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Geography (Greek Geo (γη) or Gaea (γαία), meaning "Earth", and graphein (γράφειν) meaning "to describe" or "to write") is the study of the earth and its features, inhabitants, and phenomena. A literal translation would be "to describe or write about the Earth". The first person to use the word "geography" was Eratosthenes (275-195 B.C.). Four historical traditions in geographical research are the spatial analysis of natural and human phenomena (geography as a study of distribution), area studies (places and regions), study of man-land relationship, and research in earth sciences. Nonetheless, modern geography is an all-encompassing discipline that foremost seeks to understand the world and all of its human and natural complexities — not merely where objects are, but how they have changed and come to be. As "the bridge between the human and physical sciences," geography is divided into two main branches — human geography and physical geography.
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See also: places near you
Main articles: Earth, Geography and Place

Geography  Atlas City Climate Demographics Earth Exploration Geographic information system History of geography Map Park Place Population density Region Spatial analysis Subregion Surveying

Branches of Geography  Physical geography (Climatology, Hydrology) Human geography Regional geography
Natural geographical features
Landforms  Badlands Canyon Cave Cliff Coast Continent Coral reef Crater Desert Forest Geyser Glacier Gully Grassland Highland Hill Island Mesa Mountain Mountain range Plain Prairie Peninsula Reef Ridge Savanna Shoal Steppe Tundra Valley Volcano Wetland
Bodies of water  Bay Channel Delta Estuary Fjord Headlands Lagoon Lake Marsh Ocean Pond River Sea Sound Source (river or stream) Spring (hydrosphere) Strait Stream Swamp Waterfall
Manmade geographical features  Airport Artificial dwelling hill Artificial island Breakwater Bridge Canal Causeway Country Country subdivision Dam (Levee) Farm Harbor Nation National park Nature reserve Park Pier Pipeline Port Railway Ranch Reservoir Road (Street) Settlement (Village, Town, City, Megalopolis) Train station Tunnel
The World
By hemisphere  New World Old World |  Eastern world Western world |  Eastern Hemisphere Western Hemisphere |  Northern Hemisphere Southern Hemisphere
By cultural region  English-speaking world Arab world Chinese world (Sinosphere) Indosphere Sub-Saharan Africa Europe Latin America Oceania
By ordinal classification  First World Second World Third World Fourth World Fifth World
By economic development  Developed countries Developing countries Least Developed Countries
By continent  Africa Antarctica Australia Eurasia (Europe and Asia) North America South America
Countries and polar regions of the world:

