

1986–present: Republic of the Marshall Islands (independent state)
1943–1986: part of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, administered by the United States
1914–1943: part of the South Seas Mandate, part of the Japanese Empire
1898–1914: part of the German New Guinea, part of the German Empire
1878–1898: part of the German Empire
Micronesian colonists reached the Marshall Islands using canoes circa 2nd millennium BC, with interisland navigation made possible using traditional stick charts.

 Mauritania Africa 28 Nov 1960 28 Nov 1960  France 1960–present: Islamic Republic of Mauritania

1903–1960: Colony of Mauritania, part of the French West Africa (a federation of French colonial territories), part of the French Empire
1600s–1903: Various Berber and Arabic tribes
early 1500s-early 1600s: Southern regions are part of the Songhai Empire
c.early 1200s-early 1500s: Southern regions are part of the Mali Empire
1086 – c.early 1200s: Ghana Empire
1076–1086: Part of the Almoravid Emirate
c.300–1076: Ghana Empire
Various Berber tribes.

 Mauritius Africa 12 Mar 1968 12 Mar 1968  United Kingdom 1992–present: Republic of Mauritius

1968–1992: Mauritius, independent state (monarchy)
1814–1968: British Mauritius, part of the British Empire
1710–1814: Isle de France, part of the French Empire
1638–1710: Dutch Mauritius, part of the Dutch Empire
The island of Mauritius was uninhabited before its first recorded visit by the Dutch in the late 16th century. The name Dina Arobi has been associated with Arab sailors, but this is speculative, as the name is evidently of Sankritic origin (dwip (island) > diba > dina).

 Mexico The Americas 16 Sep 1810 1864 Spain 1867–Present: United Mexican States (a federal state, composed of 32 federal entities: 31 states and the Mexico City)

1864–1867: Second Mexican Empire (a unitary state)
1846–1863: Second Federal Republic of Mexico (a federal state, composed of 24 federated states, 1 federal territory and 1 federal district)
1835–1846: Centralist Republic of Mexico (a unitary state)
1824–1835: First Mexican Republic (a federal state, originally composed of 19 federated states and 4 territories. In its later years was composed of 20 federated states, 6 territories and a federal district)
1823–1824: Provisional Government of Mexico
1821–1823: First Mexican Empire (unitary state)
1521–1821: Viceroyalty of New Spain (Part of the Spanish Empire)
1421–1521: Aztec Empire (or the Triple Alliance, a confederation of allied city-states), but also Maya city-states and some city-states that was not allied with the Aztecs
1122–1421: Severall small states in the modern territory of Mexico (except in the northern regions, inhabited by nomad tribes)
674–1122: Toltec Kingdom
c.100 AD–c.700 AD: Mexica-Tenochtitlan
c.700 BC – 1521 AD: Zapotec civilization
c.1500 BC – 1521 AD: Mixtec Civilization
c.2000 BC – 1539 AD: Maya Civilization
c.2,500 BC–400 BC:Olmec Civilization
Since 19,000 BC humans has been settled by the Native Mexicans, including Nahuatl.

 Micronesia, Federated States of Australia 3 Nov 1986 3 Nov 1986  United States Compact of Free Association
 Moldova Europe 27 Aug 1991 27 Aug 1991  Soviet Union
 Monaco Europe 1297 1945 Germany Previously occupied by Italy and France. Subject to Sardinia 1815–1861.
 Mongolia Asia 147 13 Mar 1921