Wikipedia's contents: Health and fitness

Vegetables for sale on a street in Guntur, India.

Health is the level of functional or metabolic efficiency of a living organism. In humans, it is the ability of individuals or communities to adapt and self-manage when facing physical, mental, or social challenges. The most widely accepted definition of good health is that of the World Health Organization Constitution. It states: "health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and is not merely the absence of disease or infirmity" (World Health Organization, 1946). In more recent years, this statement has been amplified to include the ability to lead a "socially and economically productive life." The WHO definition is not without criticism; mainly that it is much too broad.

The most solid aspects of wellness that fit firmly in the realm of medicine are environmental health, nutrition, disease prevention, and public health. These matters can be investigated at length, and can assist in measuring well-being. Please see our medical disclaimer for cautions about Wikipedia's limitations.

General   Health care Health care industry Health disparities Mental health Population health Preventive medicine Public health Complementary and alternative medicine

Self-care  Body composition Life extension Longevity Physical fitness

Nutrition  Calorie restriction Dietary supplements (Amino acids, Minerals, Nootropics, Nutrients, Vitamins) Diet (nutrition) Dieting Healthy eating pyramid
Physical exercise  Stretching Overtraining Aerobic exercise Anaerobic exercise Sport Walking
Hygiene  Cleanliness Oral hygiene Occupational hygiene

Health science  Dentistry Occupational therapy Optometry Pharmacy Physiotherapy Speech-Language Pathology

Medicine  Midwifery Nursing Veterinary medicine Dentistry Alternative medicine
Human medicine  Anesthesiology Cardiology Dermatology Emergency medicine Endocrinology and Diabetology Epidemiology Geriatrics Hematology Internal medicine Nephrology Neurology Oncology Pathology Pediatrics Psychiatry Rheumatology Surgery Urology
Illness   Aging Alcoholism Atrophy Deficiency disease Depression Disease Disorders (types) Drug abuse Eating disorder Foodborne illness Malnutrition Obesity Smoking
See also: Biology (below)

Health Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being. This is a level of functional and (or) metabolic efficiency of a person in mind, body, and spirit; being free from illness, injury or pain (as in "good health" or "healthy"). The World Health Organization (WHO) defined health in its broader sense in 1946 as "a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity."

  • Death cessation of life.
  • Exercise any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness. It is performed for various reasons including strengthening muscles and the cardiovascular system, honing athletic skills, weight loss or maintenance, and mental health including the prevention of depression. Frequent and regular physical exercise boosts the immune system and helps prevent the "diseases of affluence" such as heart disease, cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, and obesity.
  • Nutrition provision, to cells and organisms, of the materials necessary (in the form of food) to support life.
  • Life extension The study of slowing down or reversing the processes of aging to extend both the maximum and average lifespan.
  • Health sciences applied sciences that address the use of science, technology, engineering, or mathematics in the delivery of healthcare to human beings.
  • Medicine science and art of healing. It encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness.
    • Anesthesia a way to control pain during a surgery or procedure by using a medicine called anesthetics.
    • Cardiology the branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the human heart. The field includes medical diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart defects, coronary artery disease, heart failure, valvular heart disease, and electrophysiology.
    • Clinical research aspect of biomedical research that addresses the assessment of new pharmaceutical and biological drugs, medical devices, and vaccines in humans.
    • Diabetes a group of metabolic diseases in which the person has high blood glucose (blood sugar) above 200mg/dl, either because insulin production is inadequate, or because the body's cells do not respond properly to insulin or both.
    • Dentistry a branch of medicine that is involved in the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders, and conditions of the mouth, maxillofacial area, and the adjacent and associated structures (teeth) and their impact on the human body.
    • Emergency medicine medical specialty involving care for undifferentiated, unscheduled patients with acute illnesses or injuries that require immediate medical attention. Emergency physicians undertake acute investigations and interventions to resuscitate and stabilize patients.
    • Obstetrics medical specialty dealing with the care of all women's reproductive tracts and their children during pregnancy (prenatal period), childbirth, and the postnatal period.
    • Trauma and Orthopedics medical specialty dealing with bones, joints and operative management of trauma.
    • Psychiatry medical specialty devoted to the study and treatment of mental disorders. These mental disorders include various affective, behavioral, cognitive, and perceptual abnormalities.
      • Autism a mental condition, present from early childhood, characterized by great difficulty in communicating and forming relationships with other people and in using language and abstract concepts.
      • Bipolar disorder a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.
      • Psychiatric survivors movement is a diverse association of individuals who either currently access mental health services (known as consumers or service users), or who are survivors of interventions by psychiatry, or who are ex-patients of mental health.
See also: Biology (below)


Life extension
Health science
Trauma & Orthopaedics