Geography

Continents and major geopolitical regions (non-continents are italicized)
AfricaAntarcticaAsiaEuropeNorth AmericaOceania (includes Australia) • South America
Political divisions of the World, arranged by continent or major geopolitical region
Africa
West Africa
BeninBurkina FasoCape VerdeGambiaGhanaGuineaGuinea-BissauIvory Coast (Côte d'Ivoire)LiberiaMaliMauritaniaNiger
Nigeria
Rivers StateSenegalSierra LeoneTogo
North Africa
AlgeriaEgypt (Cairo) • LibyaMauritaniaMoroccoSudanSouth SudanTunisiaWestern Sahara
Central Africa
AngolaBurundiCameroonCentral African RepublicChadThe Democratic Republic of the CongoEquatorial GuineaGabonRepublic of the CongoRwandaSão Tomé and Príncipe
East Africa
BurundiComorosDjiboutiEritreaEthiopiaKenyaMadagascarMalawiMauritiusMozambiqueRwandaSeychellesSomaliaTanzaniaUgandaZambiaZimbabwe
Southern Africa
BotswanaEswatini (Swaziland)LesothoNamibiaSouth Africa (Cape Town)
Dependencies
Mayotte (France)St. Helena (UK)PuntlandSomalilandSahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
Antarctica
None
Asia
Central Asia
KazakhstanKyrgyzstanTajikistanTurkmenistanUzbekistan
East Asia
China
Tibet
Hong KongMacau
Japan (Kyoto) • North KoreaSouth KoreaMongoliaTaiwan
North Asia
Russia
Southeast Asia
BruneiCambodiaEast Timor (Timor-Leste)Indonesia (Jakarta) • LaosMalaysiaMyanmar (Burma)Philippines (Metro Manila) • SingaporeThailand (Bangkok) • Vietnam
South Asia
AfghanistanBangladeshBhutanMaldivesNepalPakistanSri Lanka
India
States of India: Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Assam Bihar Chhattisgarh Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu and Kashmir Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Odisha Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Telangana Tripura Uttar Pradesh Uttarakhand West Bengal
West Asia
ArmeniaAzerbaijanBahrainCyprus (including disputed Northern Cyprus) • GeorgiaIranIraqIsraelJordanKuwaitLebanonOmanState of Palestine QatarSaudi ArabiaSyriaTurkey (Istanbul) • United Arab Emirates (Dubai) • Yemen
Caucasus (a region considered to be in both Asia and Europe, or between them)
North Caucasus
Parts of Russia (Chechnya, Ingushetia, Dagestan, Adyghea, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachai-Cherkessia, North Ossetia, Krasnodar Krai, Stavropol Krai)
South Caucasus
Georgia (including disputed Abkhazia, South Ossetia) • ArmeniaAzerbaijan (including disputed Republic of Artsakh)
Europe
Akrotiri and DhekeliaÅlandAlbaniaAndorraArmeniaAustria (Vienna) • AzerbaijanBelarusBelgiumBosnia and HerzegovinaBulgariaCroatiaCyprusCzech Republic (Prague) • DenmarkEstoniaFaroe IslandsFinlandFranceGeorgiaGermany (Dresden, Munich) • GibraltarGreece (Athens) • GuernseyHungaryIcelandIrelandIsle of ManItaly (Florence, Milan, Palermo, Rome, Turin) • JerseyKazakhstanKosovoLatviaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMaltaMoldova (including disputed Transnistria) • MonacoMontenegroNetherlandsNorth MacedoniaPolandPortugalRomaniaRussia (Saint Petersburg) • San MarinoSerbiaSlovakia Slovenia
Norway
Svalbard
Spain
Autonomous communities of Spain: Catalonia (Barcelona)
Sweden (Stockholm) • Switzerland (Geneva) • TurkeyUkraine
United Kingdom
England (Cornwall, London) • Northern IrelandScotland (Edinburgh) • Wales
Vatican City
European Union
North America
Canada
Provinces of Canada:AlbertaBritish ColumbiaManitobaNew BrunswickNewfoundland and LabradorNova ScotiaOntario (Toronto) • Prince Edward IslandQuebecSaskatchewan
Territories of Canada: Northwest TerritoriesYukon
GreenlandSaint Pierre and Miquelon
United States
Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts (Boston) Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York (New York City)  North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania (Philadelphia) Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming
District of Columbia (Washington, D.C.)
Mexico
Central America
BelizeCosta RicaEl SalvadorGuatemalaHondurasNicaraguaPanama
Caribbean
AnguillaAntigua and BarbudaArubaBahamasBarbadosBermudaBritish Virgin IslandsCayman IslandsCubaDominicaDominican RepublicGrenadaHaitiJamaicaMontserratNetherlands AntillesPuerto RicoSaint BarthélemySaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint MartinSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesTrinidad and TobagoTurks and Caicos IslandsUnited States Virgin Islands
Oceania (includes the continent of Australia)
Australasia
Australia (Sydney)
Dependencies/Territories of Australia
Christmas IslandNorfolk Island
New Zealand
Melanesia
FijiIndonesia (Oceanian part only) • New Caledonia (France) • Papua New GuineaSolomon IslandsVanuatu
Micronesia
Federated States of MicronesiaGuam (US) • KiribatiMarshall IslandsNauruNorthern Mariana Islands (US) • Palau
Polynesia
American Samoa (US) • Cook Islands (NZ) • French Polynesia (France) • Hawaii (US) • Niue (NZ) • Pitcairn Islands (UK) • SamoaTokelau (NZ) • TongaTuvaluWallis and Futuna (France)
South America
ArgentinaBoliviaBrazil (Rio de Janeiro) • ChileColombiaEcuadorFalkland IslandsGuyanaParaguayPeruSurinameUruguayVenezuela
South Atlantic
Ascension IslandSaint HelenaTristan da Cunha

Geography

Islands
Mountains
Rivers
Volcanoes
Maps

Continents

Regions

Countries

Provinces and States

Counties

Cities

Multinational

Glossaries   (see for all subject areas)

Categories   (see for all subject areas)


Main index: Geography
See also: Geography of present-day nations and states

Continents

AfricaAntarcticaAsiaEuropeAustralia

Political divisions of World, arranged by continent or major geopolitical region:

Africa:
West Africa:
BeninBurkina FasoCape VerdeCôte d'IvoireGambiaGhanaGuineaGuinea-BissauLiberiaMaliMauritaniaNigeriaSenegalSierra LeoneTogo
North Africa:
AlgeriaEgyptLibyaMauritaniaMoroccoTunisia
Central Africa:
AngolaBurundiCameroonCentral African RepublicChadThe Democratic Republic of CongoEquatorial GuineaGabonRepublic of CongoRwandaSão Tomé and Príncipe
East Africa:
BurundiComorosDjiboutiEritreaEthiopiaKenyaMadagascarMalawiMauritiusMozambiqueRwandaSeychellesSomalia (Somaliland) • TanzaniaUgandaZambiaZimbabwe
Southern Africa:
BotswanaLesothoNamibiaSouth AfricaSwaziland
Antarctica:
Antarctica
Asia:
Central Asia:
Kazakhstan[1]KyrgyzstanTajikistanTurkmenistanUzbekistan
East Asia:
China[2] Index of China-related articles (0–L) Index of China-related articles (M–Z)
Tibet
Hong Kong[3]Macau[4]
Japan
0-9  A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z
Korea:
0-9  A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z
North Korea
South Korea
MongoliaTaiwan[5]
Southeast Asia:[6]
BruneiBurma (Myanmar)Cambodia[7]East Timor (Timor-Leste)[8]Indonesia[9]LaosMalaysiaPhilippinesSingaporeThailandVietnam
South Asia:
AfghanistanBangladeshBhutanAndhra PradeshIranMaldivesNepal •• Sri Lanka
West Asia:
Armenia[10]Azerbaijan[11]BahrainCyprus[12] (including disputed Northern Cyprus) • Georgia[13]IraqIsraelJordanKuwaitLebanonOmanQatarSaudi ArabiaSyriaTurkey[14]United Arab EmiratesYemen
Caucasus (a region considered to be in both Asia and Europe, or between them)
Georgia (including disputed Abkhazia) • ArmeniaAzerbaijan (including disputed Nagorno-Karabakh Republic)
Europe:
Akrotiri and DhekeliaÅlandAlbaniaAndorraArmeniaAustriaAzerbaijanBelarusBelgiumCroatiaCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkEstoniaFinlandGeorgiaGermanyGreeceGuernseyHungaryIcelandIrelandItalyKazakhstanLiechtensteinLithuaniaMaltaMoldova (including disputed Transnistria) • MonacoPortugalRomaniaSan MarinoSerbiaSpainSwitzerlandTurkeyUnited KingdomVatican City
Canada
Canadian provinces
Alberta British Columbia Newfoundland and Labrador Nova Scotia Ontario Quebec Saskatchewan
Aboriginal Canadian
Greenland Mexico Saint Pierre and Miquelon
United States
U.S. administrative divisions
Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Montana Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming
District of Columbia (Washington, D.C.)
U.S. counties
African American
Asian American
Central America:
BelizeCosta RicaEl SalvadorGuatemalaHondurasNicaraguaPanama
Caribbean:
AnguillaAntigua and BarbudaArubaBahamasBarbadosBermudaCayman IslandsCubaDominicaDominican RepublicGrenadaHaitiJamaicaMontserratNetherlands AntillesPuerto RicoSaint BarthélemySaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint MartinSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesTrinidad and TobagoTurks and Caicos IslandsUnited States Virgin Islands
Oceania: (includes the continent of Australia):
Australasia:[15]
Australia
Dependencies/Territories of Australia:
Christmas Island[16]Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Melanesia:[17]
FijiIndonesia (Oceanian part only)[18]Vanuatu
Micronesia:
Federated States of MicronesiaGuam (USA) • Marshall IslandsNauruNorthern Mariana Islands (USA) • Palau
Polynesia
American Samoa (USA) • Cook Islands (NZ) French Polynesia (France) • Hawaii (USA) • Tokelau (NZ)
South America:
ArgentinaBoliviaBrazilChileColombiaEcuadorFalkland IslandsGuyanaParaguayPeruSurinameUruguayVenezuela
South Atlantic:
Ascension Island
  1.   Kazakhstan is sometimes considered a transcontinental country in Central Asia and Eastern Europe; population and area figures are for Asian portion only.
  2.   The state is commonly known as simply "China", which is subsumed by the eponymous entity and civilization (China).
  3.   Hong Kong is a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of PRC.
  4.   Macau is a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of PRC.
  5.   Under the de facto control of Republic of China (ROC) government, commonly referred to as Taiwan. Claimed in whole by the PRC; see political status of Taiwan.
  6. Excludes Christmas Island and Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Australian external territories in the Indian Ocean southwest of Indonesia).
  7. General Population Census of Cambodia 2008 - Provisional population totals, National Institute of Statistics, Ministry of Planning, released 3rd September, 2008
  8.   East Timor is often considered a transcontinental country in Southeastern Asia and Oceania.
  9.   Indonesia is often considered a transcontinental country in Southeastern Asia and Oceania
  10.   Armenia is sometimes considered a transcontinental country: physiographically in Western Asia, it has historical and sociopolitical connections with Europe.
  11.   Azerbaijan is often considered a transcontinental country in Western Asia and Eastern Europe; population and area figures are for Asian portion only. Figures include Nakhchivan, an autonomous exclave of Azerbaijan bordered by Armenia, Iran, and Turkey.
  12.   The island of Cyprus is sometimes considered a transcontinental territory: in the Eastern Basin of Mediterranean Sea south of Turkey, it has historical and socio-political connections with Europe. However, the U.N. considers Cyprus to be in Western Asia, while the C.I.A. considers it to be in the Middle East.
  13.   Georgia is often considered a transcontinental country in Western Asia and Eastern Europe; population and area figures are for the Asian portion only.
  14.   Turkey is generally considered a transcontinental country in Western Asia and Southern Europe; population and area figures are for Asian portion only, excluding all of Istanbul.
  15. The use and scope of this term varies. The UN designation for this subregion is "Australia and New Zealand."
  16. Christmas Island and Cocos (Keeling) Islands are Australian external territories in the Indian Ocean southwest of Indonesia.
  17. Excludes parts of Indonesia, island territories in Southeast Asia (UN region) frequently reckoned in this region.
  18. Indonesia is generally considered a territory of Southeastern Asia (UN region); wholly or partially, it is also frequently included in Australasia or Melanesia. Figures include Indonesian portion of New Guinea (Irian Jaya) and Maluku Islands.